Kirshenbaum

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"Kirschenbaum" redirects here. For the surname (with either spelling), see Kirschenbaum (surname).

Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA or erkIPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. This way it allows typewriting IPA-symbols by regular keyboard. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci.lang and alt.usage.english. It is named after Evan Kirshenbaum, who led the collaboration that created it.

The system uses almost all lower-case letters to represent the directly corresponding IPA character, but unlike X-SAMPA has the notable exception of the letter 'r'. Examples where the two systems have a different mapping between characters and sounds are:

Sound IPA X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum
alveolar trill r r r<trl>
alveolar approximant ɹ r\ r
near-open front unrounded vowel æ { &
open back rounded vowel ɒ Q A.
open-mid central unrounded vowel ɜ 3 V"
primary stress ˈ " '
secondary stress ˌ % ,

Kirshenbaum charts of consonants and vowels[edit]

This chart is based on information provided in the Kirshenbaum specification.,[1][2] It may also be helpful to compare it to the SAMPA chart or X-SAMPA chart.

Consonant chart[edit]

Kirshenbaum chart of consonants (the paired signs are voiceless/voiced consonants)
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal Alveolar laterals
Bilabial Labio‐
dental
Dental Alveolar Retro‐
flex
Palato‐
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Labio‐
velar
Pharyn‐
geal
Manner of articulation
Nasals m M n[ n n. n^ N n" n<lbv>
Stops p b t[ d[ t d t. d. c J k g q G t<lbv> d<lbv> ?
Fricatives P B f v T D s z s. z. S Z C C<vcd> x Q X g" w<vls> w H H<vcd> h<?> s<lat> z<lat>
Approximants r<lbd> r[ r r. j j<vel> g" w h
Laterals l[ l l. l^ L
Trills b<trl> r<trl> r"
Flaps   *   *. *<lat>
Ejectives p` t[` t` c` k` q`
Implosives b` d` d` J` g` G`
Clicks p! t! c![3] c![3] k! l!

The IPA consonant chart, for comparison, uses many symbols that are less widely supported:

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • Loudspeaker.svg audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila­bial Labio-​dental Den​tal Alve​olar Post­alveolar Retro​flex Alveolo-​palatal Pal​a​tal Ve​lar Uvu​lar Pha​ryn​geal Epi​glot​tal Glot​tal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯
Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ̥ ʀ  *
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ  * ʎ̝̊ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ
Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̢ * ʎ̯ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
ʘ̃ ʘ̃ˀ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qʼ
Implosives ɓ̥ ɓ ɗ̥ ɗ ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Ejectives t̪ʼ ʈʼ θʼ
ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ
cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Affricates
p̪f b̪v ts dz t̪s̪ d̪z̪
ʈʂ ɖʐ ɟʝ cʎ̝̥
kx kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ ɧ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.
— Symbols marked with an asterisk (*) are not defined in the IPA.

Vowel chart[edit]

Kirshenbaum simplified chart of vowels
(the paired signs are unrounded/rounded vowels; symbols in parentheses designate vowels that exist in some oral languages, but do not have IPA signs)
Front Central Back Rhotic
Close i y i" u" u- u
Near-close I I. (U-) U
Close-mid e Y @<umd> @. o- o R<umd>
Mid @ R
Open-mid E W V" O" V O
Near-open & &" (no symbols)
Open a. (a" A".) A A.

The IPA vowel chart, by comparison, uses many symbols that are less widely supported:

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Vowel modifiers and diacritics[edit]

Modifiers and diacritics follow the symbol they modify.

Modifier/diacritic Meaning
~ Nasalized
: Long
- Unrounded
. Rounded
" Centralized
<?> Murmured
<r> Rhoticized

Stress is indicated by ' for primary stress, and , for secondary stress, placed before the stressed syllable.

Background[edit]

The Kirshenbaum started developing in August 1992 through a usenet group, after "being fed up with describing the sound of words by using other words"[4] It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic transcription.

  • It should be possible to represent all symbols and diacritics in the IPA.
  • The previous guideline notwithstanding, it is expected that (as in the past) most use will be in transcribing English, so where tradeoffs are necessary, decisions should be made in favor of ease of representation of phonemes which are common in English.
  • The representation should be readable.
  • It should be possible to mechanically translate from the representation to a character set which includes IPA. The reverse would also be nice.[5]

The developers decided to use the existing IPA alphabet, mapping each segment to a single keyboard character, and adding extra ASCII characters optionally for IPA diacritics.

An early (1993), different set in ASCII was derived from the pronunciation guide in Merriam-Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, which uses straight letters to describe the sound.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.kirshenbaum.net/IPA/ascii-ipa.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Evan_Kirshenbaum/IPA/faq.html
  3. ^ a b Kirshembaum assigned c! to IPA ʗ, which he used indifferently for both alveolar ǃ and palatal ǂ clicks.
  4. ^ Kirschenbaum.net
  5. ^ Usenet IPA/ASCII transcription
  6. ^ Earlier ASCII version: Miriam-Webster's

External links[edit]