Kings Island

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see King's Island (disambiguation).
Kings Island
KingsIsland-Logo.png
Slogan Thrills Connect
Location Mason, Ohio, United States
Coordinates 39°20′41.23″N 84°16′06.99″W / 39.3447861°N 84.2686083°W / 39.3447861; -84.2686083Coordinates: 39°20′41.23″N 84°16′06.99″W / 39.3447861°N 84.2686083°W / 39.3447861; -84.2686083
Owner Cedar Fair Entertainment Company
General Manager Greg Scheid
Opened April 29, 1972
Previous names Paramount's Kings Island (1993-2006)
Operating season April through early November
Visitors per annum 3,206,000 in 2013[1]
Area 364 acres (147 ha)
Rides
Total 46
Roller coasters 14
Water rides 3
Website http://www.visitkingsisland.com

Kings Island is a 364-acre (147 ha) amusement park located 24 miles (39 km) northeast of Cincinnati in Mason, Ohio. It is owned and operated by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company. The park first opened in 1972 by the Taft Broadcasting Company in an effort to move and expand Coney Island, a popular resort destination along the banks of the Ohio River that was prone to frequent flooding. After more than $275 million in capital investments, the park features over 80 rides, shows and attractions including 14 roller coasters and a 33-acre (13 ha) water park.

Throughout its history, Kings Island has appeared in popular sitcoms and has been highly publicized for its record-breaking attractions and events. One of the park's most well-known attractions, The Racer, is often credited with reviving worldwide interest in the roller coaster industry during the 1970s. Other attractions such as The Beast and Banshee set new world records including some that are still held. The park has also suffered through times of negative publicity particularly regarding the early demise of roller coasters The Bat and Son of Beast.

Kings Island is divided into several themed sections. The seasonal amusement park is open from April through Labor Day and reopens for a short time on weekends beginning in September for Halloween-themed events. In 2013, Kings Island was the second-most visited seasonal amusement park in the United States behind Cedar Point with an estimated 3.2 million visitors. It was third overall for seasonal attendance in North America which was led by Canada's Wonderland. Kings Island has won Amusement Today's Golden Ticket Award for having the "Best Kids' Area" in the world for thirteen consecutive years (2001–2013).

History[edit]

Kings Island's iconic entrance with the Eiffel Tower

Kings Island was conceived as early as 1964 when Coney Island, a popular amusement park 10 miles (16 km) east of downtown Cincinnati on the banks of the Ohio River, suffered from a major flood that submerged the area in over 14 feet (4.3 m) of water. Although occasional flooding was common at the successful park, the flood in 1964 was the fourth highest on record and caused considerable damage. Faced with already-limited space for expansion and parking, the event triggered discussions within the organization about relocating the park.[2][3]

Leading the way was Gary Wachs, son of Coney Island president Ralph Wachs, who with friends and family owned a majority of stock. He decided it was time to relocate the park to stay competitive. After years of research and traveling abroad, he presented ideas for a new theme park to the company's board of directors. Some board members opposed relocating, including significant stockholder Charles Sawyer. It wasn't taken seriously until 1968, when actor Fess Parker announced plans to build a theme park in Northern Kentucky – well within Coney Island's primary market that extended as far south as Louisville. The announcement highlighted the need for change and gave Wachs' proposal credibility within the organization.[2][3]

Gary met with the president of Taft Broadcasting Company, a business interested in promoting its recently acquired Hanna-Barbera division, to discuss a possible merger. After receiving support, Fess Parker's efforts to secure financing fell apart along with his plans to build a competing theme park.[2] In July 1969, Taft Broadcasting Company purchased Coney Island for $6.5 million and soon after purchased 1,600 acres (650 ha) in Warren County, Ohio, for $3.2 million. It still owns 773 acres (313 ha) of that purchase.[4] The site is located between I-71 and the Little Miami River in what was then a part of Deerfield Township.[5]

Taft Broadcasting and KECO (1970–1992)[edit]

Construction began on June 15, 1970. Later that year, a public contest was held to name the new park. "Kings Island" emerged the most popular for its recognition of the Kings Mills area as well as its predecessor Coney Island.[5] Most of the former park's rides were relocated, while the rest were demolished. Coney Island's popular Sunlite Pool attraction remained open, however, and the original park was partially restored in later years.[3][4]

Less than two years after breaking ground, Kings Island opened its gates to the public on April 29, 1972. It was the first of several preview events. The grand opening came the following month on May 27, 1972.[5]

The Racer as it looked in the mid 1970s with the Zodiac (1975-1986) to the right

At the heart of the amusement park, visitors are greeted by International Street which lies just beyond the main entrance. The area's main attractions include the Royal Fountain, a 600,000-US-gallon pool (2,300 m3) capable of shooting 10,000 US gallons (38 m3) of water into the air each minute,[6] and the signature Eiffel Tower, a 1/3 scale replica of the original which offers a view of the entire park to its guests. Also located here is Grand Carousel, Kings Island Theater and a variety of restaurants and souvenir shops.

Arguably, the most crowd-pleasing attraction featured at the park in its early days was The Racer, a wooden roller coaster consisting of two trains that race each other side-by-side on identical tracks. Designed by legendary designer John C. Allen, The Racer was an integral part of the roller coaster renaissance of the 1970s. Years later, it would be awarded the Roller Coaster Landmark plaque from American Coaster Enthusiasts (ACE) for its achievement.[7] Other roller coasters present on opening day in 1972 were the Bavarian Beetle, a small steel coaster brought over from Coney Island, and a new junior wooden coaster in the Happy Land of Hanna-Barbera originally named Scooby-Doo.[8]

Kings Island was nationally promoted in two well-known sitcoms on ABC. Each filmed an episode on location at the park: The Partridge Family in 1972 and The Brady Bunch the following year in 1973. The Brady Bunch was produced by Paramount Studios, a large Taft shareholder.[9] In later years, Kings Island changed ownership several times. Taft sold its theme park division in 1984 for $167.5 million, to Kings Entertainment Company (KECO), a company formed by senior executives and general managers of Taft Attractions Group. Three parks—Kings Island, Kings Dominion and Carowinds—were involved in the sale. Taft invested in KECO to retain one-third interest.[10][11] Three years later in 1987, Kings Island was sold individually to American Financial Corporation, led by Carl Lindner. The deal included a contract with KECO to continue managing park operations.[5][12] KECO purchased Great America in 1989.[13]

Paramount's Kings Island (1992–2006)[edit]

The Eiffel Tower and the fountains at night

In 1992, Paramount Communications Inc. (formerly Gulf+Western) purchased Kings Island and the rest of KECO's parks for $400 million. Paramount formed a new division known as Paramount Parks. They bought out the remaining 80% stake in Canada's Wonderland in 1993, raising the number of parks to five. That same year, Paramount Parks began incorporating themes from its movies into the park. Viacom entered the picture after acquiring Paramount in 1994, paving the way for the appearance of Nickelodeon themes. First was Nickelodeon Splat City, followed by Nickelodeon Central and eventually Nickelodeon Universe.

In 1997, a year after leaving Deerfield Township, the city of Mason annexed most of Kings Island.[14] A temporary measure allowed for some land to remain in Deerfield in an attempt to appease park officials and reduce the impact on the township.[15] The rest would be annexed in 1999.[16] On June 14, 2005, Viacom announced intentions to split into two companies (Viacom and CBS Corporation) with CBS inheriting Paramount Parks.[17] Seven months later, on January 26, 2006, CBS announced that the theme parks were for sale.[18]

Cedar Fair era (2006–present)[edit]

On June 30, 2006, Cedar Fair Entertainment Company purchased Kings Island and the rest of Paramount Parks for approximately $1.24 billion.[19] With this acquisition, Cedar Fair owned all three major amusement parks in Ohio: Kings Island, Cedar Point and Geauga Lake (purchased from Six Flags in 2004).[20] Kings Island kept the Paramount branding through the end of the 2006 season.[4] Thereafter, Face/Off became Invertigo, The Italian Job Stunt Track became Backlot Stunt Coaster, Tomb Raider: The Ride became The Crypt and Top Gun became Flight Deck. Nickelodeon's presence remained in the park through 2009, when Cedar Fair changed the kids' area to a Peanuts theme.[21]

In late 2009, the Mason City Council decided to put a measure on its 2010 ballot that would mandate a 3-percent ticket tax and a 5-percent parking tax at both Kings Island and The Beach waterpark. Council member Tony Bradburn argued that it was necessary for the city to help pay for infrastructure improvements, as well as cover police and fire expenses.[22] This proposed tax hike was the center of debate for several months. Kings Island actively encouraged the public to write, email and call Mason City Council representatives to express opposition.[23] On February 8, 2010, the Mason City Council voted 5–1 against the measure.[24][25]

Park attractions[edit]

Action Zone[edit]

Action Zone opened in 1974 as Lion Country Safari, a 100-acre (40 ha) section of the park featuring a monorail ride that took guests on a safari-style tour through an animal preservation. The area later became known as Wild Animal Habitat. It featured former rides such as Screamin' Demon, an early steel looping roller coaster from Arrow Development added in 1977, and King Cobra, the world's first stand-up looping roller coaster unveiled in 1984.[26][27]

Early in its tenure after purchasing Kings Island, Paramount unveiled Top Gun, a suspended roller coaster built by Arrow Dynamics that opened in 1993 next to the habitat attraction. Titled after a film of the same name, it was the first ride to be added to the park with a Paramount theme. For the following season in 1994, Paramount renamed the area Adventure Village and removed both the monorail ride and animal habitat. In 1999, a two-year expansion initiative began with the area's renaming to Action Zone and the addition of two new attractions – Drop Zone: Stunt Tower and Face/Off.[5][26] When it debuted, Action Zone resembled a movie stunt set featuring a water tower as the centerpiece. The water tower was originally part of a skit with stunts and special effects that imitated a live movie set with a director and stunt performers. The performance depicted a stunt crew on a tower coming under heavy gunfire and escaping on a zip line, with the final performer falling as the tower was exploding.[28]

In the second year of the area's two-year expansion, Kings Island unveiled Son of Beast, the tallest and fastest of its kind and the first modern-day wooden roller coaster to feature a vertical loop. Due to a number of structural issues and two accidents, the ride closed for good in 2009 and was eventually demolished in 2012.[29] Delirium, once the largest Giant Frisbee ride in the world, opened in 2003 and Banshee, the world's longest inverted roller coaster, opened in 2014 at the former location of Son of Beast.[30]

Ride name Year opened Manufacturer Model Description Rating[31]
Banshee 2014 Bolliger & Mabillard Inverted Coaster An inverted roller coaster with seven inversions located in the former location of Thunder Alley and Son of Beast. It is the longest of its kind in the world. 5
The Bat 1993 Arrow Dynamics Suspended A suspended roller coaster in which free-swinging cars are suspended below the track. Formerly known as Top Gun (1993–2007); Flight Deck (2007-2013)[32] 5
Congo Falls 1988 Intamin Shoot-the-Chute A Shoot-the-Chute water ride with a 34' drop. The ride opened as Amazon Falls (1988–1999) and was later renamed Congo Falls after the Paramount movie Congo.[26] 4
Delirium 2003 HUSS Giant Frisbee A Giant Frisbee ride that swings riders at an angle of 120° creating a maximum arc of 240°, lifting riders 137 feet (42 m) into the air. Riders reach speeds up to 76 miles per hour (122 km/h). 5
Drop Tower: Scream Zone 1999 Intamin Gyro Drop A rotating drop tower ride which at 315 feet (96 m) is the tallest of its kind in the world (although sister park Kings Dominion has one with a longer drop that does not rotate). Formerly known as Drop Zone: Stunt Tower (1999–2007). 4
Invertigo 1999 Vekoma Invertigo An inverted Boomerang roller coaster. Formerly known as FACE/OFF (1999–2007). 5
Xtreme Skyflyer 1995 SKY FUN 1 INC. Dual Swing Pay-per-ride Double Skycoaster with a dive of 153 feet (47 m). 5

Coney Mall[edit]

When Kings Island first opened in 1972, a section of the park was dedicated to its predecessor, Coney Island. The area was constructed to resemble the former park's carnival-style layout and featured many of its flat rides that were relocated. Originally called Coney Island, the area was later renamed Old Coney in 1980 and again to Coney Mall in 1986.[33][34][35][36] In addition to rides, the area features game booths, arcades and concession stands reminiscent of state fairs and traveling carnivals from the early twentieth century.[37]

Ride Year Opened Manufacturer Model Description Rating[31]
Action Theater 1994 A 3-D theater. It is used in conjunction with Dinosaurs Alive! Formerly known as The Paramount Action F/X Theater (1998–2008) and Days Of Thunder (1994–1997).
Backlot Stunt Coaster 2005 Premier Rides LIM Terrain Following Coaster A launched roller coaster based on a chase sequence in the 2003 film The Italian Job. Riders launch into a parking garage, dodge police cars, and are attacked by a helicopter which ignites fire all around riders before hitting a second launch section, sending riders into darkness. Formerly known as The Italian Job: Stunt Track (2005–2007). 5
Dodgems 1972
(1986)
Preston & Barbieri Majestic Manufacturing (Azzurra) Special 2-seater bumper cars from Italy with working headlights, taillights, rear-view mirrors and hazard flashers. Operated at Coney Island (1924–1971). Remodeled 1986. 4
Dinosaurs Alive! 2011 Dinosaurs Unearthed Dinosaurs Alive! This pay-per-entry attraction is the world's largest animatronic dinosaur park,[38] stretching along a 4,000-foot (1,200 m) path featuring more than 60 life-sized dinosaurs. Four have interactive consoles that help show guests how scientists believe the animal moved. The attraction features a replica of an excavation site as well as a paleontological dig site for children.[39]
Monster 1972 Everly Aircraft Co. Everly Monster Traditional Octopus ride that spins in three different circles at the same time. It quickly raises and lowers riders as their cars spin. Operated at Coney Island (1969–1971). 3
Scrambler 1972 Eli Bridge Company Scrambler – Traditional Deluxe Traditional amusement park Twist ride. 3 arms spin riders giving them the sensation of almost hitting the wall. Operated at Coney Island (1969–1971).[citation needed] 3
The Racer 1972 Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters Wooden racing roller coaster. The trains on one track were changed to ride backward in 1982, but in 2008, the original behavior was restored. 4
Vortex 1987 Arrow Dynamics Mega Looper A steel custom looping roller coaster that opened as the world record holder for most inversions, with six, but was superseded the following year by Six Flags Great America's Shockwave. 5
WindSeeker 2011 Mondial Wind Seeker A flat ride featuring two-person swings that slowly rotate and ascends the 301-foot (92 m) tower until reaching the top where speeds increase up to 30 miles per hour (48 km/h).[40] After several delays, it opened June 21.[41] 4
Zephyr 1986 Zierer Wave Swinger A suspended swing ride that rotates with a wave motion lifting riders up to 30 feet (9.1 m) in the air. 3

X-Base[edit]

This sub-area opened in 2007. Flight of Fear had existed previously, but with the addition of Firehawk, the area took on its own theme, centered around flight and propulsion. Although the area is designated by a sign, it is not listed on the park map and is officially part of Coney Mall.

Ride Year Opened Manufacturer Model Description Rating[31]
Firehawk 2007 Vekoma Flying Dutchman A (1018 m) flying roller coaster. Firehawk is located directly beside Flight of Fear. The ride carries the same theme as it did as "X-Flight," a government flight prototype looking for test subjects codenamed Firehawk. This ride was Kings Island's 14th coaster. Operated at Geauga Lake as X-Flight (2001–2006). 5
Flight of Fear 1996 Premier Rides LIM Catapult Coaster A launched roller coaster prototype. Over-the-shoulder harnesses were removed and replaced with lap bars in 2001. Identical to the same-named coaster that opened at Kings Dominion later that year. Formerly known as Outer Limits: Flight of Fear (1996–2000). 5

International Street[edit]

International Street is the first themed area to greet guests entering the park. It was one of the park's original staples in 1972. Through its architecture, the area represents the cultures of Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Sweden. It has restaurants, souvenir shops, the Royal Fountain with light and water shows and a one-third-scale replica of the Eiffel Tower.[42] The area features three family rides.

Ride Year opened Manufacturer Model Description Rating[31]
Boo Blasters on Boo Hill 1992 Sally Corporation, D. H. Morgan Manufacturing Ghost Blasters A family dark ride experience where riders shoot laser guns at ghosts and ghouls. The building formerly housed Enchanted Voyage (1972–1983) and Smurf's Enchanted Voyage (1984–1991). The former boat ride was transformed into an Omnimover dark ride in 1992 and was named Phantom Theater (1992–2002). In 2003, the ride was re-themed by Sally Corporation and renamed Scooby-Doo and the Haunted Castle (2003–2009). During Hanna-Barbera's 2010 exit, the ride underwent minor changes and became known as Boo Blasters on Boo Hill. 1
Eiffel Tower 1972 Intamin Paris Tower An approximately one-third scale replica of the Eiffel Tower in Paris at 314 feet (96 m) and 450 tons. The tower was initially 331.5 feet (101.0 m), but the structure's top antenna was eventually removed. Kings Dominion has a near-exact replica. 2
Grand Carousel 1972 Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters Carousel #79 The classic Carousel was built in 1926 and is painted with more than 20,000 sheets of 23-karat (96%) gold, 1,000 sheets of sterling silver and 48 hand-carved wooden horses. It features the Wurlitzer Organ #157.[43] Operated at Coney Island (1926–1971). 1

Oktoberfest[edit]

Oktoberfest, relating to the eponymous German festival, opened with the park in 1972. The area resembles a German town with timber-framed German-style architecture. The Festhaus is the central attraction, featuring live shows with several indoor eateries. A full-service bar is located atop a portion of Oktoberfest lake. Rides include one roller coaster, one thrill ride and one family ride.

Ride Year opened Manufacturer
(Model)
Description Rating[31]
Adventure Express 1991 Arrow Dynamics
(Mine train)
A mine train roller coaster. 5
SlingShot 2002 Funtime
(Fixed Foundation Slingshot)
Pay-per-ride reverse bungee attraction that catapults riders 275 feet (84 m) in the air up to 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) in a steel cage that flips multiple times before returning slowly to the platform. 5
Viking Fury 1982 Intamin
(Bounty)
Swinging pirate ship ride. 3

Planet Snoopy[edit]

Entrance to Planet Snoopy
Main article: Planet Snoopy

The area initially opened with the park in 1972 as The Happy Land of Hanna-Barbera and was later shortened to Hanna-Barbera Land. The upper part that borders Rivertown saw the addition of a kids' play area, stage and water attraction in 1995 and was renamed Nickelodeon Splat City. In 2001, Kings Mills Log Flume became The Wild Thornberrys River Adventure and Rugrats Runaway Reptar roller coaster was introduced. The expansion of this area into the lower part of Rivertown became known as Nickelodeon Central. At the start of the 2006 season, when Cedar Fair purchased the rights to the park from Paramount, Hanna-Barbera Land was gradually converted and renamed "Nickelodeon Universe".[26] Nickelodeon-themed elements remained in the park until 2010, when Nickelodeon Universe was rethemed and renamed Planet Snoopy based on the comic strip.[21]

Planet Snoopy contains many rides intended for smaller children, including four roller coasters, a skater coaster and a log flume ride. Amusement Today has awarded Kings Island with the Golden Ticket Award for Best Kids' Area in the World for the past thirteen years, 2001–2013.[44] Kings Island's Planet Snoopy was also the largest in the Cedar Fair chain, until 2013 when Kings Dominion opened their expanded Planet Snoopy.[45]

Ride Year opened Manufacturer
(Model)
Description Rating[31]
Character Carousel 1982 Chance Rides
(36-Foot Carrousel)
Children's carousel. Formerly known as Hanna Barbera Carousel (1982–2005) and Nick-O-Round (2006–2009). 1
Charlie Brown's Wind Up 1992 Zamperla Chair swing ride for children. Formerly known as Pixie and Dixie's Swingset (1992–2005) and Backyardigan's Swing-Along (2006–2009). 1
Flying Ace Aerial Chase 2001 Vekoma
(Suspended family coaster)
Steel roller coaster for all ages. Formerly known as Rugrats Runaway Reptar (2001–2009). Its top speed is 26 miles per hour (42 km/h) and lasts for roughly 1 minute and 30 seconds.[46] 4
Joe Cool's Dodgem School 1976 Jurgen Scmidt, Rivervaze, NJ Children's bumper cars. Formerly known as Flintstone's Boulder Bumpers (1976–2005) and Jimmy Neutron's Atom Smasher (2006–2009). 2
Kite Eating Tree 2006 Zamperla
(Jumpin' Star)
A mini-drop ride that lifts riders 20 feet (6.1 m) into the air that bounces up and down as the ride eventually lowers to the ground. Formerly known as Plankton’s Plunge (2006–2009). 3
Linus' Beetle Bugs 1972 William F. Mangels
(Whip Jr.)
Classic whip ride. Operated at Coney Island (1967–1971). Formerly known as Screecher, Funky Phantom, Alley Cat 500 (??-2005) and Swiper's Sweepers (2006–2009). 1
Linus' Launcher 2006 Zamperla
(Kite Flyer)
Formerly known as Danny Phantom's Phantom Flyers (2006–2007) and Phantom Flyers (2006–2009). 3
PEANUTS 500 1979 Venture Ride Manufacturer Inc. Drivable car ride. Formerly known as Mr. Jinks Jalopies (1979–??), Kiddie Turnpike, Fender Bender 500 (??–2005) and Nick Jr. Drivers (2006–2009). 1
PEANUTS Off-Road Rally 1972 Hampton Amusement Corporation Miniature carousel car ride. Operated at Coney Island (1969–1971). Formerly known as Pee Wee Raceway, Motor Mouse and Go Diego Go!. 1
Race For Your Life Charlie Brown 1972 Arrow Development/Hopkins Rides Themed Log Flume ride modeled after the 1977 Peanuts movie. Operated at Coney Island (1968–1971). Closed during the 2000 season, it reopened under a new name and Nickelodeon theme in 2001. Formerly known as Kings Mills Log Flume (1972–1999) and The Wild Thornberrys River Adventure (2001–2009). 4
Sally's Sea Plane 1998 Zamperla
(Crazy Bus)
Formerly known as Atom Ant's Airways (1998–2005) and Timmy's Airtours (2006–2009). 2
Snoopy vs. Red Baron 1992 Zamperla
(Mini Jet)
Themed after the comic strip featuring Snoopy Vs. the Red Baron. Formerly known as Dick Dastardly's Biplanes (1992–2005) and Blue's Skidoo (2006–2009). 2
Snoopy's Junction 1982 Mack Rides Guided rail train cars. Formerly known as Quick Draw's Railway (1982–2005) and La Adventura de Azul (2006–2009). 1
Snoopy's Splash Dance 1995 Walk-through water attraction. Formerly known as Nickelodeon Green Slime Zone (1995–2005) and SpongeBob SquarePants Bikini Bottom Bash (2006–2009). 1
Surf Dog 2006 Zamperla
(Skater Coaster)
Surfboard themed ride that spins as it glides over a ramp. Formerly known as Avatar: The Last Airbender (2006–2009). 4
The Great Pumpkin Coaster 1992 E&F Miler Industries A junior steel roller coaster that takes riders up a small hill through a series of dips and then circles back around to complete the circuit for a second time. The ride lasts for roughly 52 seconds.[47] The queue area used to be the loading area for the Enchanted Voyage ride. Formerly known as Scooby Zoom (1992–1997), Top Cat's Taxi Jam (1998–2005) and Little Bill's Giggle Coaster (2006–2009). 2
Woodstock Express 1972 Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters A family-targeted wooden roller coaster. The ride lasts for roughly 1 minute and 30 seconds.[48] Formerly known as Scooby Doo (1972–1979), Beastie (1980–2005) and Fairly Odd Coaster (2006–2009). 4
Woodstock's Whirlybirds 1998 Caripro Amusement Technology Helicopter-themed sky tram. Formerly known as Yogi's Sky Tours (1998–2005) and Lazytown Sportacopters (2006–2009). 1

Rivertown[edit]

The area known as Rivertown has been in the park since its opening in 1972. The area adopts a western theme as a town with ranch-style buildings, old wooden signs and an old water tower. Swan lake was the centerpiece until Diamondback arrived in 2009. The area was originally going to be titled Frontier Land.[49] It features two roller coasters and two family rides.

Ride Year opened Manufacturer
(Model)
Description Rating[31]
Diamondback 2009 Bolliger & Mabillard
(Hyper coaster)
A steel roller coaster that is 230 feet (70 m) tall and 5,282 feet (1,610 m) long with a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h). Kings Island's first hypercoaster, Diamondback spans 10 acres (40,000 m2) of terrain and features a unique splashdown water effect ending. 5
Kings Island & Miami Valley Railroad 1972 Crown Metal Products Company[50]
(3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge 4-4-0 Steam Train)
A steam locomotive ride that travels in a 5,585-foot (1,702 m) loop that provides transportation between the main park and Soak City. Before the water park and its station were built, the train ride was a narrated excursion, traversing open fields and wooded areas with multiple props themed to the old west, small buildings and a fort. The trains are scale replicas of the famous 1800s locomotive known as The General. The two trains are named "Kenny Van Meter" (Blue Train, Engine 12) and "Lew Brown" (Green Train, Engine 19), formerly "Tecumseh" and "Simon Kenton" respectively. The Rivertown station is also known as "Losantiville Station". 1
The Beast 1979 Kings Island A wooden roller coaster constructed and designed internally by the Kings Island's Engineering & Construction department[51] which consistently remains a top roller coaster among many industry experts and enthusiasts. When it first opened, it held virtually every major record for roller coasters (tallest, fastest and longest). As of 2014, it still holds the record as the longest wooden roller coaster in the world according to Guinness World Records. The ride takes advantage of the hilly terrain and has two separate chain lifts throughout the course. 5
White Water Canyon 1985 Intamin
(Rapid Ride)
River rafting ride that takes riders on a winding course through the densely wooded terrain in Kings Island's Rivertown. Riders are placed in circular inner-tube rafts that seat up to six. Whirlpools, hidden geysers and wave makers randomly soak riders along the route. It is one of the longest rides in the park at 5 minutes and 20 seconds. 4

Soak City[edit]

Included with park admission, Soak City is a 33-acre (13 ha) water park featuring two wave pools, several children's areas and a variety of water slides.[52] It originally opened in 1989 as WaterWorks and has since been expanded several times. It was renamed and rethemed in 2004 to Crocodile Dundee's Boomerang Bay and in 2007, was again renamed to Boomerang Bay. On September 2, 2011, Kings Island announced that a $10 million expansion would take place in the 2011–2012 offseason and that the park would open in 2012 as Soak City.[53]

Halloween Haunt (Seasonal)[edit]

Halloween Haunt at Kings Island logo.jpg

Halloween Haunt, formerly known as Fear Fest from 2000–2007, is a Halloween-themed event at Kings Island that runs on weekends from late September until the last weekend of October. It features haunted houses, mazes, live shows, and most of the park's regular season attractions. It has been a yearly event at Kings Island since its debut in 2000. The following section contains the lineup of attractions for 2013.[54]

Current attractions[edit]

Attraction Type Opened Location
Carnevil (formerly Circus of Horrors 3D) Indoor 2001 Planet Snoopy
Club Blood Indoor 2006 Action Zone
Cornstalkers Outdoor 2005 International Street
Backwoods Bayou Outdoor 2013 International Street/Rivertown
Holiday Horror Indoor 2011 Planet Snoopy
Madame Fatale's Cavern of Terror Indoor 2012 Rivertown
Delta Delta Die (formerly R.L. Stine's Fear Street Nights, Massacre Manor) Indoor 2013 Coney Maul
Board to Death(formerly Death Row, The Asylum, Maze of Madness, Mysteria) Indoor 2013 Coney Maul/X-Base
Slaughter House Indoor 2009 Action Zone
Tombstone Terror-Tory (formerly Headless Hollow) Outdoor 2005 Rivertown
Urgent Scare Indoor 2008 Coney Maul
Wolf Pack Indoor 2010 Action Zone

Live shows[edit]

Attraction Location Description
Blood Drums Action Zone A percussion, music, sparks and lights show.
Graveyard Shift Festhaus
Hot Blooded International Showplace A rock n' roll show.

Entertainment[edit]

Venue Year opened Location Current Show Notes
Action Theater 1994 Coney Mall Dinosaurs Alive! 3D[55]
Festhaus 1982 Oktoberfest The Boyz Are Back (2014–Present), Rock & Roll Never Forgets (2013–Present)
International Showplace 1972 International Street Flashback: Totally 80's (2014–Present)
International Street Bandstand 1972 International Street Playlist Live! (2013–Present) Peanuts Party in the Plaza (2011–Present) Formerly known as Royal Fountain Bandstand
Kings Island Theater 1976 International Street Cirque Imagine (2014–Present) Formerly known as American Heritage Music Hall and Paramount Theater. Renovated in 2004 with new seating and digital projection.
PEANUTS Playhouse 2006 Planet Snoopy Charlie Brown's Hoedown (2014) Formerly known as Nickelodeon Theater (2006–2008), Putz HQ (2009)
Timberwolf Amphitheatre 1982 Action Zone Formerly known as Stadium of the Stars (1982–??)

Fast Lane[edit]

Fast Lane, introduced at Kings Island in July 2011, is a secondary queue system that offers shorter wait times on the park's most popular rides.[56] In addition to the standard admission charge, visitors can bypass the standard wait line by purchasing a wrist band that grants access to the Fast Lane queue. A limited number of wrist bands are sold each day. The two options available for purchase are "Fast Lane" and "Fast Lane Plus". The standard Fast Lane offers access to 22 attractions, while Fast Lane Plus covers the same rides but also adds Banshee and Firehawk.[57]

Significant facts[edit]

Notable additions[edit]

  • 1977: Screamin' Demon debuted as one of the first forward- and backward-looping roller coasters in the United States.[58][59] It was later sold in 1987 to Camden Park where it operated until 1999. It was eventually dismantled in 2004.
Son of Beast with loop
  • 1979: Kings Island unveiled The Beast setting records as the world's tallest, fastest and longest roller coaster.[60]
  • 1981: The park introduced The Bat, generally accepted as the first permanent modern-day suspended roller coaster.[61] However, plagued with mechanical problems and downtime, The Bat was removed just three years later in 1984.
  • 1982: Kings Island introduced Winterfest, a Christmas-time holiday event which ran from November 25 through December 31. The yearly event was held until 1992 and made a brief return in 2005.
  • 1984: King Cobra opened as the first roller coaster to be designed from the ground-up as a stand-up coaster, even though others had been converted to stand-up designs. King Cobra was dismantled and put up for sale in 2002, when downtime and maintenance proved prohibitive.
Overview of The Racer, plus Firehawk and Flight of Fear
  • 1987: The Vortex was added to the park and briefly held a record with six inversions.
  • 1989: WaterWorks debuted as a family water park featuring a wave pool, water slides and other attractions.
  • 1999: Kings Island's "Adventure Village" area began the first of a two-year expansion to re-energize the area. Renamed Paramount Action Zone, the area was completely re-themed as a brightly colored movie studio backlot. Two new rides, FACE/OFF and Drop Zone: Stunt Tower, opened with the latter setting a new record for the world's tallest gyro drop.
  • 2000: For the second year of the Paramount Action Zone two-year expansion, Son of Beast opened setting records as the world's tallest, fastest and only-looping wooden roller coaster. Billed as a sequel to Kings Island's own legendary roller coaster, The Beast, Son of Beast was also the park's first hypercoaster. In October 2000, Kings Island debuted FearFest which runs annually from late September through October (later renamed to Halloween Haunt).
  • 2002: Tomb Raider: The Ride opened at Kings Island using an unorthodox marketing approach. The vehicle was by design concealed from view even as guests are being seated. Opening-day riders did not know what was going to happen as the ride started. Under the hood, the ride was based on a typical top spin model ride, except that this version was the world's first Giant variation to hold nearly twice as many riders as prior efforts. In addition, the ride operated indoors synchronized to a musical score, lasers, water effects, fog and theatrical lighting.
Diamondback's lift hill
  • 2005: Kings Island opened Italian Job: Stunt Track, a roller coaster that primarily focused on special effects to tie in with the film The Italian Job (sister park Canada's Wonderland opened one the same year).
  • 2007: Kings Island unveiled Firehawk, a Vekoma Flying Dutchman roller coaster. The ride originally opened in 2001 at Geauga Lake under the name X-Flight but was relocated to Kings Island after the 2006 season. Its track colors were changed from neon green to red, while its supports were changed from dark gray to steel gray.
  • 2009: A steel hypercoaster from Bolliger & Mabillard called Diamondback opened in place of the former Swan Lake.[62]
  • 2010: Planet Snoopy opened in place of the Nickelodeon Universe kids area. The Nickelodeon theme and characters including Hanna-Barbera's Scooby-Doo were completely removed. This change marked the first time since the park's debut in 1972 that Scooby-Doo was not present in the park.
  • 2011: WindSeeker, a tower swinger ride manufactured by Mondial, was added to the Coney Mall next to the Vortex. Fast Lane. A Pay-Per-Use attraction called Dinosaurs Alive! debuted at Kings Island as the world's largest animatronic dinosaur park.[38] It is located in Coney Mall near WindSeeker. Dinosaurs Alive 3D was also introduced to the Action Theater presented in Dolby 3D.
  • 2012: Soak City was announced on September 2, 2011, as the new name for Boomerang Bay. The Australian theme was dropped and additions included a second, larger wave pool along with sand-volleyball courts and a completely revamped lazy river with new names all around.[63]
  • 2014: The longest inverted roller coaster in the world, Banshee, opened in the location previously occupied by Son of Beast within the park's Action Zone. The seven-inversion coaster was announced on August 8, 2013, and was built by Bolliger & Mabillard.[64]

Notable events[edit]

  • 1972: ABC sitcom, The Partridge Family, filmed at the park in the episode "I Left My Heart in Cincinnati" which aired on January 26, 1973 (Episode #66 from Season 3).
  • 1973: Another ABC sitcom, The Brady Bunch, filmed at the park in the episode "The Cincinnati Kids" which aired later that year on November 23.[65]
  • 1974: Sixty-nine-year-old Karl Wallenda broke a world skywalk distance record of 1,800 feet (550 m).[66]
  • October 25, 1975: Evel Knievel successfully jumped 14 Greyhound buses at Kings Island, setting an audience viewing record for ABC's Wide World of Sports, garnering a 52 household share when his performance was broadcast live. He landed on the 14th bus, but held on. This was one of his last big jumps.
  • May 24, 2008: Robbie Knievel, son of Evel, successfully jumped over 24 Coke Zero trucks in the Kings Island Parking Lot. This was expected to be the last of Robbie's big jumps.[67]
  • July 4, 2008: High wire artist Rick Wallenda broke the world skywalk distance record of 1,800 feet (550 m) held by his grandfather, Karl Wallenda, by walking 2,000 feet (610 m) on a 75-foot-high wire (23 m) from Kings Island's Eiffel Tower to the park's entrance and back.[68][69]
  • August 31, 2008: Barry Williams, Susan Olsen and Mike Lookinland returned to Kings Island for A Very Brady Reunion, a four-show special of song, dance and Brady Bunch stories.[70]
  • August 15, 2009: Nik Wallenda completed a skywalk on a wire suspended 262 feet (80 m) above the ground that extended 800 feet (240 m). Although it didn't break any world records, it was the highest skywalk Nik had completed to date and was three times higher than the skywalk Rick Wallenda performed a year earlier.[71]
  • May 19, 2013: Former Brady Bunch stars Barry Williams, Susan Olsen and Christopher Knight returned to the park to "entertain park guests during four shows of singing, dancing and Brady Bunch anecdotes".[72][73]

Notable people[edit]

The following is a list of former employees at Kings Island that later became well known in another industry:[74][75][76][77]

  • Lisa Akey (actress)
  • Curtis Cregan (actor) – Worked as a live shows performer and emcee for the Nickelodeon show at Kings Island.
  • Jeff Day (director/producer) – Worked as live show performer 1983-1985
  • Carmen Electra (singer) – Started her professional career in 1990 as a dancer at Kings Island in the show “It’s Magic”.
  • Woody Harrelson (actor) – Wood carver at Kings Island during high school.
  • Justin Jeffre (singer) – Part of quartet that performed throughout the park.
  • Lewis Johnson (reporter) – Former rides supervisor on the Beast and Racer roller coasters at Kings Island (1981–87)
  • Susan Kay Johnson – Miss Ohio 1987
  • Nick Lachey (singer) – Part of quartet that performed throughout the park.
  • Woody Paige (Around the Horn) -- Worked as a live show performer 1977-1979
  • Dan Patrick (TV/radio sports host) – Worked on park's golf course grounds crew
  • Susan Perkins – Miss America 1978 - worked at the park as a live shows performer.
  • Rob Pottorf (film composer) – Worked as live show performer and starred in Kings Production's TV series, Pumpkin Creek
  • Gigi Rice (actress)

Other[edit]

Dogstreet Cemetery[edit]

Dogstreet cemetery is located at the north end of the Kings Island parking lot and is maintained by Deerfield Township. The historic cemetery dates back to 1803. The Warren County Genealogical Society documented nearly 70 grave sites in the cemetery, though as of 2005, only 52 headstones remained.[78]

On January 11, 2012, the amusement park and cemetery were featured on season 8, episode 1 of Ghost Hunters entitled Roller Ghoster. The show investigated claims of haunted occurrences inside the park and around the cemetery, particularly of a ghost reportedly known as "Missouri Jane."[79] Warren County Genealogical Society records document a grave for a Missouri Jane Galeenor, who died in 1846 at age five.[80]

Kings Island resort[edit]

As part of the Kings Island resort, in 1972 Taft Broadcasting Company built a world class golf course, hotel and campground.

  • The Golf Center at Kings Island
Designed by Jack Nicklaus with Desmond Muirhead,[81][82] the 18-hole "Grizzly" and the 9-hole "Bruin" golf courses are located just across Interstate 71. The "Grizzly" was used for PGA and LPGA tournaments throughout the years. The Kings Island golf courses were formerly known as the Jack Nicklaus Golf Center, Jack Nicklaus Sports Center[83][84] and The Jack Nicklaus Golden Bear Golf Courses.[85]
  • Kings Island Inn
Designed to depict a small alpine village, the 300-room inn now known as Kings Island Resort & Conference Center[86] is located on Kings Island Drive across the street from the park. It features a restaurant, indoor and outdoor pools, tennis court, sand volleyball, half-court basketball and a conference center.
  • Kings Island Campground
The park used to offer a 45-acre campground. It had 350 sites plus overflow, 6 cabins, pool, game room and store. A free tram carried campers to and from the park. The campground closed in 2004 and the land, except for the overflow area, was sold to Great Wolf Resorts.[87]

Kings Island greenhouse[edit]

The park has its own greenhouse just off of Columbia Road. It can be seen from the top of The Bat's lift hill. It produces the flowers and topiary for the park. Some of their notable work is the "Living Liberty Bell" topiary and working "Flower Clock" near the Eiffel Tower.[88]

Awards and recognition[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2013 Global Attractions Report". 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Riding History To The Limits — The Concept". CET. August 26, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c "Coney Island History". Coney Island. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c "Kings Island History". Kings Island Central. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Seifert, Jeffrey (June 2012). "Kings Island’s 40 years of success started with 1972 opening". Amusement Today. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Kings Island, Trivia". Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010. 
  7. ^ Image:Racer (Kings Island) ACE Coaster.jpg
  8. ^ "Kings Island - 1972 Map". Themeparkbrochures.net. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Brady Bunch at Kings Island". KingsIslandCentral.com. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Amusement Parks Sale Completed". The Bryan Times (Bryan, Ohio). April 11, 1984. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Taft Sells Parks". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  12. ^ Paramount Communications. "Paramount communications will enter theme park business by acquiring kings entertainment and kings island park". PR Newswire. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Firm Acquires Big Theme Park". Merced Sun-Star (Merced, California). June 6, 1989. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Close To Home: Deerfield Township". The Cincinnati Enquirer. January 12, 1997. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  15. ^ McNutt, Randy (August 31, 1998). "Bite by bite, neighboring cities take land". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved December 28, 2006. 
  16. ^ Aldridge, Kevin (September 15, 1999). "Mason annexes all of Kings Island". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Viacom board opts to split company". CNN. June 14, 2005. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  18. ^ "CBS Corporation To Sell Paramount Parks To Cedar Fair, L.p. For $1.24 Billion In Cash". CBS Corporation. May 22, 2006. Retrieved August 2, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Cedar Fair, L.P. Completes Acquisition of the Paramount Parks". Archived from the original on July 28, 2006. Retrieved December 28, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Six Flags agrees to sell Ohio park for $145M". Pittsburgh Business Times. March 10, 2004. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "Cedar Fair says goodbye to Nickelodeon". Theme Park Insider. August 29, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Ticket tax proposal has both sides lining up". Dayton Daily News. November 20, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Mason to consider ticket tax". JournalNews. February 3, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2010. 
  24. ^ Callahan, Denise (March 16, 2010). "Kings Island ticket tax rejected by Mason City Council". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Council Votes Against Kings Island Tax Hike". www.wlwt.com. February 8, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Timeline: A History of Kings Island". Kings Island. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  27. ^ Richardson, Rachel (April 25, 2012). "Kings Island thrill ride history". Metromix. Retrieved April 26, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Kings Island Media Day 1999". June 4, 2009. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  29. ^ McClelland, Justin (July 27, 2012). "Kings Island to tear down Son of Beast". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  30. ^ McNutt, Randy (September 27, 2002). "New K.I. ride may result in 'delirium'". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Ratings assigned per Kings Island's own system, where "1" is least intensity and "5" is most. See their "Guest Assistance Guide". Kings Island.  for more specific details
  32. ^ "The Bat flies again at Kings Island". Amusement Today. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Kings Island - 1979". Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  34. ^ "1980 Park Brochure". Theme Park Review. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Kings Island (1985)". Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Kings Island (1986)". Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Riding History To The Limits – Coney Mall". CET. August 26, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  38. ^ a b "Kings Island to open world’s largest dinosaur park". Mason Buzz. March 18, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Press Kit". Kings Island. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  40. ^ "WindSeeker". Kings Island. Retrieved August 21, 2004. 
  41. ^ "Kings Island: Opening date for WindSeeker yet to be confirmed". Theme Park Tourist. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Riding History To The Limits — International Appeal". CET. August 26, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  43. ^ "National Carousel Association – Census Entry". Nca-usa.org. Retrieved October 14, 2009. 
  44. ^ a b "2013 Park & Ride Winners". Amusement Today. Retrieved December 5, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Kings Dominion announces expansion of Planet Snoopy". Richmond Times-Dispatch. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  46. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying ACE Aerial Chase". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Great Pumpkin Coaster". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  48. ^ Marden, Duane. "Woodstock Express". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved December 12, 2011. 
  49. ^ Fun in the making. Taft Broadcasting Co. Event occurs at 2:01. Archived from the original on 1971. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  50. ^ Kings Island & Miami Valley Railroad official website
  51. ^ "The Beast". Kings Island. Retrieved June 5, 2011. 
  52. ^ Helbig, Don (January 17, 2012). "Celebrating 40 Years Of Family Fun and Entertainment". Kings Island. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  53. ^ "Kings Island to expand water park in 2012". WHIO-TV. September 2, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Halloween Haunt Attractions - 2011". Mason Buzz. September 13, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Dinosaurs Alive! 3D". Kings Island. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  56. ^ Chavez, Jon. "Cedar Fair trying out 1st-in-line access fees". The Blade (August 6, 2011). Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  57. ^ "Fast Lane and Fast Lane Plus". Kings Island. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  58. ^ Scheinin, Lisa (2007). "100 Moments in Roller Coaster History: The First Launched Coasters — 1977". RollerCoaster! Magazine 28 (2): 20–21. ISSN 0896-7261. 
  59. ^ "Kings Island Photo of the Day". Kings Island. February 1, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  60. ^ "The Wonderful King's Island Theme Park". FreeThemePark.com. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  61. ^ Baldwin, Tim (2006). "In Suspense, the Contemporary Suspended Coaster Celebrates a 25th Anniversary". RollerCoaster! Magazine 27 (4): 15–19. ISSN 0896-7261. 
  62. ^ "Diamondback | Fast And Full Of Venom | Kings Island". Kidiamondback.com. Retrieved November 14, 2008. 
  63. ^ "Soak City". Kings Island. Retrieved September 4, 2011. 
  64. ^ Tan, Lot (August 8, 2013). "Kings Island to offer new coaster for 2014". WHIO-TV (Cox Media Group). Retrieved August 9, 2013. 
  65. ^ "IMDb – "The Brady Bunch" The Cincinnati Kids (TV Episode 1973)". IMDb.com. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  66. ^ "Wallenda attempts high-wire walk over Kings Island". The Columbus Dispatch. July 5, 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  67. ^ "Photos from Robbie's King's Island Jump". Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2008. 
  68. ^ "Skywalks – Exceeding the Limits of Tradition". Wallenda Enterprises Inc. Retrieved June 17, 2012. 
  69. ^ Auckerman, Pat. "Wire walker at Kings Island". Retrieved June 17, 2012. 
  70. ^ Kings Island website – A Very Brady Reunion
  71. ^ "High-wire acrobat to take thrills to new heights at Kings Island". Middletown Journal. July 21, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2012. 
  72. ^ Kiesewetter, John (April 17, 2013). "Brady Bunch stars returning to Kings Island!". The Enquirer. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  73. ^ "'Brady Bunch' reunion brings memories to Kings Island". USA Today. May 20, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  74. ^ Schwartzberg, Eric (August 31, 2010). "Kings Island employees to reunite". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  75. ^ Catch a Rising Star
  76. ^ Helbig, Don (28 August 2009). "Second annual Kings Island Employee Reunion". Kings Island Insider. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  77. ^ http://www.danpatrick.com/2011/06/21/dan-patricks-early-career-ups-and-downs/
  78. ^ "Dogstreet Cemetery". Warren County Genealogical Society. Retrieved January 23, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Roller Ghoster". Ghost Hunters — Syfy. Retrieved January 23, 2012. 
  80. ^ "Dogstreet Cemetery — Missouri Jane Galeenor". Warren County Genealogical Society. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  81. ^ "Golf Center at Kings Island — Grizzly — Mason, OH, USA — Nicklaus Golf Course Design". Nicklaus.com. Retrieved 2013-04-08. 
  82. ^ "Desmond Muirhead — golf course architect — golf courses built, articles, related information". Worldgolf.com. 2012-08-01. Retrieved 2013-04-08. 
  83. ^ "L.P.G.A. Championship Seems Set to Leave Ohio — New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1989-05-18. Retrieved 2013-04-08. 
  84. ^ "Golf Roundup : Debbie Massey's 67 Leads LPGA Championship by One Shot — Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. 1988-05-20. Retrieved 2013-04-08. 
  85. ^ "The Golf Center at Kings Island". The Golf Center. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  86. ^ "Hotel Rooms-Conference Center-Kings Island Hotels-Cincinnati-Ohio". Kingsislandresort.com. Retrieved 2013-04-08. 
  87. ^ Solvig, Erica (March 24, 2004). "Kings Island campground may become new resort". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  88. ^ "Landscaping an attraction at Kings Island". Kings Island. April 26, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  89. ^ "NAPHA's 2009 Survey Results". NAPHA. 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 
  90. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2013 Global Attractions Report". Themed Entertainment Association. 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 

External links[edit]