A kit car, also known as a "component car", is an automobile that is available as a set of parts that a manufacturer sells and the buyer then either assembles into a car themselves, or retains a third party to do part or all of the work on their behalf. Usually, many of the major mechanical systems such as the engine and transmission are sourced from donor vehicles or purchased from other vendors new. Kits vary in completeness ranging from as little as a book of plans to a complete set with all components included.
There is a sub-set of kit cars, commonly referred to as a "re-body" in which a commercially manufactured vehicle has a new (often fiberglass) body put on the running chassis. Most times, the existing drive gear and interior are retained. These kits require less technical knowledge from the builder and as the chassis and mechanical systems were designed, built and tested by a major automotive manufacturer can also lead to a much higher degree of safety and reliability.
The definition of a kit car usually indicates that a manufacturer constructs multiple kits of the same vehicle which they then in turn sell. This should not be confused with 'hand built cars' or 'Special' cars, which are typically built from scratch by an individual.
Kit cars have been around from the earliest days of the automobile. In 1896 the Englishman Thomas Hyler White developed a design for a car that could be assembled at home and technical designs were published in a magazine called The English Mechanic. In the United States the Lad's Car of 1912 could be bought for US$160 ($3000 equivalent in 2006) fully assembled or US$140 ($2600 in 2006) in kit form.
It was not until the 1950s that the idea really took off. Car production had increased considerably and with rust proofing in its infancy many older vehicles were being sent to breaker yards as their bodywork was beyond economic repair. An industry grew up supplying new bodies and chassis to take the components from these cars and convert them into new vehicles, particularly into sports cars. Fiber reinforced plastic (aka "GRP," or "fiberglass") was coming into general usage and made limited-scale production of automobile body components much more economical. Also, in the UK up to the mid-1970s, kit cars were sometimes normal production vehicles that were partially assembled as this avoided the imposition of purchase tax as the kits were assessed as components and not vehicles. The Lotus Elan, for example, was available in this form. It was often claimed that the kits could be taken home and completed in only a weekend.
During the 1970s many kits had bodies styled as sports cars that were designed to bolt directly to VW Beetle chassis. This was popular as the old body could be easily separated from the chassis leaving virtually all mechanical components attached to the chassis and a GRP-body from the kit supplier shop fitted. This made the Beetle one of the most popular "donor" vehicles of all time. Examples of this conversion include the Bradley GT, Sterling, and Sebring which were made by the thousands and many are still around today. Volkswagen based dune buggies also appeared in relatively large numbers in the 1960s and 1970s based usually on a shortened floor pan.
Current kit cars are frequently replicas of well-known and often expensive classics and are designed so that anyone with a measure of technical skill can build them at home to a standard where they can be driven on the public roads. These replicas are in general appearance like the original, but their bodies are often made of fiberglass mats soaked in polyester resin instead of the original sheet metal. The AC Cobra and the Lotus 7 are particularly popular examples, the right to manufacture the Lotus 7 now being owned by Caterham Cars who bought the rights to the car from Lotus founder Colin Chapman in 1973. Replica kit cars enable enthusiasts to possess a vehicle of a type that because of scarcity they may not be able to afford, and at the same time take advantage of modern technology. The Sterling Nova Kit originally produced in the UK was the most popular VW based Kits being produced world wide and licensed under several different names with an estimated 10000 sold.
Many people react sceptically when they first hear about kit cars as it appears to them to be technically impossible to assemble a car at home and license it for public roads. They may also be worried that such a car would not subsequently pass the mandatory quality control (road worthiness test) that is required in most countries. For example, to obtain permission to use a kit car in Germany, every such vehicle with a speed over 6 km/h without a general operating license (ABE) or an EC type permission (EC-TG) has to undergo, as per the § 21 of Road traffic licensing regulations (STVZO), a technical inspection by an officially recognized expert of a Technical Inspection Authority. In the United Kingdom it is necessary to meet the requirements of the IVA (Individual vehicle Approval) regulations. In the United States SEMA has gone state by state to set up legal ways for states to register kit cars and speciality vehicles for inspection and plates.
A survey of nearly 600 kit car owners in the USA, England and Germany, carried out by Dr. Ingo Stüben, showed that typically 100–1,500 hours are required to build a kit car, depending upon the model and the completeness of the kit. However, as the complexity of the kits offered continues to increase, build times have increased as well.
Kit car manufacturers
To obtain permission to use a kit car in Germany, every such vehicle with a speed over 6 km/h without a general operating license (ABE) or an EC type permission (EC-TG) has to undergo, as per the § 21 of Road traffic licensing regulations (STVZO), a technical inspection by an officially recognized expert of a Technical Inspection Authority.
New Zealand had a long history of small garages and vehicle enthusiasts modifying and creating sports and sports racing cars. In the early 1950s, with the advent of fibreglass bodied cars, a new opportunity arose for local companies associated with car enthusiasts to create car bodies. Among these early manufacturers was Weltex Plastics Limited of Christchurch, which imported a Microplas Mistral sports car mould and began making bodies and chassis in 1956. They were followed in 1958 by Frank Cantwell's Puma and Bruce Goldwater's Cougar. Also in New Zealand during this period, Ferris de Joux was constructing a variety of sports racers. De Joux is noted in particular for his Mini GT from the 1960s.
Ross Baker's Heron Cars started in 1962 making racing cars and eventually began producing kit cars in 1980. Bill Ashton, formerly of Microplas and Weltex, joined with Ted George in the 1960s and made the Tiki. Three were known to have been made. Graham McRae with Steve Bond of Gemini Plastics imported a replica Le Mans M6B styled GT mould in 1968, The cars were made and sold by Dave Harrod and Steve Bond of Fibreglass Developments Ltd, Bunnythorpe as the Maram. McRae went on to make a very good Porsche Spyder replica in the 1990s.
A number of new companies entered the market in the 1980s - Almac 1985, Alternative Cars (1984), Cheetah (1986), Chevron (1984), Countess Mouldings (1988), Fraser (1988), Leitch (1986), and Saker (1989). Some recent ones are Baettie (1997), which became Redline in 2001 and moved to the United Kingdom in 2007 as Beattie Racing Limited, and McGregor (2001).
Two companies who specialise in making replicas of various models to order are Classic Car Developments (1992) and Tempero. Both of these companies were noted for the quality of their workmanship.
Technically, kit cars are not allowed in Sweden, but provided that most of the components and material are sourced by the builder personally it is possible to register them as amateur built vehicles. Before the law requiring a mandatory crash test in 1970 there was a booming kit car industry in Sweden with most companies basing their kits on the VW Beetle chassis. When amateur built vehicles again were allowed in 1982 all kit car companies in Sweden had disappeared.
The inspection (SVA equivalent) in Sweden is handled by the car builder's association SFRO who makes two inspections; one when the car has reached the rolling chassis stage and the second when the car is finished. Amateur built cars are currently limited to 15 kW (20 PS) per 100 kg. Earlier the limit was 10 kW (10 PS) per 100 kg, so for very light cars (like a Lotus 7 type car) it was a problem to find a suitable engine.
- Boes Motor & Mekanik
- Hult Healey
- Mania Spyder
- Racing Plast Burträsk (RPB)
- Roadline, Porsche Speedster and Porsche Boxer RS replicas
Vehicle regulations in the UK allow the production of up to 200 vehicles a year without the extensive regulation and testing requirements applied to mass-market vehicles. This has led to an expanding industry of small producers capable of offering partial and complete kits, some for export, and finished vehicles for domestic use.
The DVLA regulate kit cars in the UK, which helps to ensure that vehicles used on the road are safe and suitable for the purpose. The current test for this is Individual Vehicle Approval (IVA), which has replaced Single Vehicle Approval (SVA). When SVA was first introduced in 1998, many believed this would kill off the kit car market, but in reality it has made the kit car market stronger, as the vehicles produced now have to meet a minimum standard. IVA was introduced in summer 2009 and it is too early to tell what impact this will have on the industry.
Many, but not all, kit cars are given a 'Q' registration plate which signifies a vehicle of unknown or mixed age. All kit cars are subject to a Vehicle Identity Check, VIC, by the DVLA to determine the registration mark a kit car is assigned. This will be either, a new, current year, registration; an 'age-related' registration; or a 'Q' plate. Once a kit car has been correctly registered, a V5C, or log book, will be assigned and then a kit car is treated in exactly the same way as a production car, from any larger manufacturer. A kit car must pass its MOT test and have a valid car tax, or have a valid Statutory Off-Road Notification (SORN) declaration. As part of the IVA, a Kit car can sometimes be permitted to assume the age of a single, older car (the donor car) if the major parts were taken from it in its construction. If the age identifier assigned to a kit car falls before 1973 the vehicle may be road taxed free of charge.
- Arkley SS
- Ashley Laminates
- ADD Nova
- Banham Conversions
- Beauford automobiles
- Buckler Cars
- Burlington Cars
- Caterham Cars
- Dakar 4x4
- Dutton Cars
- Eagle (SS)
- Fairthorpe Cars
- Falcon Shells
- GCS Hawke
- Gentry Cars
- Ginetta Cars
- GKD sports cars
- Great British Sports Cars
- GTM Cars
- Heron Plastics
- JBA Cars
- JZR Trikes
- Mills Extreme Vehicles
- Midas Cars
- MK Sportscars
- Onyx Sports Cars
- Peerless / Warwick
- Piper Cars
- Quantum Sports Cars
- Raw Engineering
- Robin Hood
- Southways Sports Cars (SSC)
- Spartan Cars
- Tiger Racing
- Turner Sports Cars
- Ultima Sports
- Vindicator Cars
- Westfield Sportscars
Manufacturers in the UK are actively supported by Owners Clubs, some being marque specific, while others follow a specific type, such as Cobra replicas and others are area related.
Examples of US kit manufacturers and cars include:
- Blakely Auto Works
- Bradley Automotive
- DDR Motorsport
- Devin Cars
- Factory Five Racing - markets an AC Cobra replica and a design of their own, a GTM 200
- Frese Motorcars
- Kelmark Engineering
- Sterling Sports Cars - car from the USA also known as the Nova in the UK
- La Bala
- La Dawri
- Lad's Car
- Meyers Manx
- Brunton Automotive - V6 Roadster originally based on the Chevy S10.
- Superformance - markets a Shelby-licensed AC Cobra replica
A glider kit is a term used in the United States for a kit of components used to restore or reconstruct a wrecked or dismantled vehicle. Glider kits include a chassis (frame), front axle, and body (cab). The kit may also contain other optional components. A motor vehicle constructed from a glider kit is titled as a new vehicle.
- List of Mini based cars
- Manufacturer's Certificate of Origin
- Vehicle inspection
- Vehicle registration
- Body kit
- Alan Sutton, "Mr White and his Motor Cars", The Automobile, June 1986
- Georgano, Nick (Editor). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.
- The Big Guide to Kit and Specialty Cars, Harold Pace, 2002
- The Big Kit Car Buyer's Guide, Harold Pace and Jim Youngs, 2002
- Published in: Bausatzkraftfahrzeuge (Kit Cars) als ein Beispiel technischer Freizeit- und Mobilitätsinnovation, Tectum Verlag, Marburg 2000
- Historic Racing Cars of New Zealand, Graham Vercoe, Reed Books, Auckland 1991, ISBN 0-7900-0189-6
- "Vehicle Registration of Reconstructed classic vehicles". UK Govornment. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Direct.Gov. UK Govornment https://www.gov.uk/vehicle-exempt-from-car-tax
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 25 April 2013. "You don’t have to pay vehicle tax on vehicles made before 1 January 1973 (‘historic vehicles’)."
- List of the top ten selling UK Kit Cars in 2005[dead link]
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