Locals refer to the Kitulo Plateau as 'Bustani ya Mungu' (The Garden of God), while botanists have referred to it as the Serengeti of Flowers.
Protection of the Kitulo Plateau's unique flora was first proposed by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), in response to the growing international trade in orchid tubers and increased hunting and logging activities in the surrounding forests. In 2002, President Benjamin Mkapa announced the establishment of the Kitulo National Park. The Park was formally gazetted in 2005, becoming Tanzania's 14th National Park. Future proposals by TANAPA would see the Park expanded to include the neighbouring Mount Rungwe Forest.
In 2005, field scientists from the WCS discovered a new species of primate on and around Mount Rungwe and in the Livingstone Forest area of the National Park. Initially known as the Highland Mangabey, later changed to its Tanzanian name of Kipunji, it is one the 25 most endangered primates in the world.