Kluang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Klang.

Coordinates: 2°2′01″N 103°19′10″E / 2.03361°N 103.31944°E / 2.03361; 103.31944 Kluang (simplified Chinese: 居銮; traditional Chinese: 居鑾) is a town and district located near the middle of the state of Johor in the southern portion of peninsular Malaysia. Kluang lies about 110 km north of Johor Bahru, east-southeast of Batu Pahat, west of Mersing and south of Segamat. The population of Kluang district exceeds 250,000 residents and the town itself has over 145,000 residents.

History[edit]

The name Kluang derives from the Malay word 'keluang' which means a type of flying fox or rather a type of fruit bat, used to be plentiful in the district decades ago. They have almost completely disappeared due to the combination of hunting and destruction of their natural habitat (deforestation).

Of all the mammals, big and small, the bats are the only ones that fly. Several different mammals have developed membranes (sheets of skin) between their fore and hind legs on which they can glide from tree to tree, like the flying squirrels, but only the bats truly fly. Their long arms and their hands, with specially long fingers, are covered with very thin membrane and make efficient wings. The membrane extends to the tiny legs and in many kinds to the tip of the tail as well. With these wings bats can steer a very accurate course, avoiding any obstacle which may lie in their path. Experiments have shown that they can do this even when blindfolded and it has been proved that they tell where objects are by means of the echoes they hear when they send out very high-pitched sounds. (This is rather like the way in which radar works.) Some bats migrate hundreds of kilometres in winter. Bats usually rest during the day, hanging up-side down by their toes in a cave or the belfry of a church or some other dark place where they may collect in large numbers. They come out in the evening and the early morning to feed and some kinds fly about all night. One or two young are born in the spring. At first a young bat clings to its mother's breast and is carried about on her flights, but later she leaves it hanging up in the roost until, towards the autumn, it is old enough to fly. Bats are long-lived for animals of their size. 10-15 years being not uncommon among the smaller species. Larger fruit bats have lived up to 19 years in captivity. Bats are found in nearly all parts of the world, except in the desert and very cold regions, and they are found in their greatest numbers in the tropical forest. In Great Britain and other cooler parts of the world they feed on insects such as moths and mosquitoes which they catch as they are flying, but in other parts of the world they have a very different diet. One or two kinds catch fish by dropping on them and taking them in their claws. The famous "vampire" bats of South and Central America feed only on blood which they lap from tiny wounds made by their front teeth in animals or men, but they are not the serious menace that some people think. A few kinds of tropical bats feed only on nectar and pollen and, like bees, help to fertilize the trees. Fruit-eating bats are found only in warm regions because they must be able to find fruits of some sort all the year round. In many parts they can be seen in countless thousands and, just before dark, they fly in great clouds from their roosting trees to the feeding places. These bats include the biggest of all, often called "flying foxes" because of their fox-like heads, although they are not related to foxes in any way. The Malay flying fox may have a wing spread of five feet and its body, which weighs about a pound, is roughly the size of a red squirrel. Seeds from the fruits these species, or kinds, eat are often carried and dropped at the roosting places; in this way the bats help to spread plants. The insect-eating bats are found almost everywhere but in cold climates insect life becomes very scarce in winter, so the bats must either hibernate, which means they go into a deep sleep in the cold weather, or else migrate to warmer places, as many birds do. As far as is known the British bats all hibernate but many insect-eating bats of North America spend their winter in the warm south. Insect-eating bat are generally smaller than the fruit-eaters but a few of them are quite big, with a length of 6 inches and a wing spread of 30 inches. On the other hand the tiny pipistrelle, the smallest and commonest British bat, is only 8 inches across the wings and the body is less than 2 inches across the wings and the body is less than 2 inches long. No fewer than 13 kinds of bats are found in the British Isles, but some are quite rare. They are usually dark brown and although they are ugly to look at they are quite harmless. The biggest of them is the noctule bat, measuring from 13 to 15 inches across the wings.[1]

Kluang was founded in 1915 as the administrative capital for central Johor.[2] The main railway line linking north to south Malaya was built passing through Kluang and this helped in its growth. Roads were built to link Kluang to Johor Bahru towards the south, to Batu Pahat towards the north-west and to Mersing towards the east. Kluang is divided into two district councils namely Simpang Renggam District Council (Malay: Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam) based at the town of Simpang Renggam and Kluang Municipal Council (Malay: Majlis Perbandaran Kluang) based at the town of Kluang which is also the district capital.

During World War II, the town of Kluang was occupied by Japanese forces advancing southwards as it was abandoned by Allied forces withdrawing towards Singapore. General Yamashita moved his headquarters forward from Kuala Lumpur to Kluang on 27 January 1942 as he advanced southwards.[3] The Japanese later used the airfield in Kluang to launch air attacks on targets ranging from Singapore to Sumatra.

In the mid-fifties the airfield was used for helicopters searching for terrorists who were encamped in the Bukit Lambak area and as an artillery base It was also the base for Kluang Flying Club which used old Tiger Moth biplanes. Terrorism was largely driven out of the area in the six months leading up to Merdeka in 1957. The whole area around the airfield was a substantial army garrison with many different units and a large hospital.

Geography[edit]

Kluang lies in an area of undulating hills.

The highest point in Kluang is Gunung Lambak, a 510m tall mountain and one of the southernmost mountains in the Malaysian main range which lies not far from the town.

The Mengkibol River runs through the town. Kluang is landlocked and has no seafront.

Kluang is served by a railway and roads linking it to all neighbouring districts. It has a railway station as well as a bus interchange. The closest on-ramp to the North-South Highway is at Ayer Hitam although travellers approaching Kluang from the south may find exiting at Simpang Renggam more convenient. There is an airfield in Kluang but it is a military airfield, not a civilian one. The air field is managed by the military.

Urban sprawl in Kluang over the last three decades or so from the 1970s to 2000 has been roughly along the major roads. The town center itself has more than tripled in size in terms of the number and land area occupied by commercial and retail buildings in that time. Many acres of rubber and oil palm plantations have been re-developed into housing estates.

Agriculture[edit]

Since 1915 when Kluang was founded, the area initially grew as a rubber planting district. There are vast areas planted with rubber in the early days under the Guthrie Ropel Group, Asiatic Plantations, Harrison Crossfield and various other rubber companies. An innovation was the process of vacuum evaporation of rubber latex by the Revertex company. Planters established the Kluang Club which is still thriving as the Kluang Country Club. Notable estates, i.e. rubber plantations, surrounding Kluang were Lambak Estate, Mengkibol Estate, Kluang Estate, Wessington Estate (now renamed as Simpang Renggam Estate), Benut Estate, Paloh Estate, sepuloh Estate, Chamek Estate, Niyor Estate, Kahang Estate, Pamol Estate and Kekayaan Estate.

Among the early Indian settlers who "migrated" here during the British era (they are consider as non-legitimate property owner at that time) were those who built some temples (although contrary against the British binding precedent) and the notable toddy shops in the surrounding areas of Kluang. [4] You may find "ONE" from a million interesting stories on the website containing the biography of Ravindran Raghavan ([1]), a native Kluang boy who grew in a rubber estate.

Rubber planting has, however, since then taken a back seat to other types of crops. Kluang now boasts large tracts of oil palm plantations as well as cocoa and tea plantations. New kinds of plantation such as dragon fruit and organic vegetables are also added into it well established farming industry.[5]

Industry and commerce[edit]

Considering the moist environment and all year rainy days according to reports obtained from the weather station located at Jalan Othman Wahid the State industry is mostly encouraged by the government.

The humble nine-holes golf course Kluang Country Club is located along Jalan Mengkibol, where the landscape is lavish in greens throughout the year.

From its early days as an entirely agricultural & horticulture economy, Kluang has developed various industries including polymer, paper, textiles, ceramics, industrial paints and electrical products. Banking industries were slowly implanted with their own premises, the olden days, bank and financial institution were renting buildings and shops. The present day, small licensed money lenders services is still available. In the last few years, several stock brokerages have opened shop in Kluang.

Infrastructure[edit]

Kluang is served by a district hospital, a district police station and fire station. It has numerous primary schools, several secondary schools and a public library. Sekolah Menengah Sains Johor, a government boarding secondary school with a special emphasis on science subjects, was built in the 1970s on the outskirts of Kluang along the Batu Pahat road.

Kluang High School or Sekolah Tinggi Kluang is one of the best known schools in Kluang. The Chong Hwa High School is the third biggest Chinese secondary school in Malaysia and their financial establish-er were mostly reputable China settler back dated in the 1940s.[6] A number of other schools were built between 2000 to 2006.

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

The Kluang railway station is located at Jalan Station at the centre of Kluang, however accessibility to every location is limited due to historical floods that occur randomly within a calendar year. Since the 1950s irrigation system has been very demanding. The Kluang railway station provides KTM Intercity train services, it leads to Kuala Lumpur Sentral railway station where transit services to Kuala Lumpur International Airport is available. The station itself has a sheltered attached wooden cafeteria which is known as Kluang Railcoffee since 1930s.

Bus[edit]

The Kluang express bus terminal is located at Jalan Bakawali. It is located next to Kluang Parade. Express buses depart from this terminal to most cities in Peninsular Malaysia.

Tourism[edit]

Gunung Belumut and Gunung Lambak are popular with jungle trekkers. You can enjoy horse riding activities at Gunung Lambak(no more). The area of Machap (between Simpang Renggam and Air Hitam) is well known for its pottery and porcelain.

Also noteworthy is an authentic coffee shop located at no. 56, Jalan Lambak by the name of Tong Fong Cafe (a.k.a. Eastern Cafe) which was very popular with British soldiers when Malaysia was still under British rule. The operator is a second generation descendant of the owner and the coffee shop has been operating since 1954.

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica International, Ltd 1975, London Vol 2. Printed in England by Hazell Watson & Viney Limited, Aylesbury. pg. 268.
  2. ^ "History of Kluang". Archived from the original on 2003-07-08. 
  3. ^ http://www.fepow-community.org.uk/research/Malaya_and_Singapore/html/body_chronology_of_malaya.htm
  4. ^ Winstedt, A History of Johore (1365–1941), pp. 106–7
  5. ^ Jackson, James C. (1968). "Planters and speculators: Chinese and European agricultural enterprise in Malaya, 1786-1921". University of Malaya Press
  6. ^ Turnbull, A Short History of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, p. 124

External links[edit]