|City of regional significance|
|Nickname(s): Little Paris (used in historical context)|
|Motto: With peace and goodness|
|City rights||1765, 1782|
|• Mayor||Oleksandr Sainsus|
|• Total||103 km2 (40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||124 m (407 ft)|
|• Density||2,324/km2 (6,020/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||+380 522|
Kirovohrad (Ukrainian: Кіровогра́д, [kʲirovoˈɦrad]; Russian: Кировогра́д, Kirovograd), formerly Yelisavetgrad, is a city in central Ukraine located on the Inhul river, and is the administrative center of the Kirovohrad Oblast.
The city is famous for its former Elvoroti brothers factory (today Chervona Zirka). It is also the birthplace of noted figures such as Leon Trotsky, Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Arseny Tarkovsky, African Spir and others.
- 1 Administrative status
- 2 Name origin
- 3 History
- 4 Symbols
- 5 Historical heritage
- 6 Demography
- 7 Famous people from Kirovohrad
- 8 Industry in Kirovohrad
- 9 Educational field
- 10 Medicine and medical services
- 11 Theatrical art
- 12 Recreation areas
- 13 Centre of folk choreography
- 14 Sports
- 15 Bridges of friendship
- 16 Climate
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Today Kirovohrad is a city of regional importance with 244,000 inhabitants. It is divided into two districts — Kirovsky and Leninsky. The village Nove is part of the Kirovsky district.
Over its history, Kirovohrad has changed its name several times. Presenting a letter of grant on January 11, 1752 to Major-General Jovan Horvat, the organizer of Nova Serbia settlements, the Empress Elizabeth of Russia ordered "to found an earthen fortress and name it Fort St. Elizabeth" (see On the Historical Meaning of the Name Elizabeth for Our City) (in Ukrainian). Thus simultaneously the future city was named in honour of its formal founder, the Russian empress, and also in honor of her heavenly patroness, St. Elizabeth.
The name Yelisavetgrad (usually spelled Elisavetgrad or Elizabethgrad in English language publications) is believed to have evolved as the amalgamation of the fortress name and the common Eastern Slavonic element "-grad" (Old/Church Slavonic "градъ", "a settlement encompassed by a wall"). Its first documented usage dates back to 1764, when Yelisavetgrad Province was organized together with the Yelisavetgrad Lancer Regiment.
Following the Russian Revolution and founding of the Soviet Union, in 1924 the city was enamed Zinovievsk, (also spelled Zinovyevsk), after Grigory Zinoviev, a Soviet statesman and one of the leaders of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). He was born in Yelisavetgrad on September 20 (September 8 O.S.), 1883. At the time he was honored by the name, he was a member of the Politburo and the Chairman of the Comintern's Executive Committee.
On December 27, 1934, after the assassination of Sergei Kirov, Zinovievsk and other Soviet cities was renamed again - this time as Kirovo, and then as Kirovograd. The latter name appeared simultaneously with the creation of Kirovograd Oblast, on January 10, 1939 and was aimed at differentiating the region from Kirov Oblast in present-day Russia.
After Ukraine regained independence, the name of the city started to be spelled according to Ukrainian pronunciation as Kirovohrad. The previous Russified orthography is still widely used due to the widespread use of the Russian language in the region.
Since 1991 numerous discussions have been held on the city's name. A number of activists support returning the city to its original name, Yelisavetgrad (or now Yelysavethrad in Ukrainian transcription). Other suggestions for contemporary Ukraine include Tobilevychi (in honour of the Tobilevych family, the Coryphaei of the classic Ukrainian drama established in Kirovohrad in 1882); Zlatopil, from Ukrainian "золоте поле", literally "golden field"; and Stepohrad, Ukrainian for "city of steppes" (in recognition of the agricultural status of the city); Ukrayinsk or Ukrayinoslav, i.e. "the glorifying Ukraine one;" and Novokozachyn (to commemorate the semi-fabulous Cossack regiment which could have been quartered at the present-day city location).
Due to the disagreements and primarily because of the annual city budget deficit, the question of whether to rename Kirovohrad remains unresolved. It would require expenses to change street signs and many other instances of name use.
Developed around a military settlement, the city rose to prominence in the 19th century when it became an important trade centre, as well as a Ukrainian cultural leader with the first professional theatrical company in either Central or Eastern Ukraine being established here in 1882.
The history of the city foundation dates back to the year 1754 when St. Elizabeth’s fortress was built on the lands of former Zaporizka Sich in the upper course of the Inhul, Suhokleya and Biyanka Rivers. The historic name of the city Yelysavethrad was changed to Zinovyevsk in 1924, for Kirovo in 1934. The city was renamed Kirovohrad on the 10th of January, 1939.
The history of Kirovohrad starts from that of Fort St. Elizabeth. This fort was built in 1754 by the order of empress Elizabeth of Russia and it played a pivotal role in the new lands added to Russia by the Belgrad Peace Treaty of 1739. In 1764 the settlement received status of the center of the Elizabeth province, and in 1784 the status of chief town of a district, when it was renamed after the fort as Yelizavetgrad.
Fort St. Elizabeth was located on the crossroads of trade routes, and it eventually became a major trade center. The city has held regular fairs four times a year. Merchants from all over the Russian Empire have visited these fairs. Also, there were numerous foreign merchants, especially from Greece.
On April 27, 1881, there was a pogrom against the Jewish citizens of Elisavetgrad. A religious dispute at an inn sparked off the riot. Jewish shops and warehouses were systematically destroyed. The Jewish citizens tried to protect their businesses, but this only led to more outrage. Soldiers joined in the rioting rather than trying to stop it. After two days of attacks, many were killed, 500 houses and 100 shops were demolished and approximately 2,000,000 rubles' worth of property was stolen or destroyed.
Elizabethgrad was ravaged by famine in 1901 and its residents suffered more due to poor government response. The region is extremely fertile. However, a drought in 1892 and poor farming methods which never allowed the soil to recover, prompted a large famine that plagued the region. According to a 1901 New York Times article, the Ministry of the Interior denied that the persistence of famine in the region and blocked non-State charities from bringing aid to the area. The reporter wrote, "The existence of famine was inconvenient at a time when negotiations were pending for foreign loans." The Governor of the Kherson region, Prince Oblonsky, refused to acknowledge this famine. One non-resident and non-State worker entered Elizabethgrad and could provided the New York Times with an eye-witness account. He observed: general and acute destitution; deaths from starvation; widespread typhus (shows poverty), and little to no work to be found in the region.
During Soviet rule, the city economy was dominated by such enterprises as Chervona Zirka Agricultural Machinery Plant (which once provided more than 50% of the USSR need in tractor seeders), Hydrosila Hydraulic Units Plant, Radiy Radio Component Plant, Pishmash Typewriter Plant (de facto defunct nowadays) and others.
During the Ukrainian presidential election of 2004, the city got the country-wide notoriety because of mass election fraud committed by local authorities. It became known as District 100 (the community number according to Central Elections Committee).
Three blue stripes crossed in the middle of the fortress plan symbolize the fortification location at the confluence of the Inhul, Suhukleya and Biyanka rivers. The crimson colour favoured by Cossacks refers to the fortress being situated on the lands of Zaporozky Cossacks. Golden ears together with a golden field on the shield are symbols of the fertile lands and agricultural wealth of the region.
The shield is held by storks, which symbolize happiness, fertility, and love for the native land. The golden tower in the form of a crown expresses that this coat of arms belongs to the regional centre. The motto “With peace and good” placed on the azure stripe emphasizes the same idea. All the details of the flag correlate with the main elements of the shield on the coat of arms of the city.
The charm of old Yelizavethrad encouraged its contemporaries to call it “Little Paris”. The famous Russian critic Michael Dobroliubov wrote in one of his letters: “Let’s imagine straight streets, houses with cut corners at crossroads and balconies- lanterns. White acacia trees and poplar trees grow in one of its streets. It is impossible to get lost in this carefully planned city. I felt as if I was in a small Paris”.
From 1878 to 1905 Oleksandr Pashutin was mayor of the city. Under his administration, the city made advances in education and medicine, construction of the water-supply system and several public buildings, introduction of the first tram, and establishing some market places. Yelizavethrad is noted for its architectural quality, with European-type sculpture and old windows. Surviving are a range of classical and modern monuments, Mooresque and Baroque palaces, and buildings that combine Gothic, Rococo and Renaissance motives. A high level of building technology of Yelizavethrad’s masters encourages construction and restoration these days.
The history of Kirovohrad consists of memorable events and biographies of famous people. One of the creators of the unsurpassed modern architectural ensemble of the historical centre of the city of Yelisavethrad, Y. Pauchenko was born and lived here. Such noted architects as A. Dostoyevskyi and O. Lishnevskyi worked here, too. P. Kalnyshevsky fought for the Cossacks’ freedom on these lands, M. Pirohov laid the foundation of field surgery, M. Kutuzov planned his military operations. Kirovohraders listened to the lectures of the outstanding slavist V. Hryhorovych, and inherited the fundamental investigations of the native land carried out by the ethnographer, historian, archeologist V. Yastrebov.
In different periods of time the history of our region was connected with the names of the famous Ukrainian writer, playwright, publicist and statesman V. Vynnychenko, the poet, literary and cultural critic Y. Malanyuk, the physicist-theoretician, the Nobel Prize laureate I. Tamm, the scientist and inventor, one of the creators of the legendary "Katyusha” G. Langeman, the composer Y. Meytus, the pianist and pedagogue G. Neigauz, the artist and painter O. Osmiorkin, the poet and translator A. Tarkovskyi, the public and cultural figure, memoirist, patron of the arts Y. Chykalenko, the composer, pianist, pedagogue, musician and publicist K. Shymanovskyi, Ukrainian writer, dramatist and script-writer Y. Yanovskyi.
Famous people from Kirovohrad
- Irina Belotelkin, artist and fashion designer
- Olesya Dudnik, a Soviet gymnast
- Israel Fisanovich, a Soviet Navy submarine commander, hero of the Soviet Union
- Grigory Gamarnik, USSR, world champion (Greco-Roman lightweight), world championship silver
- Moses Gomberg, a chemist
- Boris Hessen, a historian of science
- Andrei Kanchelskis, a Russian-Ukrainian footballer
- Jake Marmer, Jewish poet best known for Umtza, an avant-garde take on Passover.
- Heinrich Neuhaus, a Soviet pianist and pedagogue of German extraction
- Victor Orly, French painter, born in Kirovohrad.
- Maurice Podoloff, American Hockey League and National Basketball Association pioneer/executive
- Valeriy Porkujan, a Soviet footballer
- Andriy Rusol, football player
- African Spir (or Afrikan Spir), a philosopher
- Alexei Suetin, a Soviet-Russian International Grandmaster of chess and an author
- Arseny Tarkovsky, Russian poet
- Leon Trotsky, a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician
- John Wegner (1887–1976), artist
- Grigory Zinoviev, a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician
- Aaron Bodansky, a biochemist
Industry in Kirovohrad
Modern industry in Kirovohrad consists of 11 leading branches that include 100 leading enterprises. The total amount of industrial production sold in 2012 is 7,9 billion hryvnias.
The leading role belongs to machine building and food industries. A lot of products of the local enterprises are known far outside Ukraine. Among them are the Chervona Zirka Factory specializing in manufacture of seed drills for grains and crops, cultivators for overall and inter-row soil cultivation, the Hydrosila Group that appears to be the most powerful producer of hydraulic devices in the CIS, and the scientific-production company “Radiy”, which specializes in design, development and production of automatic process control systems for nuclear power plants.
Oil and other goods under the trademarks of Sonola, Kum, Masloviya, Creativ; sausage and meat delicacies of the Yatran meat-processing factory, as well as ice cream made according to the original recipes of the joined public enterprise “The Association of Support of Native Producers” The Laska Company” are exported to many countries of the world.
The IJSAC URGA meets all European and world standards in the field of civil aviation. Company planes carry cargo and passengers to more than 100 countries of the world (including under UNO programmes). The air terminal building has been reconstructed and an up-to-date passenger terminal of Kirovohrad international airport has been made to improve airline service. Practically all housing and industrial areas of the city are covered by the route network. Yelizavethrad Transportation Company Ltd., and OJSC Bus Park 13527 are among the biggest passenger transportation companies.
Kirovohrad is known as a city of pupils’ and students’ youth. There are 44 secondary schools and 1 institution of I-II level accreditation where more than twenty-two thousand children are fostering and studying. Taking into account the needs of local community and the requirements of the present a new type of institutions are successfully developing: colleges, gymnasiums, lyceum, educational complexes and unions.
More than twenty five thousand future teachers, psychologists, social workers, lawyers, interpreters, engineers, economists, managers, financiers, marketing specialists, pilots, air traffic controllers study in 19 higher educational establishments. Among Ukraine’s higher educational institutions, important places are occupied by Kirovohrad National Technical University, Kirovohrad V.Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University, National Aviation University. Due to preserving of old academic traditions, selfless labour of the administration and the teaching staff these powerful intellectual and scientific centres supplied with up-to-date teaching techniques prepared and gave the way to many highly qualified specialists.
Every year the City Mayor awards the scholarships to the students who have outstanding achievements in studying, scientific and civil activity. Student councils and trade unions operate in Kirovohrad higher educational institution. Students have an opportunity to use them for effective solution of the youth’s problems, consolidation of democratic basis of the Ukrainian society. In 2011 the Youth Council was established under the city Council, the participants of which are the most active young people of our city. The City Students Peace Festival, the Gentleman of the Year Show, the Brain Ring, the KVK Championship are traditionally held in our city. High-quality, available education, as well as high level of preparation of specialists allow students to take part in the Ukrainian and international contests and competitions and win the first prizes.
Medicine and medical services
The activities of the city health care establishments are aimed at improving the quality of medical aid for the population and using the personnel and financial resources more efficiently. In the city medical care is successfully enforced on the basis of family medicine. This field is reforming with a help of creating new centers for primary medical-sanitary care along with two functioning institutions (municipal institution "Ambulatory of General Practice of Family Medicine" and the Department of General Practice — municipal institution of family medicine "Union of Kirovohrad Polyclinics”). The maternity hospital No. l, which is the regional training centre for implementation of innovative perinatal technologies for obstetricians-gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatricians, maternity, instrument and mothercraft nurses, works according to World Health Organization standards. This medical establishment has been given titles of “High Quality Medical Service Centre” and “Hospitable Clinic for Mothers and Children” (UNICEF).
Among the first in Ukraine the regional prenatal center was opened in 2012 at the Regional Hospital in the framework of the National Project “New life is a new quality of maternity and childhood care" which provides medical care for pregnant women with serious obstetric pathology. The first private medical and pharmaceutical company established in our city is Private Treatment-and-Diagnostic Centre ACINUS Co. A full profiled St. Luke’s Hospital, which is also a part of this company, is outfitted with the most up- to-date medical equipment. It is the only private medical establishment in Ukraine which has been given a status of a clinic. Kirovohrad Regional Oncology Dispensary which provides specific oncology-related aid to the residents of the city and the region is the city’s best medical establishment and the one of Ukraine’s best oncology-related establishments. This establishment has achieved such a high level of medical services due to profes-sionalism of its highly skilled specialists, modern equipment and implementation of innovative treating methods. The dispensary treats more than seven thousand patients and makes more than three thousand complicated surgeries every year.
In 1882 the first Ukrainian professional theatre was founded in Kirovohrad. Its founder was Marko Kropyvnytsky, the brilliant actor, director and playwright. By the play “Natalka Poltavka” he announced to the world the maturity and originality of Ukrainian theatrical culture. Its 130th birthday in October, 2012 the Kirovohrad Regional Ukrainian Academic Music and Drama Theatre named after M. Kropyvnytsky celebrated in a rebuilt building. Its walls haven’t seen so much audience and applause for a long time. The event is really unique not only for Kirovohrad but for the whole country. After the renovation it is the first theatre built in the time of independent Ukraine. The theatre scrupulously honours the memory of the founders of the Ukrainian theatrical art — M. Sadovsky, I. Karpenko-Karyi, P.Saksahansky, M. Zankovetska.
The heritage of these men of genius gives force to the modern troupe, whose calling card are the plays “Natalka Poltavka”, “Sorochynskyi Fair”, “Match-Making in Honcharivka”. Every year the theatre invites the leading art companies of the country to Khutor Nadia, “the capital of Ukrainian dramaturgy” and the reserve museum of I.Tobilevych (Karpenko-Karyi), for the national festival “Veresnevi Samotsvity”.
The city offers a variety of areas for recreation, health improvement and educational excursions. Much attention is paid to development of parks, public gardens and squares. A pedestrian zone status makes Dvortsova Street the most popular place of the evening rendezvous. It is the street of small cafes, restaurants and shops and music which sounds here almost round — the clock. Most often the scales are heard from the windows of Music and Arts Faculty of the State Pedagogic University named after V. Vynnychenko in which the future virtuosos improve their artistic skills. The lungs of the city is the Arboretum — a picturesque island with an attractive green zone landscape and various amusements. Its special feature is 100 thousand tulips which in spring gladden the eyes of all those who want to see the “Kirovohrad wonder”. The reputation of the favourite place of recreation is gained by the culture and recreation park “Kovalyvskyi". “The Arts Weekends”, the people walking, sports competitions, entertaining performances etc. are held here. The greatest children's playground has been built on money which was gained for victory of Kirovohrad team in the Ukrainian project “Maidans”. The Kirov Square is always crowded. Branchy trees, picturesque flowerbeds and fountains make the people enjoy themselves comfortably. Bogdan Khmelnitskyi Square and a public garden where the monument of the Great Kobzar Taras Shevchenko was built, are the places where local and national holidays are celebrated. A real adornment of the city and a favorite place of the wedding couples is a European type square in front of the Kirovohrad City Hall. Four stadiums, a range of sports grounds and tennis courts offer their services to inhabitants and guests of Kirovohrad. An aquatic sports base, a swimming pool and “SLAIZ" skating-rink guarantee high spirits and holiday recreation to all the visitors. The cinemas “Zorianyi" and "Portal" offer newest movies.
Centre of folk choreography
Kirovohrad is truly considered the capital of Ukrainian choreography. Traditions started by the “Yatran” group and its leader people’s artist of Ukraine Anatoliy Kryvokhyzha are successfully continued by the collectives well-known outside the city — Academic theatre of music, song and dance “Zoryany”, People’s Choreographic Group “Prolisok, Exemplary Choreographic Group “Nadiya”, choreographic groups “Rosynka”, “Metelytsya”, the people’s amateur group of ballroom dances “Konvaliya”, the school of choreographic art of the Kirovohrad city council “Aelita”, dance theatre “Visiting a Fairytale”. Concert programmes of these creative groups are the synthesis of collection, study and artistic processing of the folk melos, the folklore of world’s nations and the creative experience of the leading artists of Ukraine. Among their achievements are recognition, victories in the international, republican festivals, competitions, numerous prizes, performances on the best stages of Ukraine, Russia, the Baltic countries, Serbia, Bulgaria, Germany, France, Holland, Japan, Morocco, Italy, Greece. The achievements of the group “Prolisok” have given the opportunity to open the department of choreographic studies at Kirovohrad State Pedagogic university named after Volodymyr Vynnychenko, and later on the regional general secondary educational complex of humanitarian-aesthetic profile. The reputation of the city as centre of dance and choreography has been confirmed by the triumph of Kirovohrad team in the Ukrainian national project “Maidan’s” — the grand dance show on the main square of the country — Independence Square. Kirovohrad has deservedly won an honorary title of Dance Capital of Ukraine and was awarded one million hryvnias for construction of modern and safe playgrounds for children. The team succeeded under the leadership of the young talented choreographer Oleksandr Leshchenko. During a triumph show dedicated to the winners a new world record was established — 14585 spectators and choreographic groups members were dancing simultaneously on the stadium of FC Zirka. This record was documented by the representative of Guinness Book of Records in Ukraine.
There are 48 kinds of sports which are popular in Kirovohrad and 14 sports centres for kids and a school of high sportsmanship where 5 thousand children go in for sports. In our town modern sports-grounds with synthetic flooring are built in the sports-club “Energo-Sport” and in the school “Mriya”; there is also a skateboarding zone in the Kovalivskiy recreation park, the Street Workout in Permska Street, and the first in our region cycle track opened in Kirovohrad. Great attention is paid to the development of sports among children. As a result, young Kirovohrad sportsmen demonstrate high results in national and international competitions: Olha Sviderska, Anastasia Mysnyk, Yevhen Zinoviev are silver medallists of the XIV Paralympics in London; Anna Tovsta, Iryna Tereshchenko are silver medalists of the XXII Summer Deaf Olympics in Bulgaria; Tetyana Tereviatnykova is the teakwood champion of the world championship; Olena Demydova is the multiple medalist of cycle racing European championships; Anastasia Kelar is the bronze medalist of the European weightlifting youth championship. In 2013 Dmytro Yakovenko (high jumping), Bohdan Basko (chess), Olexander Kostyk, Sergiy Fomin (shooting), Olena Gutsan, Ksenia Fedotova (cycle racing), Dmytro Kapinus (athletics), Yana Zdir (climbing), Iryna Maksymova, Julia Prudyus (powerlifting) became the national champions. In team sports our town is professionally presented by the baseball club “KNTU Elizavetgrad” which 16 times became the national champion and 15 times became the owner of Ukrainian sports cup, the football team “Zirka” which is the regular participant of the Ukrainian football championship of the Second League; basketball clubs such as Elizavet-Basket (the silver medalist of the First League of the National Basketball Championship among women) and the basketball team “Kirovohrad”, Alina Yagupova was recognized as the best young basketball player of Europe.
Bridges of friendship
Kirovohrad maintains economic and cultural relations with near and far foreign countries. We use best practice, new technologies and we are ready to share our achievements. Kirovohrad has long-term friendly relations with some Russian cities, especially with Moscow and Vologda. Many joint projects have been implemented together with Lower Silesia province of the Republic of Poland. The Charity Foundation “Humanitarian Aid to Eastern Europe” favoured establishing close friendship between Kirovohrad and Bremerhaven (Germany). Many collectives from Germany, Poland, Slovenia, and Serbia come to our city to take part in the international festivals, such as “Art unites children” and “Children of Europe under one roof”. The Kirovohrad city mayor Oleksandr Sainsus often represents our state in the Congress of local and regional authorities in Europe as a member of the Ukrainian delegation, creating new opportunities for further development of partnership and collaboration with cities in other countries.
Kirovohrad is located in the central region of Ukraine. Kirovohrad's climate is moderate continental: cold and snowy winters, and hot summers. The seasonal average temperatures are not too cold in winter, not too hot in summer: −4.8 °C (23.4 °F) in January, and 20.7 °C (69.3 °F) in July. The average precipitation is 534 mm (21 in) per year, with the most in June and July.
|Climate data for Kirovohrad, Ukraine (1949-2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−30.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||33.1
|Avg. precipitation days||20.0||17.3||15.3||7.9||9.6||8.6||5.6||4.0||7.9||10.5||15.2||18.4||140.3|
|Average humidity (%)||86.3||83.8||77.1||62.2||61.6||65.9||66.8||62.4||70.5||78.2||86.8||88.5||74.2|
- (Ukrainian) Повага та увага до городян мало коштує, але важить найбільше – мер Кіровограда, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (14 February 2011)
- "Famine and Disease in South Russia Province" New York Times, 5 Aug. 1901. New York Times. 26 June 2009 .
- Rosenthal, Herman. Broyde, Isaac. Janovsy, S. Jewish Encyclopedia.com "Yelisavetgrad:Elisavetgrad", accessed June 20, 2009
- "Russian City Burning; Jews Are Massacred," NY Times, 12 Dec. 1905, accessed 25 June 2009 .
- 2001 Census reluts
- "Climatological Normals for Kirovohrad, Ukraine (1949-2011)". Climatebase. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kirovograd.|
|Look up kirovohrad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Kirovohrad Daily News (Ukrainian)/(Russian)
- Online magazine for young people - "Grechka". News about the cultural life of Kirovograd young people and Kirovohrad region young people.
- Kirovohrad's portal: photos, news, information, etc. (Russian)
- Kirovohrad news, history of the city, photos, science. (Ukrainian)
- Kirovohrad events, history of the city, photos, news and chats with citizen (Ukrainian)