Кировская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||December 7, 1934|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|- Governor||Nikita Belykh|
|- Legislature||Legislative Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||120,800 km2 (46,600 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||11.1 /km2 (29 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Vyatka remained a place of exile for opponents of the tsarist regime, including many prominent revolutionary figures. In 1920, a number of small southern and eastern districts (volosti) and villages were shifted from Vyatka as a result of the formation of the Tatar Autonomous Republic and the Mari and Votskaya [now the Udmurt Republic] autonomous regions.
The territory did not escape the Civil War and intervention of 1918-1921. Then in 1921-1922, it was hit by famine, followed by a typhus epidemic in late 1922. The death rate doubled during those years. The postwar period was accompanied by rebuilding of the province on the basis of the New Economic Policy (NEP), which consisted of free trade, entrepreneurship, and private sector stimulation. However, the basic principles of the NEP never really took hold in agriculture, where the only effect was to reduce all the peasants to the same level, or in industry.
The country's first office of the International Organization for Aid to Fighters of the Revolution (IOAR) began operations here in January 1923.
The administrative and territorial reforms of 1929 eliminated the old division of the country into provinces and districts (uezdy, volosti) and introduced a new system of division into regions, territories, and districts (raiony). Vyatka Province was abolished, and its territory became part of Nizhny Novgorod Territory. The city of Vyatka became a district center.
On December 5, 1934, the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) passed a resolution renaming the city from Vyatka to Kirov, and Kirov Territory was formed on December 7. It included the Udmurt Autonomous Region, 37 districts (raiony) of Gorki Region (which had formerly been part of Vyatka Province), as well as Sapapulsky and Votkinsky districts of Sverdlovsk Region. Following the adoption of the new Constitution in 1936, Kirov Territory was transformed into Kirov Region and the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was separated from it.
Kirov residents played an important role during the Second World War. Red Army units were quickly mobilized, and infantry divisions were formed. The people of Kirov not only worked heroically in industry and agriculture to bring about a speedy victory, but also rendered all possible assistance to the front. In the postwar years, the successes of Kirov residents in communal livestock farming and in fulfilling their socialist obligations to the state often received high praise from the Soviet government.
On June 25, 1974, the region was awarded the Order of Lenin for achievements in economic and cultural development, and the city of Kirov received the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. The economic reforms and political transformations that took place during the perestroika years led to a deterioration of the region's socioeconomic situation.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kirov CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Kirov Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Kirov Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
The main rivers are the Vyatka and Kama, which are part of the Volga Basin. The region borders on Tatarstan and the Republic of Mari El in the south, Kostroma Region in the west, Arkhangelsk Region and the Komi Republic in the north, the Perm Kray in the northeast, and the Udmurt Republic in the southeast, which ensures stable internal and foreign economic ties. The main topographical features are the Vyatskie Ridges in the central part of the region, the Verkhnekamskaya Upland (elevations to 337 m) in the northeast, and the Northern (Severnye) Ridges in the north.
The basis of the natural resources of the forest are (mostly conifers), phosphate rock, peat, furs, water and land resources. Extremely rare mineral volkonskoite. Widespread deposits of peat. Large stocks of non-metallic mineral raw materials: limestone, marl, clay, sand and gravel. In recent decades, in the east of the area revealed a minor recoverable oil reserves and deposits of bentonite clays. In the area is the largest in Europe Vyatsko - Kama deposit of phosphate rock . The area is rich in mineral springs and therapeutic mud. On the territory of Kumyonsky District is famous resort town of federal significance Nizhneivkino, which on treatment and rest come to residents of the Kirov region and many regions of Russia.
The region has a total length of 19753 River 66.65 kilometers. Northern Uvaly two separate river basins - the Severodvinsk and the Volga. Much of the area is occupied by the Vyatka River basin, a tributary of the Kama River in Tatarstan. At Kama is only in the upper reaches. To large flowing within the area are also river mole and Tansy, Luza, Cobra, Cheptsa.
The total number of lakes in the area of 4.5 thousand ponds With the total number of closed water area of 5.5 million. The largest lakes : Akshuben - 85 hectares, the Oryol is 63 hectares, Muserskoe - 32 hectares. The deepest area of the pond Lezhninskoe Lake - 36.6m.
Kirov Oblast was formed on December 7, 1934. It is divided administratively into 39 districts, 6 cities under oblast jurisdiction, 13 town under district jurisdiction, 58 urban-type settlements, and 580 selsoviets.
Kirov Oblast is part of the Volga–Vyatka economic district located in the central part of European Russia in the Volga and Vyatka river basins. Its economic complex had already begun forming and developing before the Revolution, in large part because of the transfer points and trading posts located in Vyatka, which later led to the formation of large trading centers. Agriculture was the priority sector at first, but starting in 1940, there was an upsurge in development of an industrial complex, especially the engineering, metalworking, and chemical industries.
Kirov Oblast is part of the Volga–Vyatka agricultural zone, where more than half of the area sown in grain is located in Kirov Oblast itself. Agricultural land occupies 27% of the region's territory. The most important grain crops are winter and spring wheat and rye. Barley and oats are grown for fodder. Increased specialization in the production of more promising fodder crops like winter rye, barley, oats that are most suited to the Oblast's climatic conditions is anticipated in the future. Potatoes are also extensively cultivated.
- Gorokhovskoye peat narrow gauge railway is located in Kotelnichsky District
- Otvorskoye peat narrow gauge railway is located in Kotelnichsky District
- Pishchalskoye peat narrow gauge railway is located in Orichevsky District
- Dymnoye peat narrow gauge railway is located in Verkhnekamsky District
- Birth Rate: 10.6 per 1000 in 2007
- Death Rate: 16.8 per 1000 in 2007
- Births (2008): 15,906 (11.3 per 1000)
- Deaths (2008): 24,081 (17.1 per 1000)
- Vital statistics for 2012
- Births: 16 907 (12.7 per 1000)
- Deaths: 20 500 (15.5 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.59 | 2010 - 1.59 | 2011 - 1.64 | 2012 - 1.81 | 2013 - 1.88(e)
Ethnic Composition (2010):
- Russians - 91.9%
- Tatars - 2.8%
- Mari people - 2.3%
- Udmurts - 1%
- Ukrainians - 0.6%
- Others - 1.4%
- 35,385 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 official survey 40.1% of the population of Kirov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 1% to Islam, 1% to the Old Believers. In addition, 33% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 5.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of the Government of Kirov Oblast. Governor of Kirov Oblast
- Charter, Article 3.2
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Kirov Region
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Кировская областная Дума. №12-ЗО 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Кировской области Российской Федерации», в ред. Закона №408-ЗО от 30 июля 2009 г. «О внесении поправок в Устав Кировской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального публикования, за исключением пункта 1 статьи 34 в части срока полномочий областной Думы и пункта 2 статьи 35, которые вступили в силу после избрания областной Думы нового созыва. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №66 (1314), 9 апреля 1996 г. (Kirov Oblast Duma. #12-ZO March 27, 1996 Charter of Kirov Oblast of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Law #408-ZO of July 30, 2009 On Amending the Charter of Kirov Oblast. Effective as of the date ten days after the official publication date, with the exception of item 1 of Article 34, where it concerns with the duration of the authority of the Oblast Duma, and item 2 of Article 35, both of which took effect after the consequent elections of the Oblast Duma members.).