Kiowa language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kiowa
Native to USA
Region western Oklahoma
Ethnicity Kiowa people
Native speakers
100 fluent speakers  (2013)[1]
Tanoan
  • Kiowa–Towa?
    • Kiowa
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kio
{{{mapalt}}}
Pre-contact distribution of the Kiowa language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Kiowa /ˈk.əwə/ is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in primarily Caddo, Kiowa, and Comanche counties. The Kiowa tribal center is located in Carnegie. Like most North American languages, Kiowa is an endangered language.

Demographics[edit]

Colorado College anthropologist Laurel Watkins noted in 1984 based on Parker McKenzie's estimates that only about 400 people (mostly over the age of 50) could speak Kiowa and that only rarely were children learning language. A more recent figure from McKenzie is 300 adult speakers of "varying degrees of fluency" reported by Mithun (1999) out of a 12,242 Kiowa tribal membership (US Census 2000).

The Intertribal Wordpath Society, a nonprofit group dedicated to preserving native languages of Oklahoma, estimates the maximum number of fluent Kiowa speakers as of 2006 to be 400.[2] A 2013 newspaper article estimated 100 fluent speakers.[1]

Classes and revitalization efforts[edit]

The Kiowa Tribe offers weekly language classes at the Jacobson House, a non-profit Native American center in Norman, Oklahoma. Dane Poolaw and Carol Williams teach the language using Parker McKenzie's method.[3]

The University of Tulsa, the University of Oklahoma in Norman, and the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma in Chickasha offer Kiowa language classes.

Alecia Gonzales (Kiowa-Apache, 1926–2011), who taught at USAO, created a Kiowa teaching grammar called, Thaum khoiye tdoen gyah: beginning Kiowa language. A Kiowa language book of trickster stories, Saynday Kiowa Indian Children’s Stories, was published in 2013.[1][4]


Sounds[edit]

The 23 consonants of Kiowa:

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive and
affricate
voiced b d ɡ
voiceless p t ts k ʔ
aspirated
ejective tsʼ
Fricative voiceless s h
voiced z
Nasal m n
Approximant (w) l j

Kiowa distinguishes six vowel qualities, with three distinctive levels of height and a front-back contrast. All six vowels may be long or short, oral or nasal. Four of the vowels occurs as diphthongs with a high front off-glide of the form vowel + /j/.

The 24 Kiowa vowels:

Contrasts among the consonants are easily demonstrated with an abundance of minimal and near-minimal pairs. There are no contrasts between the presence of an initial glottal stop and its absence.

IPA Example Meaning
/pʼ/ /pʼí/ 'female's sister'
/pʰ/ /pʰí/ 'fire; hill; heavy'
/p/ /pĩ/ 'food eating'
/b/ /bĩ/ 'foggy'
/tʼ/ /tʼáp/ 'deer'
/tʰ/ /tʰáp/ 'dry'
/t/ /tá/ 'eye'

The ejective and aspirated stops are articulated forcefully. The unaspirated voiceless stops are tense, while the voiced stops are lax.

The voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ is pronounced [ʃ] before /j/

Orthography Pronunciation Meaning
sét [sét] 'bear'
syân [ʃẽnˀ] 'be small'
sân [sânˀ] 'child'

The lateral /l/ is realized as [l] in syllable-initial position, as lightly affricated [ɫ] in syllable-final position, and slightly devoiced in utterance-final position. It occurs seldom in word-initial position.

célê [séːʲlêʲ] 'set'
gúldɔ [ɡúɫdɔ] 'be red, painted'
sál [sáɫ] 'be hot'

The dental resonants /l/ and /n/ are palatalized before /i/.

tʰàlí [tʰàlʲí] 'boy'
bõnî [bõʷnʲî] 'see'

All consonants may begin a syllable but /l/ may not occur word-initially. The only consonants which may terminate a syllable are /p, t, m, n, l, j/.

Certain sequences of consonant and vowel do not occur: dental and alveolar obstruents preceding /i/ (*tʼi, tʰi, ti, di, kʼi, ki, si, zi); velars and /j/ preceding /e/ (*kʼe, kʰe, ke, ɡe, je).

The glide /j/ automatically occurs between all velars and /a/.

Nasalization of voiced stops operates automatically only within the domain of the pronominal prefixes: voiced stops become the corresponding nasals either preceding or following a nasal. The velar nasal that is derived from /ɡ/ is deleted; there is no /ŋ/ in Kiowa.

Underlying //ia// surfaces in alternating forms as /ja/ following velars, as /a/ following labials and as /iː/ if accompanied by falling tone.

Obstruents are devoiced in two environments: in syllable-final position and following a voiceless obsturent. Voiced stops are devoiced in syllable-final position without exception. In effect, the rule applies only to /b/ and /d/ since velars are prohibited in final position.

The palatal glide /j/ spreads across the laryngeals /h/ and /ʔ/, yielding a glide onset, a brief moment of coarticulation and a glide release. The laryngeals /h/ and /ʔ/ are variably deleted between sonorants. This also applies across a word boundary.

Orthography[edit]

Kiowa orthography was developed by native speaker Parker McKenzie, who had worked with J. P. Harrington and later with other linguists. The development of the orthography is detailed in Meadows & McKenzie (2001). The tables below show each orthographic symbol used in the Kiowa writing system and its corresponding phonetic value (written IPA).

Vowels
Orthography Pronunciation   Orthography Pronunciation
a a ai aj
au ɔ aui ɔj
e e
i i
o o oi oj
u u ui uj

The mid-back vowel /ɔ/ is indicated by a digraph au. The four diphthongs indicate the offglide /j/ with the letter i following the main vowel. Nasal vowels are indicated by underlining the vowel letter: nasal o is thus . Long vowels are indicated with macron diacritics: long o is thus ō. Short vowels are unmarked. Tone is indicated with diacritics. The acute accent ´ represents high tone, the grave accent ` indicates low tone, and the circumflex ˆ indicates falling tone — these are exemplied on the vowel o as ó (high), ò (low), ô (falling). Since long vowels also have tones, the vowel symbols can have both a macron and a tone diacritic above the macron: (long high), (long low), ō̂ (long falling).

Consonants
Orthography Pronunciation   Orthography Pronunciation
b b ch ts
f p x tsʼ
p s s
v z z
d d l l
j t y j
t w w
th h h
g ɡ m m
c k n n
k
q

The palatal glide [j] that is pronounced after velar consonants g, c, k, q (which are phonetically /ɡ, k, kʰ, kʼ/, respectively) is not normally written.[5] There are, however, a few exceptions where [ɡ] is not followed by a [j] glide, in which case an apostrophe is written after the g as g’. Thus, there is, for example, ga which is pronounced [ɡja] and g’a which is pronounced [ɡa]. The glottal stop /ʔ/ is also not written as it is often deleted and its presence is predictable. A final convention is that pronominal prefixes are written as separate words instead of being attached to verbs.

Like many scrips of India, such as Devanagari, the Kiowa alphabet is ordered according to mostly phonetic principles. The alphabetical order is shown in the tables above: Vowels first, then consonants, reading down the columns, left column then right.

Grammar[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Number inflection[edit]

Kiowa, like other Tanoan languages, is characterized by an inverse number system. Kiowa has four noun classes. Class I nouns are inherently singular/dual, Class II nouns are inherently dual/plural, Class III nouns are inherently dual, and Class IV nouns are mass or noncount nouns. If the number of a noun is different from its class' inherent value, the noun takes the suffix -gau (or a variant).

class singular dual plural
I -gau
II -gau
III -gau -gau
IV (n/a) (n/a) (n/a)

Mithun (1999:445) gives as an example chē̲̂ "horse/two horses" (Class I) made plural with the addition of -gau: chē̲̂gau "horses". On the other hand, the Class II noun tṓ̲sè "bones/two bones" is made singular by suffixing -gau: tṓ̲sègau "bone."

Verbs[edit]

Kiowa verbs consist of verb stems that can be preceded by prefixes, followed by suffixes, and incorporate other lexical stems into the verb complex. Kiowa verbs have a complex active–stative pronominal system expressed via prefixes. These prefixes can be followed by incorporated nouns, verbs, or adverbs. Following the main verb stem are suffixes that indicate tense/aspect and mode. A final group of suffixes that pertain to clausal relations can follow the tense-aspect-modal suffixes. These syntactic suffixes include relativizers, subordinating conjunctions, and switch-reference indicators. A skeletal representation of the Kiowa verb structure can be represented as the following:

pronominal
prefix
- incorporated elements
(adverb + noun + verb)
- VERB STEM - tense/aspect-modal
suffixes
- syntactic
suffixes

The pronominal prefixes and tense/aspect-modal suffixes are inflectional and required to be present on every verb.

Pronominal inflection[edit]

Kiowa verb stems are inflected with prefixes that indicate:

  1. grammatical person
  2. grammatical number
  3. semantic roles of animate participants

All these of the categories are indicated for only the primary animate participant. If there is, in addition to the primary participant, a second participant (such as in transitive sentences), then the number of the second participant is also indicated. A participant is primary in the following cases:

  • A volitional agent participant (i.e. the doer of the action who also has control over the action) is primary if it is the only participant in the clause.
  • In two-participant volitional agent/non-agent clauses:
    1. The non-agent participant is primary when
      • the non-agent is not in the first person singular or third person singular AND
      • the volitional agent is singular
    2. The volitional agent participant is primary when
      • the non-agent is in the first person singular or third person singular AND
      • the volitional agent is non-singular

The term non-agent here refers to semantic roles including involitional agents, patients, beneficiaries, recipients, experiencers, and possessors.

Intransitive verbs
Number
Person Singular Dual Plural
1st à- è-
2nd èm- mà- bà-
3rd è̲- á-
Inverse è-
Agent transitive verbs
Volitional Agent Primary Person-Number
Non-agent
Number
1st-Sg. 2nd-Sg. 2nd-Dual 2nd-Pl. 3rd-Sg. 3rd-Dual 1st-Sg./Dual
3rd-Pl.
3rd-Inverse
Sg. gà- à-  má-`- bá-`- é̲-`- á-`-  é-`-
Dual nèn- mèn- mén-  bèj-  è̲-  én-  èj-   èj- 
Pl. gàj- bàj- mán-`- báj-`- gà- én-`- gá-`- éj-`-
Inverse dé- bé-  mén-`- béj-  é-  én-  è-   éj- 


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cruz, Hannah. "Modina Waters using children’s story book to keep Kiowa language alive". The Norman Transcript. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  2. ^ Anderton, Alice, Phd. "Status of Indian Languages in Oklahoma." Intertribal Wordpath Society. (retrieved 24 April 2011)
  3. ^ "Kiowa Language Class." Kiowa Tribe. 16 May 2011 (retrieved 26 Aug 2011)
  4. ^ "Kiowa language children's book published". Native American Times, Today's Independent Indian News (Norman, OK). 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  5. ^ This glide is written in Harrington's vocabulary.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Adger, David and Daniel Harbour. (2005). The syntax and syncretisms of the person-case constraint. In K. Hiraiwa & J. Sabbagh (Eds.), MIT working papers in linguistics (No. 50).
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Crowell, Edith (1949). "A preliminary report on Kiowa structure". International Journal of American Linguistics 15 (3): 163–167. doi:10.1086/464040. 
  • Gonzales, Alecia Keahbone. (2001). Thaum khoiye tdoen gyah: Beginning Kiowa language. Chickasha, OK: University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma Foundation. ISBN 0-9713894-0-3.
  • Hale, Kenneth (1962). "Jemez and Kiowa correspondences in reference to Kiowa–Tanoan". International Journal of American Linguistics 28: 1–5. doi:10.1086/464664. 
  • Harbour, Daniel. (2003). The Kiowa case for feature insertion.
  • Harrington, John P. (1928). Vocabulary of the Kiowa language. Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 84). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
  • Harrington, John P. (1947). "Three Kiowa texts". International Journal of American Linguistics 12 (4): 237–242. doi:10.1086/463919. 
  • Hickerson, Nancy P. (1985). "Some Kiowa terms for currency and financial transactions". International Journal of American Linguistics 51 (4): 446–449. doi:10.1086/465926. 
  • McKenzie, Andrew. (2012). The role of contextual restriction in reference-tracking. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI3518260.
  • McKenzie, Parker; & Harrington, John P. (1948). Popular account of the Kiowa Indian language. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Meadows, William C.; McKenzie, Parker P. (2001). "The Parker P. McKenzie Kiowa orthography: How written Kiowa came into being". Plains Anthropologist 46 (176): 233–248. 
  • Merrill, William; Hansson, Marian; Greene, Candace; & Reuss, Frederick. (1997). A guide to the Kiowa collections at the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 40.
  • Merrifield, William R. (1959). "The Kiowa verb prefix". International Journal of American Linguistics 25 (3): 168–176. doi:10.1086/464523. 
  • Merrifield, William R. (1959). "Classification of Kiowa nouns". International Journal of American Linguistics 25 (4): 269–271. doi:10.1086/464544. 
  • Miller, Wick R. (1959). "A note on Kiowa linguistic affiliations". American Anthropologist 61: 102–105. doi:10.1525/aa.1959.61.1.02a00130. 
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Palmer, Jr., Gus (Pánthâidè). (2004). Telling stories the Kiowa way.
  • Sivertsen, Eva (1956). "Pitch problems in Kiowa". International Journal of American Linguistics 22 (2): 117–30. doi:10.1086/464356. 
  • Takahashi, Junichi. (1984). Case marking in Kiowa. CUNY. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Trager, George L.; Trager, Edith (1959). "Kiowa and Tanoan". American Anthropologist 61 (6): 1078–1083. doi:10.1525/aa.1959.61.6.02a00140. 
  • Trager, Edith C. (1960). The Kiowa language: A grammatical study. University of Pennsylvania. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania).
  • Trager-Johnson, Edith C. (1972). Kiowa and English pronouns: Contrastive morphosemantics. In L. M. Davis (Ed.), Studies in linguistics, in honor of Raven I. McDavid. University of Alabama Press.
  • Watkins, Laurel J. (1976). Position in grammar: Sit, stand, and lie. In Kansas working papers in linguistics (Vol. 1). Lawrence.
  • Watkins, Laurel J. (1990). "Noun phrase versus zero in Kiowa discourse". International Journal of American Linguistics 56 (3): 410–426. doi:10.1086/466165. 
  • Watkins, Laurel J. (1993). "The discourse functions of Kiowa switch-reference". International Journal of American Linguistics 59 (2): 137–164. doi:10.1086/466193. 
  • Watkins, Laurel J.; & McKenzie, Parker. (1984). A grammar of Kiowa. Studies in the anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4727-3.
  • Wonderly, William; Gibson, Lornia; Kirk, Paul (1954). "Number in Kiowa: Nouns, demonstratives, and adjectives". International Journal of American Linguistics 20: 1–7. doi:10.1086/464244. 

External links[edit]