Knights of the Round Table (film)
|Knights of the Round Table|
Cinema poster showing Robert Taylor and Ava Gardner
|Directed by||Richard Thorpe|
|Produced by||Pandro S. Berman|
|Written by||Talbot Jennings
|Based on||Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory|
|Narrated by||Valentine Dyall|
|Music by||Miklós Rózsa|
|Edited by||Frank Clarke|
|Release dates||15 January 1954|
|Running time||115 minutes|
Knights of the Round Table is a 1953 Cinemascope historical film made by MGM. Directed by Richard Thorpe and produced by Pandro S. Berman, it was the first film in Cinemascope made by that studio. The screenplay was by Talbot Jennings, Jan Lustig and Noel Langley from the book Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory.
The film was the second in an unofficial trilogy made by the same director and producer and starring Robert Taylor, coming between Ivanhoe (1952) and The Adventures of Quentin Durward (1955). All three were made at MGM's British Studios at Elstree, near London and partly filmed on location. The cast included Robert Taylor as Sir Lancelot, Ava Gardner as Queen Guinevere, Mel Ferrer as King Arthur, Stanley Baker as Mordred, Anne Crawford as Morgan Le Fay, Felix Aylmer as Merlin.
The introduction refers to the "old days", after Rome withdrew her legions from 'England' (sic)", but the costumes and armour throughout are 13th-14th century, as they would have been envisaged by Malory. With the land in anarchy, warring overlords, Arthur Pendragon (Mel Ferrer) and his half-sister Morgan LeFay (Anne Crawford) meet as arranged by the sorcerer Merlin (Felix Aylmer) to discuss how to end the bloodshed. Morgan maintains that as she is the only legitimate offspring of the late king, the throne belongs to her, but Merlin puts the adversaries to a test to determine England's rightful ruler. Merlin leads them to Excalbur, a sword embedded in an anvil, and says that according to legend, whoever can remove the sword shall be England's true sovereign. Morgan's knight champion Mordred (Stanley Baker) tries in vain to extract the sword, but Arthur removes it easily. Mordred accuses Merlin of witchcraft, and a hearing is arranged with the Council of Kings at the circle of stone. After advising Arthur that he must prove himself worthy of the throne by his deeds, Merlin instructs him to return the sword to the stone.
Meanwhile, the French knight Lancelot (Robert Taylor) and his men ride toward the circle of stone, hoping to offer their services to Arthur. On the road, Lancelot encounters a young woman named Elaine (Maureen Swanson), who quickly falls in love with the handsome knight. They are waylaid by Mordred's men, and Lancelot bravely does battle with all of them. Arthur arrives and joins in the battle, and Lancelot, claiming he needed no help, now challenges Arthur, unaware of his identity. After a long exhausting fight, Lancelot finally asks his opponent's name, and when he learns it is Arthur, breaks his sword against a tree and kneels before him. They are joined by Elaine's brother Percival (Gabriel Woolf), who asks to be Arthur's knight errant.
Later, at the circle of stone, Arthur and Mordred debate before the Council of Kings. When the crowd turns against Arthur and Lancelot, they are forced to flee, vowing to take the kingdom on the battlefield. Arthur and his men lie low throughout the cruel winter, then launch their attack against Mordred's men in the spring.
Despite being greatly outnumbered, Arthur's men win, and Arthur is crowned king of England. In the interest of peace, Arthur immediately pardons all his former enemies, but when Lancelot objects to Mordred's pardon, the two men angrily part ways.
On the road, Lancelot discovers that the lovely Guinevere (Ava Gardner) has been kidnapped and rescues her, unaware that she is Arthur's fiancee.
Arthur and Guinevere are wed, and the king's joy is complete when Lancelot arrives at Camelot and pledges his allegiance anew. Arthur swears in his select group of knights at the Round Table, and England enjoys a period of peace and prosperity. One day, Percival brings Elaine to court and asks Guinevere to make her a lady-in-waiting.
Meanwhile, Morgan and Mordred continue to harbor ill feelings against Arthur, and note with interest the growing warmth between Lancelot and Guinevere. Merlin privately warns Guinevere that Mordred will attempt to sow suspicion about her relationship with the knight, and says that Lancelot should marry.
Mordred calls a meeting of Arthur's enemies in Scotland and urges them to make peace so that Lancelot will be forced to return to Camelot, where he will eventually be exposed as Guinevere's lover. Word of peace reaches Arthur at Camelot at the same time that Lancelot's infant son Galahad, whose mother died in childbirth, is brought to court with instructions that he be sent to Lancelot's father. Sensing a plot, Merlin argues against bringing Lancelot back to Camelot, but Morgan poisons him, and the knight returns amid great fanfare.
Late one night, jealous after seeing Lancelot kiss another woman, Guinevere goes to his rooms, unaware that is being spied on by Morgan and Mordred. Lancelot angrily denounces Guinevere's folly in coming to him, and Mordred's men soon arrive to arrest them for high treason. Lancelot fights them off and flees with Guinevere.
Lancelot and Guinevere are tried in absentia at the Round Table and declared guilty. Lancelot suddenly walks in and surrenders, and when he confesses his chaste love for Guinevere, Arthur revokes their death sentence. Over Mordred's protest, Arthur orders that Guinevere be confined and banishes Lancelot from England.
Outraged at this show of mercy, Mordred succeeds in turning the other knights against Arthur, and civil war returns to the land. Arthur meets with Mordred and agrees to his terms for ending the war, which include disbanding the Round Table. When one of Arthur's men draws his sword to kill a snake, however, the battle cry is sounded.
Arthur is mortally wounded, and Lancelot returns from exile to be at his side. With his dying breath, Arthur commands Lancelot to destroy Mordred and give Guinevere his love and forgiveness. Pausing only to hurl Excalibur into a lake, Lancelot calls on Guinevere at the convent and conveys Arthur's message, then kills Mordred after a fierce battle.
Lancelot then meets Percival at the Round Table and weeps, blaming himself for the noble fellowship's demise. After Percival receives another holy vision of the Grail, he hears a divine voice telling him that Lancelot's son Galahad will be a worthy knight, and that Lancelot is forgiven and will now know peace.
- Robert Taylor as Sir Lancelot
- Ava Gardner as Queen Guinevere
- Mel Ferrer as King Arthur
- Anne Crawford as Morgan Le Fay
- Stanley Baker as Mordred
- Felix Aylmer as Merlin
- Maureen Swanson as Elaine
- Gabriel Woolf as Sir Percival
- Anthony Forwood as Sir Gareth
- Robert Urquhart as Sir Gawaine
- Niall MacGinnis as Green Knight
According to MGM records, the film earned $4,518,000 in the US and Canada and $3,578,000 elsewhere, resulting in a profit of $1,641,000. In Susan Aronstein's scholarly article entitled, "Hollywood Knights: Arthurian Cinema and the Politics of Nostalgia," she argues, "MGM's The Knights of the Round Table was conceived and designed for box-office success; in many ways its use of Arthurian legend was a means to an end." Rotten Tomatoes, a popular website devoted to rating and reviewing movies, gives Knights of the Round Table a score of 80 percent, indicating the the film was received well with the public.  The Internet Movie Database rates the film as a 6.3/10, indicating a mixed reception of the movie from critics and the public alike. 
Moreover, Knights of the Round Table has received mixed reviews from the majority of critics. The New York Times’ Bosley Crowther found Knights of the Round Table to be a refreshing, enjoyable film that resembled “a spectacular, richly costumed Western film,” noting that the new CinemaScope technology brought the film to life.  Decent Films Guide reviewer Steven D. Greydanus gave the film a "B," stating, “a solid adaptation of the King Arthur legend, Knights of the Round Table benefits from its colorful pageantry and strongly Christian milieu, including a royal Catholic wedding and a transcendent moment of revelation involving the Holy Grail.”  However, Dennis Schwartz of Ozus’ World Movie Reviews gave the film a "C+," declaring, “It’s an uninspiring reworking of the story of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table.” 
Awards and nominations
Knights of the Round Table was nominated for two Academy Awards for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color (Alfred Junge, Hans Peters, John Jarvis) and Sound recording (A. W. Watkins). It was also nominated for the Grand Prix at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival.
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
- 'The Top Box-Office Hits of 1954', Variety Weekly, 5 January 1955
- Imdb page for film
- "Tamiroff set for UK film.". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 August 1953. p. 4 Supplement: SUNDAY MAGAZINE. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- "The 26th Academy Awards (1954) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "NY Times: Knights of the Round Table". NY Times. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Festival de Cannes: Knights of the Round Table". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- The Knights of the Round Table at the Internet Movie Database
- The Knights of the Round Table at the TCM Movie Database
- Knights of the Round Table at AllMovie