|Native to||United States|
|Region||Washington, Oregon, and Idaho|
uma – Umatilla
waa – Walla Walla
yak – Yakima
tqn – Tenino
Sahaptin (also Shahaptin), Sħáptənəxw, is a Plateau Penutian language of the Sahaptian branch spoken in a section of the northwestern plateau along the Columbia River and its tributaries in southern Washington, northern Oregon, and southwestern Idaho, in the United States.
- Northern Sahaptin group
- Northwest Sahaptin dialect cluster: Klickitat (Klikitat), Tainapam (Taidnapam, Upper Cowlitz), Upper Nisqually (Mishalpam), Yakima (Yakama), Pshwanpawam
- Northeast Sahaptin dialect cluster: Wanapam (Wanapum), Palouse (Palus), Lower Snake (Chamnapam, Wauyukma, and Naxiyampam), Walla Walla (Waluulapan)
- Southern Sahaptin group (Columbia River cluster): Umatilla, Rock Creek, Tenino (John Day, Celilo (Wayampam), Tygh Valley)
There exist published grammars, a recent dictionary, and a corpus of published texts. Sahaptin has a split ergative syntax with direct-inverse voicing and several applicative constructions.
The ergative case inflects 3rd person nominals only when the direct object is 1st or 2nd person (examples below are from the Umatilla dialect).
- 1) i-q̓ínu-šana yáka paanáy
- 3nom-see-asp bear 3acc.sg
- ‘the bear saw him’
- 2) i-q̓ínu-šana=aš yáka-nɨm
- 3nom-see-asp=1sg bear-erg
- ‘the bear saw me’
The direct-inverse contrast can be elicited with examples such as the following. In the inverse the transitive direct object is coreferential with the subject in the preceding clause.
- 3) wínš i-q̓ínu-šana wapaanłá-an ku i-ʔíƛ̓iyawi-ya paanáy
- man 3nom-see-asp grizzly-acc and :3nom-kill-pst 3acc.sg
- ‘the man saw the grizzly and he killed it’
- 4) wínš i-q̓ínu-šana wapaanłá-an ku pá-ʔiƛ̓iyawi-ya
- man 3nom-see-asp grizzly-acc and inv-kill-pst
- ‘the man saw the grizzly and it killed him’
The inverse (marked by the verbal prefix pá-) retains its transitive status and a patient nominal is case marked accusative.
- 5) ku pá-ʔiƛ̓iyawi-ya wínš-na
- and inv-kill-pst man-acc
- ‘and it killed the man’ (= ‘and the man was killed by it’)
A semantic inverse is also marked by the same verbal prefix pá-.
- 6) q̓ínu-šana=maš
- ‘I saw you’
- 7) pá-q̓inu-šana=nam
- ‘you saw me’
In Speech Act Participant (SAP) and 3rd person transitive involvement direction marking is as follows:
- 8) á-q̓inu-šana=aš paanáy
- obv-see-asp=1sg 3sg.acc
- ‘I saw him/her/it’
- 9) i-q̓ínu-šana=aš pɨ́nɨm
- 3nom-see-asp=1sg 3erg
- ‘he/she/it saw me’
- Sahaptian languages
- Sahaptin people
- Palus (tribe)
- Umatilla (tribe)
- Walla Walla (tribe)
- Umatilla reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Walla Walla reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Yakima reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Tenino reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Mithun, 1999.
- Beavert, Virginia and Hargus, Sharon Ichishkíin sɨ́nwit yakama = Yakima Sahaptin dictionary. Toppenish, Wash. : Heritage University ; Seattle : in association with the University of Washington Press, 2009; 492 pp. OCLC 268797329
- Sharon Hargus 2012, First position clitics in Northwest Sahaptin
- Jacobs, 1931.
- Rigsby and Rude, 1996.
- Beavert & Hargus, 2009.
- Jacobs, 1929.
- Jacobs, 1937.
- Rude, 2009.
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2010)|
- Beavert, Virginia, and Sharon Hargus (2010). Ichishkiin Sɨ́nwit Yakama/Yakima Sahaptin Dictionary. Toppenish and Seattle: Heritage University and University of Washington Press.
- Hargus, Sharon, and Virginia Beavert. (2002). Yakima Sahaptin clusters and epenthetic [ɨ]. Anthropological Linguistics, 44.1-47.
- Jacobs, Melville (1929). Northwest Sahaptin Texts, 1. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 2:6:175-244. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
- Jacobs, Melville (1931). A Sketch of Northern Sahaptin Grammar. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 4:2:85-292. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
- Jacobs, Melville (1934). Northwest Sahaptin Texts. English language only. Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology 19, Part 1. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Jacobs, Melville (1937). Northwest Sahaptin Texts. Sahaptin language only. Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology 19, Part 2. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
- Rigsby, Bruce, and Noel Rude. (1996). Sketch of Sahaptin, a Sahaptian Language. In Languages, ed. by Ives Goddard, pp. 666-692. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
- Rude, Noel. (1988). Pronominal prefixes in Klikitat Sahaptin. In Papers from the 1988 Hokan-Penutian Languages Workshop: Held at the University of Oregon, June 16–18, 1988, compiled by Scott DeLancey, pp. 181–197. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon Papers in Linguistics.
- Rude, Noel. (1994). Direct, inverse and passive in Northwest Sahaptin. In Voice and Inversion, ed. by T. Givón. Typological Studies in Language, Vol. 28:101-119. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
- Rude, Noel. (2009). Transitivity in Sahaptin. Northwest Journal of Linguistics, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 1–37.
- Beavert, Virginia; Sharon Hargus (2010). Ichishkiin sinwit Yakama/Yakima Sahaptin Dictionary. Toppenish, WA: Heritage University, University of Washington Press. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- "Sahaptin Noun Dictionary (Yakama Dialect)". Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- Muir, Pat (2010-02-20). "Virginia Beavert keeping Sahaptin language alive". Yakima Herald-Republic. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- McDonald, Rachael (2009-05-25). "Yakama Elder Keeps Language Alive". KLCC Eugene Oregon NPR. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- Martin, Shelby (2009-02-14). "Rare Yakama Sahaptin language taught at university". Spokesman.com, The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- Dadigan, Marc (2010). "Guardians of Language". CAScade, UO College of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2012-07-10.