Kiryas Joel, New York
|• Administrator||Gedalye Szegedin|
|• Total||1.11 sq mi (2.88 km2)|
|• Land||1.11 sq mi (2.87 km2)|
|• Water||0.01 sq mi (0.01 km2)|
|Elevation||842 ft (257 m)|
|• Density||18,198/sq mi (7,026/km2)|
|2010 United States Census|
|Time zone||US EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||845 Exchange: 492, 781, 782, 783|
|GNIS feature ID||0979938|
Kiryas Joel (also known as Kiryas Yoy'l, "Kiryas Yo'el" or KJ) (Yiddish: קרית יואל (Kiryas Yoyel) is a village within the town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States. The great majority of its residents are Hasidic Jews who strictly observe the Torah and its commandments, and belong to the worldwide Satmar Hasidic dynasty.
Most of the village's residents speak Yiddish as their first language. The village has the youngest median age (13.2) of any population center of over 5,000 residents in the United States. Residents of Kiryas Joel, like those of other Haredi Jewish communities, typically have large families. Kiryas Joel is the place in the United States with the highest percentage of people who reported Hungarian ancestry, as 18.9% of the population reported Hungarian ancestry in 2000.
According to 2008 census figures, the village has the highest poverty rate in the nation. More than two-thirds of residents live below the federal poverty line and 40% receive food stamps.
Kiryas Joel is named for Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum, the rebbe of Satmar and driving spirit behind the project. Teitelbaum himself helped select the location a few years before his death in 1979. Joel Teitelbaum, originally from Hungary, was the rebbe who rebuilt the Satmar Hasidic dynasty in the years following World War II. The Satmars who established Kiryas Joel came from Satu Mare, Romania.
In 1946, Teitelbaum originally settled with his followers in the Williamsburg section of the Brooklyn borough of New York City. By the 1970s, however, he decided to move the growing community to a location that was not far from the commercial center of New York but was also more secluded from what he saw as the harmful influences and immorality of the outside world. Teitelbaum's choice was Monroe. The land for Kiryas Joel was purchased in 1977, and fourteen Satmar families settled there. By 2006, there were over 3,000. When he died in 1979, Rabbi Teitelbaum was the first person to be buried in the town's cemetery. His funeral reportedly brought over 100,000 mourners to Kiryas Joel at that time.
It is widely believed that no candidates run for the village's board or the school board unless first approved by the grand rebbe Rabbi Aron Teitelbaum. In 2001, Kiryas Joel held a competitive election in which all candidates supported by the grand rebbe were re-elected by a 60–40% margin.
Friction with surrounding jurisdictions
The village has become a contentious issue in Orange County for several reasons, mainly related to its rapid growth. Unlike most other small communities, it lacks a real downtown and much of it is given over to residential property, which has mostly taken the form of contemporary townhouse-style condominiums. New construction is ongoing throughout the community.
Population growth is strong. In 1990, there were 7,400 people in Kiryas Joel; in 2000, 13,100, nearly doubling the population. In 2005, the population had risen to 18,300. The 2010 census showed a population of 20,175, for a population growth rate of 53.6% between 2000 and 2010, which was less than anticipated, as it was projected that the population would double in that time period.
|“||There are three religious tenets that drive our growth: our women don't use birth control, they get married young and after they get married, they stay in Kiryas Joel and start a family. Our growth comes simply from the fact that our families have a lot of babies, and we need to build homes to respond to the needs of our community. . . . As each successive generation of women becomes old enough to have children, the number of women of child-bearing age grows exponentially. The number of women who marry each year is the approximate number of new homes needed.||”|
Local impact of growth
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2011)|
Residents of these communities and local Orange County politicians view the village as encroaching on them. Due to the rapid population growth occurring in Kiryas Joel, resulting almost entirely from the high birth rates of its Hasidic population, the village government has undertaken various annexation efforts to expand its area, to the dismay of the majority of the residents of the surrounding communities. Many of these area residents see the expansion of the high-density residential, commercial village as a threat to the quality of life in the surrounding suburban communities. They view it as a prime source of suburban sprawl (most land surrounding it is largely undeveloped). This designation is questionable, because the high density townhouses and condominiums of Kiryas Joel take up much less space per person than the typical suburban community. Only 5.4% of housing units in Kiryas Joel are single, detached houses, a lower percentage than the Bronx (where 5.8% of housing units are single detached houses). (Detached single housing is a component of sprawl, but not the only component.) Other concerns of the surrounding communities are the impact on local aquifers and the projected increased volume of sewage reaching the county’s sewerage treatment plants, already near capacity by 2005.
On August 11, 2006, residents of Woodbury voted by a 3-to-1 margin to incorporate much of the town as a village to constrain further annexation. Kiryas Joel has vigorously opposed such moves in court, and even some Woodbury residents are concerned about adding another layer of taxation without any improved defense against annexations. Sometimes lost or ignored is the fact that the main reason for the creation of the Village of Woodbury was to prevent another village from being created within Woodbury. The Village of Woodbury also protects growth by keeping the zoning in the hands of the Woodbury zoning and planning boards. Also residents within a village can vote in town and village elections but residents in the town would not be allowed to vote in the village election.
In March 2007, the village sued the county to stop it from selling off a million gallons (3,780 m³) of excess capacity at its sewage plant in Harriman. Two years prior, the county had sued the village to stop its plans to tap into New York City's Catskill Aqueduct, arguing that the village's environmental review for the project had inadequately addressed concerns about the additional wastewater it would generate. The village is appealing an early ruling which sided with the county.
In its action, Kiryas Joel accuses the county of inconsistently claiming limited capacity in its suit when it is selling the million gallons to three communities outside its sewer district.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2011)|
Critics of the village cite its impact on local politics. Villagers are perceived as voting in a solid bloc. While this is not always the case, the highly concentrated population often does skew strongly toward one candidate or the other in local elections, making Kiryas Joel a heavily-courted swing vote for whichever politician offers Kiryas Joel the most favorable environment for continued growth.
Kiryas Joel played a major role in the 2006 Congressional election. The village sits in the 19th Congressional District, represented at that time by Republican Sue Kelly. Village residents had been loyal to Kelly in the past, but in 2006, voters were upset over what they saw as lack of adequate representation from Kelly for the village. In a bloc, Kiryas Joel swung around 2,900 votes to Kelly's Democratic opponent, John Hall, in that year's election. The vote in Kiryas Joel was one reason Hall carried the election, which he did by 4,800 votes.
Kiryas Joel also plays a big role in state and federal courts Kiryas
Women in Kiryas Joel usually stop working outside the home after the birth of a second child. Most families have only one income and many children. The resulting poverty rate makes a disproportionate number of families in Kiryas Joel eligible for welfare benefits when compared to the rest of the county; and cost of welfare benefits is subsidized by taxes paid county-wide. The New York Times wrote,
|“||Because of the sheer size of the families (the average household here has six people, but it is not uncommon for couples to have 8 or 10 children), and because a vast majority of households subsist on only one salary, 62 percent of the local families live below poverty level and rely heavily on public assistance [government welfare], which is another sore point among those who live in neighboring communities.||”|
A 60-bed postnatal maternal care center was built with $10 million in state and federal grants. Mothers can recuperate there for two weeks away from their large families.
In the 1990s, the first clinical trials for the hepatitis A vaccine took place in Kiryas Joel, where 70 percent of residents were infected. This disproportionate rate of hepatitis A infection was due in part to Kiryas Joel's high birth rate and crowded conditions among children, who bathed together in pools and ate from communal food at school. Children who weren't infected with hepatitis A were separated into two groups, one receiving the experimental vaccine and the other receiving a placebo injection. Based on this study, the vaccine was declared 100 percent effective. Merck licensed the vaccine in 1995 and it became available in 1996, after which the hepatitis A infection rate fell by 75 percent in the United States.
The unusual lifestyle and growth pattern of Kiryas Joel has led to litigation on a number of fronts. In 1994, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet that the Kiryas Joel school district, which covered only the village, was designed in violation of the Establishment Clause of the 1st Amendment, because the design accommodated one group on the basis of religious affiliation. Subsequently, the New York State Legislature established a similar school district in the village that has passed legal muster. Further litigation has resulted over what entity should pay for the education of children with disabilities in Kiryas Joel, and over whether the community's boys must ride buses driven by women. A case against the village is currently pending in federal district court; plaintiffs, who are asking for the village to be dissolved, say that Kiryas Joel is a theocracy whose existence violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, where local government leaders abuse the laws, such as those for tax-exempt status, zoning, and sanitation, to favor members of their own sect and persecute other Orthodox Jews. They also say that the leaders commit vote fraud by intimidating dissident voters and busing in non-residents.
Kiryas Joel’s public school district has long been a subject of controversy. First created in 1990 by an act of the New York State Legislature to serve special education students in the almost entirely Hasidic Orange County village, the specifically carved-out district weathered a series of constitutional challenges. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1994 that the district violated the Constitution’s requirement of separation between religion and state. But allies of the influential Satmar sect in the state government rewrote the law allowing for creation of the district, finally finding statutory language able to overcome the constitutional barriers.
According to NYSED documents, the district served 123 students in the 2008–2009 school year and 217 students the previous year, all of them under special education.
Kiryas Joel is located at .
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.1 square miles (2.8 km2), and only a very small portion of the area (a small duck pond in the center of the village) is covered with water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 13,138 people, 2,229 households, and 2,137 families residing in the village. The population density was 11,962.2 people per square mile (4,611.5/km2). There were 2,233 housing units at an average density of 2,033.2 per square mile (783.8/km2). The racial makeup of the village was 99.02% White, 0.21% African American, 0.02% Asian, 0.12% from other races, and 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population.
The 2000 census also reports that only 6.2% of village residents spoke English at home, one of the lowest such percentages in the United States. Over 89% of residents spoke Yiddish at home, while 2.3% spoke Hebrew. Of the Yiddish-speaking population in 2000, 46% spoke English "not well" or "not at all." Overall, including those who primarily spoke Hebrew and European languages as well as primary Yiddish speakers, 46% of Kiryas Joel residents speak English "not well" or "not at all."
There were 2,229 households out of which 79.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 93.2% were married couples living together, 1.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 4.1% were non-families. 2.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 5.74 and the average family size was 5.84. In the village the population was spread out with 57.5% under the age of 18, 17.2% from 18 to 24, 16.5% from 25 to 44, 7.2% from 45 to 64, and 1.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 15 years. For every 100 females there were 116.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.0 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $15,138, and the median income for a family was $15,372. Males had a median income of $25,043 versus $16,364 for females. The per capita income for the village was $4,355. About 61.7% of families and 62.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 63.9% of those under age 18 and 50.5% of those age 65 or over.
According to 2008 census figures, the village has the highest poverty rate in the nation, and the largest percentage of residents who receive food stamps. More than five-eighths of Kiryas Joel residents live below the federal poverty line and more than 40 percent receive food stamps, according to the American Community Survey, a U.S. Census Bureau study of every place in the country with 20,000 residents or more. A 2011 New York Times report noted that, despite the town's very high statistical poverty rates, "It has no slums or homeless people. No one who lives there is shabbily dressed or has to go hungry. Crime is virtually nonexistent."
Kiryas Joel has a very high rate of public transportation usage. Local transit within the area is operated by the Village of Kiryas Joel Bus System, a subsection of Monsey Trails & Monroe Bus  Monsey Trails also operates service to Manhattan and Brooklyn (the Williamsburg & Borough Park sections, which also have a heavy Orthodox Jewish population)
- Mea Shearim
- Bnei Brak
- New Square, New York
- Kiryas Tosh, Quebec
- Qırmızı Qəsəbə
- City Data Accessed December 14, 2006.
- Hungarian ancestry by city - ePodunk
- "KJ highest US poverty rate, census says", Matt King, Times Herald-Record, January 30, 2009.
- Mintz, Jerome R., Hasidic People. A Place in the New World. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press 1992, pp. 28. ISBN 0-674-38115-7
- "A Hasidic Village Gets a Lesson In Bare-Knuckled Politicking" by David W. Chen, The New York Times, June 9, 2001. Accessed December 14, 2006.
- "Reverberations of a Baby Boom" by Fernanda Santos, The New York Times, August 27, 2006, retrieved August 27, 2006; accessed online in fee-based archive at same URL December 13, 2006.
- "Census 2010: Orange population growth rate 2nd highest in state, but lower than expected" by Chris Mckenna, Times Herald-Record, March 25, 2011. Accessed December 7, 2011 In 2006, village administrator Gedalye Szegedin stated:
- City Data; "smallest percentage of detached housing units";retrieved 11/7/07
- McKenna, Chris (August 3, 2006). "KJ tries to stop village vote". Times Herald-Record (Middletown, New York: Orange County Publications). Retrieved March 22, 2010.
- McKenna, Chris; March 6, 2007; "Kiryas Joel sues county over sewage"; Times-Herald Record; retrieved March 6, 2007.
- 512 U.S. 687 (1994).
- "Controversy Over, Enclave Joins School Board Group" by Tamar Lewin, The New York Times, April 20, 2002.
- Fitzgerald, Jim (June 13, 2011). "Dissident Jews say enclave in NY oppresses them". Associated Press.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Census Estimates for New York April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 17, 2012.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Modern Language Association base data on Kiryas Joel. Accessed online December 14, 2006.
- Modern Language Association English proficiency in Kiryas Joel. Accessed online December 14, 2006.
- Sam Roberts, "A Village With the Numbers, Not the Image, of the Poorest Place", The New York Times, April 21, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kiryas Joel, New York.|
- The Kiryas Joel Voice, a community website
- Hasidic Public School Loses Again Before U.S. Supreme Court, but Supporters Persist (The New York Times, 1999)
- Kiryas Joel Ranks at Top of National List of Municipalities that Lobby the Federal Government (Center for Responsive Politics' Capital Eye Blog, September 2009)
- 2006 Census
- DAN LEVIN (December 16, 2007). "A Display of Disapproval That Turned Menacing". The New York Times.