Klangfarbenmelodie

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Klangfarbenmelodie (German for sound-color-melody) is a musical technique that involves splitting a musical line or melody between several instruments, rather than assigning it to just one instrument (or set of instruments), thereby adding color (timbre) and texture to the melodic line. The technique is sometimes compared to "Pointillism",[1][2][3][4] a term borrowed from a neo-impressionist painting technique.

The term derives from Arnold Schoenberg's Harmonielehre,[5] where he discusses the creation of "timbre-structures." Schoenberg and Anton Webern are particularly noted for their use of the technique, Schoenberg most notably in the third of his Five Pieces for Orchestra (Op. 16), and Webern in his Op. 10 (likely a response to Schoenberg's Op. 16), his Concerto for Nine Instruments (Op. 24), the Op. 11 pieces for cello and piano, and his orchestration of the six-part ricercar from Bach's Musical Offering:

Klangfarbenmelodie in Webern's arrangement of Bach's Ricercar

This may be compared with Bach's open score of the subject and the traditional homogeneous timbre used in arrangements:

Bach's open score of his Ricercar subject. About this sound Play 

Notable examples of such voice distribution that preceded the use of the term are Berlioz' Symphonie fantastique where, in the fourth movement (March to the Scaffold, bars 109-112), the melody is passed between the strings and the winds several times; and the works of Claude Debussy. Regarding the latter, Samson writes: "To a marked degree the music of Debussy elevates timbre to an unprecedented structural status; already in Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune the color of flute and harp functions referentially."[6]

In the 1950s, the concept inspired a number of European composers including Karlheinz Stockhausen to attempt systematization of timbre along serial lines, especially in electronic music.[7]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Rogers, Michael R. (2004). Teaching Approaches in Music Theory: An Overview of Pedagogical Philosophies, p.147. ISBN 9780809388790.
  2. ^ Swenson, Milton, ed. (1978). Annibale Padovano, Cristofano Malvezzi, Jacopo Peri and Annibale Padovano: Ensemble Ricercars, A-R Editions, p.xv. ISBN 9780895790897.
  3. ^ Ira B. Nadel, ed. (1999). The Cambridge Companion to Ezra Pound, p.245. ISBN 9780521649209.
  4. ^ Hoffer, Charles (2009/10). Music Listening Today, p.275. ISBN 9780495571995. ISBN 9780495916147.
  5. ^ Schoenberg, Arnold (1911). Harmonielehre. Leipzig and Vienna: Verlagseigentum der Universal-Edition. 7th edition, Universal, 1966, p. 503. Schoenberg writes: "In a musical sound (Klang) three characteristics are recognized: its pitch, color [timbre], and volume. [...]The evaluation of tone color (Klangfarbe), the second dimension of tone, is thus in a still much less cultivated, much less organized state [...]. Now, if it is possible to create patterns out of tone colors that are differentiated according to pitch, patterns we call 'melodies', progressions, whose coherence (Zusammenhang) evokes an effect analogous to thought processes, then it must also be possible to make such progressions out of the tone colors of the other dimension, out of that which we call simply 'tone color', progressions whose relations with one another work with a kind of logic entirely equivalent to that logic which satisfies us in the melody of pitches." (Am Klang werden drei Eigenschaften erkannt: seine Höhe, Farbe und Stärke. [...] Die Bewertung der Klangfarbe, der zweiten Dimension des Tons, befindet sich also in einem noch viel unbebautern, ungeordetern Zustand [...]. Ist es nun möglich, aus Klangfarben, die sich der Höhen nach unterscheiden, Gebilde entstehen zu lassen, die wir Melodien nennen, Forgen, deren Zusammenhang eine gedankenänliche Wirkung hervorruft, dann muss es auch möglich sein, aus den Klangfarben der anderen Dimension, aus dem, war wir schlechtweg Klangfarben nennen, solche Folgen herzustellen, deren Beziehung untereinander mit einer Art Logik wirkt, ganz äquivalent jener Logik, die uns bei der Melodie der Klanghöhen genügt.). English translation by Roy E. Carter, University of California Press, 1978, p. 421.
  6. ^ Samson, Jim (1977). Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 1900–1920. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-02193-9. [page needed]
  7. ^ Rushton, Julian (2001). "Klangfarbenmelodie", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.[page needed]

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