Façade of Knightshayes Court
|Main feature||Grade I listed House|
|Other features||Landscaped gardens
|UK Grid square||SS961151|
|Address||Bolham, Tiverton, Devon|
Knightshayes Court is a Victorian country house in Tiverton, Devon, England, designed by William Burges for the Heathcoat-Amory family. Nikolaus Pevsner describes it as "an eloquent expression of High Victorian ideals in a country house of moderate size." The house is Grade I listed as of 12 May 1975.
The fortunes of the Heathcoat-Amory family were founded in the early nineteenth century. John Heathcoat was born into a Derbyshire farming family in 1783. An inventor of genius, he designed and patented a machine that revolutionised the production of lace. His manufactury near Loughbourough was destroyed by former Luddites paid by unknown persons in 1816, he then moved his basis of manufacture, and a large number of his workers, to Tiverton, Devon and there established a lace-works which, by the later part of the nineteenth century, was the largest lace-producing manufactory in the world.
By the late 19th century, the Heathcoat-Amory family owned much of the manufacturing and land around Tiverton, Sir John Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Baronet chose the site of Knightshayes, because from the site Sir John could see his factory in the distance, nestled in the Exe valley below.
The estate of Knightshayes had long been owned by the Dickinson family, merchants of Tiverton. In 1845 John Walrond Dickinson (1818-1889), MP for Tiverton (later created 1st Walrond Baronet in 1876), on inheriting through his mother the estates of the Walrond family, including Bradfield House, Uffculme, changed his surname to Walrond. In about 1860 he undertook major building works at Bradfield, turning it into one of the largest houses in Devon, and perhaps to assist in the financing of this he sold the Knightshayes estate to the Amory family in 1867. The house was commissioned by his grandson Sir John Heathcoat-Amory in 1867 and the foundation stone laid in 1869. By 1874, the building was complete, although not to Burges' original designs, and work had begun on the interior. However, unlike Burges' partnership with John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, the relationship between architect and client was not successful, Sir John objecting to Burges' designs both on grounds of cost and of style. "Heathcote-Amory (had) built a house he could not afford to decorate, by an architect whose speciality was interior design." This disagreement led to Burges' sacking in 1874 and his replacement by John Dibblee Crace. Nevertheless, Knightshayes Court remains the only example built of a medium-sized Burges country house, to the "standard" Victorian arrangement. Its virtues were recognised in its own time; "Knightshayes is eminently picturesque, executed with great vigour and thorough knowledge of detail.." The plan with hall, drawing, morning and smoking rooms, library and billiard room is conventional and the exterior is, by Burges' usual standards, restrained. A massive tower, to have been constructed over the West end, would have given the house "a more overtly romantic silhouette" but only the base was built.
The interior, by contrast, was to have been a riot of Burgesian excess but "not one of the rooms was completed according to Burges's designs.". Of the few interior features that were fully executed, much was dismantled or covered over by Sir John and his successors. Since the National Trust took over guardianship of the house in 1973, it has sought to recover and restore as many of Burges's fittings as possible, including some "sparkling" ceilings, such as that in the Drawing Room, which was discovered in 1981, having been boarded over as early as 1889. In a number of instances, the Trust has brought in Burges furniture from other locations, including a bookcase from The Tower House, now in the Great Hall, and a marble fireplace in the Drawing Room, from Burges's redecoration of Worcester College, Oxford. The presentation album which Burges prepared, and which can be seen at the house, shows what might have been. "At Knightshayes Burges was on top form. But (his) magical interiors remained a half-formed dream."
Sir John Heathcoat-Amory, grandson of the 1st Baronet, was married to Joyce Wethered, the golfer. An exhibition of golfing memorabilia can be found in the house. Roderick Heathcoat-Amory (1907–1998), youngest son of the second Baronet, was a Brigadier in the Army. His sons are the Conservative politician David Heathcoat-Amory, and the leading political columnist of the Daily Mail, Edward Heathcoat-Amory.
The gardens were designed by Edward Kemp but were much simplified in the 1950s and '60s. Sir John and Lady Heathcoat-Amory undertook much work in the gardens for which they were both awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's Victoria Medal of Honour. The estate includes a rare stické court dating from 1907. Other features include the extensive topiary, specimen trees, rare shrubs and the stables and walled kitchen garden, also by Burges.
Knightshayes Court has been in the ownership of the National Trust since 1973 and is open to the public.
- The Buildings of England: Devon, Bridget Cherry and Nikolaus Pevsner (1989) page 526
- Knightshayes Court Guide: The National Trust 1981
- Devon Record Office: "1926 B/D/E/6/8 1867 Contents: The Knightshayes Estate. Rough draft contract for sale (Walrond to Amory)"
- William Burges and the High Victorian Dream: J. Mordaunt Crook, (1981) page 302
- William Burges and the High Victorian Dream: J. Mordaunt Crook, (1981) page 303
- The Buildings of England: Devon, Bridget Cherry and Nikolaus Pevsner (1989) page 527
- William Burges and the High Victorian Dream: J. Mordaunt Crook, (1981) page 304
- The Buildings of England: Devon, Bridget Cherry and Nikolaus Pevsner (1989) page 528
- The Buildings of England: Devon
- William Burges and the High Victorian Dream: J. Mordaunt Crook, (1981) page 305
- Hickory Golfers.com
- Cherry, Bridget and Pevsner, Nikolaus, The Buildings of England: Devon (1989) Yale University Press
- Crook, J. Mordaunt William Burges and the High Victorian Dream (1981) John Murray
- Mellor, Hugh Knightshayes Court: Official Guide (1990) National Trust
- Wethered, Joyce Golfing Memories and Methods (1933) Hutchinson
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