Kneeling

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Royal guard kneeling, Bangkok, Thailand.
Soviet naval infantrymen kneel with their AKS-74 rifles during a demonstration.
The Missal by John William Waterhouse, showing a woman kneeling in prayer (1902, oil on canvas).

Kneeling is a human position in which the weight is distributed on the knees and feet on a surface close to horizontal.

The position of kneeling may be assumed for practical reasons and for reasons of social or religious custom.

Practical reasons[edit]

Kneeling makes it easier to reach the ground. For example, during gardening, kneeling gives less strain to one's back than bending. Various knee pads and knee mats are sold to make kneeling during gardening more comfortable.

A kneeling person is much less visible from a distance. For example, in an ambush, one may go from kneeling to sitting in a kind of seiza and back, e.g., to peek out.

Kneeling position also provides more stability due to lower center of gravity.

Social and religious customs[edit]

Socially, kneeling, similarly to bowing, is associated with reverence, submission and obeisance, particularly if one kneels before a person who is standing or sitting: the kneeling position renders a person defenseless and unable to flee. For this reason, in some religions, in particular by Christians and Muslims, kneeling is used as a position for prayer, as a position of submission to God. In north Indian Hindu temples, many Hindus kneel before the icon after saying a short personal prayer, and usually touch the ground with their forehead. (This is a contrast to south Indian temples, where most people prostrate completely before the icon).

In many churches, pews are equipped with kneelers in front of the seating bench so members of the congregation can kneel on them instead of the floor. In a few other situations such as confessionals and areas in front of an altar, kneelers for kneeling during prayer or sacraments may also be used.

Within the Latin Rite of Roman Catholicism, it was formerly the custom to kneel on the left knee only (genuflect) for persons of distinction (such as Kings, the Pope, Bishops, etc.), to kneel on the right knee for the Eucharist, when it is in the tabernacle, and to kneel on both knees when the Eucharist was exposed. Since the publication of the Roman Missal in 1973, following the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, it is customary to genuflect to the Eucharist whether reserved in the tabernacle or exposed for adoration, although in many regions the "double genuflection" (i.e. kneeling briefly on both knees) is still practiced before the exposed Eucharist. The practice of genuflecting before the Eucharist also occurs in the Anglican Church and the Lutheran Church.[1][2][3] Confirmation candidates sometimes kneel before a sitting bishop on both knees to receive the Sacrament of Confirmation and a blessing. Candidates during Holy Orders will also kneel on both before a bishop or archbishop. Sometimes penitents will kneel during confession to a priest. It is still permissible to receive the Eucharist at Communion while kneeling, although in most places it is received while standing.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church the act of kneeling, in the sense of "standing on one's knees" is not traditionally performed. Instead, there are several types of bows and prostrations. However, at his ordination, a deacon will kneel on one knee to the side of the altar, while the bishop lays his hands on the deacon's head to read the Prayer of Cheirotonia over him. A priest will kneel in the same manner at his ordination, but on both knees; and a bishop kneels (on both knees) in front of the altar as the Gospel Book is laid over his head and the consecrating bishops read the prayer.

As punishment[edit]

Forced prolonged kneeling (sometimes on beans or salt to increase discomfort) has been used as punishment for children.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allen, John (1 September 2008). Desmond Tutu (in English). Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1556527985. Retrieved 8 November 2012. "Devout "high church" Anglicans genuflect as they pass the reserved sacrament." 
  2. ^ Ingram, Kristen Johnson; Johnson, Kristin J (2004). Beyond Words (in English). Church Publishing, Inc. p. 27. ISBN 0819219738. Retrieved 8 November 2012. "Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, and Lutherans may already take their souls through the slow dance of the Eucharist, kneeling, standing, genuflecting, making the sign of the cross, walking forward to receive the body and blood, walking back to the pew, standing for the last hymn." 
  3. ^ Armstrong, John H.; Eagle, Paul E. (26 May 2009). Understanding Four Views on the Lord's Supper (in English). Zondervan. ISBN 0310542758. "Lutherans worship Christ wherever he is, including the sacraments, and thus Luther genuflected before the baptismal font and the sacrament." 

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