Kladovo

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Kladovo
Кладово
Municipality and Town
Fetislam Fortress
Fetislam Fortress
Coat of arms of Kladovo
Coat of arms
Location of the municipality of Kladovo within Serbia
Location of the municipality of Kladovo within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°37′N 22°37′E / 44.617°N 22.617°E / 44.617; 22.617Coordinates: 44°37′N 22°37′E / 44.617°N 22.617°E / 44.617; 22.617
Country  Serbia
District Bor
Settlements 23
Government
 • Mayor Dejan Nikolic
Area[1]
 • Municipality 629 km2 (243 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)[2]
 • Town 8,913
 • Municipality 20,635
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 19320
Area code +381 19
Car plates KL
Website www.kladovo.org.rs

Kladovo (Serbian Cyrillic: Кладово, pronounced [klâdɔʋɔ]) is a town and municipality in the Bor District of eastern Serbia. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube river. The population of the Kladovo town is 8,913, while the population of the Kladovo municipality with surrounding settlements is 20,635 (2011 census).

Name[edit]

In Serbian, the town is known as Kladovo (Кладово), in Vlachas Claudia, in German as Kladowo or Kladovo and in Latin and Romanised Greek as Zanes. In the time of the Roman Empire, the name of the town was Zanes while the fortifications was known as Diana and Pontes (from Greek "sea" -pontos, or Roman "bridge" - pontem). Emperor Trajan had a number of fortications constructed in the area during the Roman times, such as the well-known Trajan's Bridge (Pontes was built on the Serbian side, Theodora was built on the Romanian side). Later, Slavs founded a settlement that was named Novi Grad (Нови Град)[citation needed], while Ottomans built a fortress here and called it Fetislam. The present-day name of Kladovo is first recorded in 1596 in an Austrian military document.

There are several theories about the origin of the current name of the town: [1]

  • According to one theory (Ranka Kuic), name of the town derived from Celtic word "kladiff" meaning "cemetery" in English.
  • According to another theory (Ranko Jakovljevic), the name derived from the word "klad" (a device used to hold a person shackled).
  • A third theory has it that the name derives from the Slavic word "kladenac" meaning "a well" in English or from the Slavic word "klada" meaning "(tree) stump".
  • There is also a theory that the name goes back to the Bulgarian duke Glad, who ruled over this region in the 9th century.

There is a settlement with the same name in Russia near Moscow[citation needed] and it is believed that this settlement was founded by Serbs who moved there from Serbian Kladovo in the 18th century. One of the suburbs of Berlin also has this name, which originates from the Slavic Lusatian Serbs (Sorbs) who live in eastern Germany.

History[edit]

Early Bronze Age pottery of the Kostolac-Kocofeni culture was found in Donje Butorke, Kladovo,[3] as well as several miniature duck-shaped vases of 14th century BC in Mala Vrbica and Korbovo.[4] Bronze Age necropolis with rituals, pottery (decorated with meander) and other significant archaeological items were found in Korbovo.[5][6]

In ancient times, a fortification near Trajan's bridge named Zanes/Pontes existed at this location, the area was governed by the Dacian Albocense tribe. In the Middle Ages, the Slavs founded here new town named Novi Grad (Нови Град),[citation needed] but it was razed by the Hungarians in 1502. It was rebuilt in 1524 by the Ottomans and received new name: Fethi Islam (Fetislam). According to Ottoman traveler, Evliya Chelebi, who visited the town in 1666, most of its inhabitants spoke local Slavic language[citation needed] and Turkish language, while some also spoke Vlach. [2] In 1784, the population of Kladovo numbered 140 Muslim and 50 Christian houses. [3]

From 1929 to 1941, Kladovo was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Municipalities[edit]

Kladovo municipalities includes the town of Kladovo, the town of Brza Palanka, and the following villages:

Population[edit]

Ethnic groups in the municipality[edit]

According to the 2002 census the population of the Kladovo municipality is composed of:

According to the 2002 census, all settlements in the Kladovo municipality have Serb ethnic majority.

Ethnic groups in the town[edit]

According to the 2002 census the population of the Kladovo town is composed of:

Economy[edit]

Sport center "Jezero"

The main business is the hydro-electric power plant "Đerdap". Other businesses began primarily to support the building and operation of the power plant, and the local folk.

The population of the villages around Kladovo is mostly supported by the family members who work as guest-workers in the countries of western Europe, agriculture is a side activity more than an income-generating one.

Features[edit]

Tabula Traiana

Kladovo has one hospital, two daycare and kindergarten centers, one elementary school (grades 1 through 8), one high school and several vocational schools. Though the river Danube is very polluted by international standards, many people still fish in it. Before the power plant was built, sturgeon caviar from this area was very popular and was exported as a delicacy to the western Europe and the United States.

The nearby archeological sites include the remnants of Roman Emperor Trajan's bridge, one of many Trajan's tables, remnants of Trajan's road through the Danube's Iron Gates, and the Roman fortress Diana.

During the Ottoman occupation of the Balkan peninsula a fortress was built near the town. The fortress's name is Fetislam (originally Feht-ul-Islam meaning "gate of Islam") and in the 1970s it was converted into a sports complex containing children's playgrounds, track and soccer fields, handball, volleyball and tennis courts. The Iron Gates national park offers breathtaking views, excellent hunting grounds, and many trails for hiking (most trails are not well marked or maintained, so hiking is recommended only for the experienced).

The town has two hotels:"Đerdap" and "Aquastar Danube". Nearby the city (8 km on the road to Belgrade) there is a youth camp named "Karataš" (Turkish kara-tash for "black stone") which can host some of the visiting tourists. Kladovo has many cafés and restaurants, some offering live music entertainment late into the night. The town's quay stretches about 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) along the Danube river, offering quite beautiful scenery for strolling.

Famous residents[edit]

Famous temporary residents were Saint Nicodim Tismansky (14-15th century) and Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, a Serbian linguist and reformer of the Serbian language.

References[edit]

External links[edit]