- For the Westminster constituency, see Kinross-shire (UK Parliament constituency).
Kinross-shire within Scotland
|- 1975||46,485 acres (188 sq. km) (33rd)|
|- Succeeded by||Tayside Region|
|Status||Local government county (until 1975)
Land registration county (1996 - )
County: Kinross-shire County Council (1890 - 1929)
Lieutenancy: Lord Lieutenant of Perth and Kinross (1975 - )
|- HQ||Kinross (county town)|
|- Motto||For all time|
Coat of arms of the county council
Kinross-shire or the County of Kinross is a registration county, electoral ward and historic county in the Perth and Kinross council area in the east central Lowlands of Scotland. Surrounding its largest settlement and county town of Kinross, Kinross-shire borders Perthshire to the north, Fife to the east and south and Clackmannanshire to the west.
The 1971 census recorded a population of 6,423 in the county. The decline was hastened by the closure of the railways in the county soon after the Second World War.
However, in recent years, construction of the M90 motorway north of the Forth Road Bridge has resulted in the area becoming more prominent.
The area is dominated by Loch Leven, a large inland loch, with 2 islands and home to an internationally important nature reserve. One of the islands contains a castle, where Mary, Queen of Scots, was once held prisoner.
Much of the land in Kinross–shire is fertile agricultural land and most of the inhabitants were originally employed on the land. The gently-rolling farmland surrounding Loch Leven gives way to steep, more rugged terrain.
Tourism has increased, with visitors attracted by the unspoiled country villages and gently rolling hills reaching the shores of Loch Leven. The villages of Kinnesswood and Scotlandwell are attractive, and there are ancient standing stones at Orwell. The T in the Park music festival has been held in Balado since 1993, becoming a major annual event.
The economic outlook of Kinross-shire has improved and was recorded in 2009 as having an estimated population of 12,997. In addition, it outperformed both the Perth and Kinross area and Scotland averages in economic performance. The area is promoted by the Kinross-shire Partnership, a body bringing together local government, tourist organisations and local organisations.
Kinross-shire council was a local government county, for most of its history running a joint county council with Perthshire county council.
As local government in Scotland evolved, Kinross-shire gained a county council in 1890, before its amalgamation with Perthshire County Council in 1929 under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929. By 1911 it forms a sheriffdom, which had evolved as an exclusively judicial area, with Fifeshire and a sheriff-substitute sitting at Kinross.
In 1975 the council became part of the former Tayside Region.
In 1540/1 the burgh of Kinross was originally created a burgh of barony and in 1685 became a burgh of regality. In 1864 it became a police burgh with an elected town council.
The county suffered a decline in population in the 19th century as its inhabitants migrated to the urban areas to find work in manufacturing etc. The population of Kinross-shire in 1891 was 6673, in 1901 it was 6981. The only towns are Kinross (population in 1901, 2136) and Milnathort (1052).
From 1426 the county returned one member to the Parliament of Scotland. Following the Act of Union, Kinross-shire returned members to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1708. Due to the small population of the county, it was never a constituency in its own right.
From 1708 to 1832 Kinross-shire and Clackmannanshire were alternating counties, a member being returned for one county at one parliament and for the other at the next.
In 1918, House of Commons seats were redistributed, and Kinross-shire was combined with part of Perthshire to form the constituency of Kinross and Western Perthshire. This constituency continued in existence until 1983.
Coat of arms
The motto adopted was for all time: at the time of the grant the county council was campaigning to retain the separate existence of the county.
These arms continue in use by the current Perth and Kinross Council.
The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 created a boundary commission to ensure that all civil parishes lay within a single county. After the boundary changes the county contained five parishes: (No. 1 on map) Fossoway, (2) Orwell, (3) Kinross, (4) Portmoak and (5) Cleish.
From 1894 elected parish councils replaced the parochial boards. These in turn were abolished in 1930, and the powers they had exercised passed to the council.
The county was anciently divided into a number of parishes, four were entirely in Kinross-shire :
1.Cleish 2.Orwell (containing the market town of Milnathort) 3.Kinross 4.Portmoak
The parishes partly in Perthshire were : 1.Arngask 2.Fossoway 3.Tulliebole *Forgandenny
From 1845 they were used for local government purposes and governed by parochial boards.
In 1851 there were four entire parishes in Kinross-shire - Cleish, Orwell, Kinross and Tulliebole. There were also parts of three other parishes,( two in the presbytery of Perth and the other in the presbytery of Auchterader). 
- Kinross-shire, from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica (Love to Know)
- Text of the 1685 Act from The Annals of Kinross-shire by Dr. Ebenezer Henderson (Fossoway and District Community Council
- R.M. Urquhart, Scottish Burgh and County Heraldry, London, 1973
- R.M. Urquhart, Scottish Civic Heraldry, London, 1979
- The Imperial gazetteer of Scotland. Vol.II. by Rev. John Marius Wilson http://archive.org/stream/imperialgazettee02wilsuoft#page/238/mode/2up
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