Koboko District was established on 1 July 2005 by the Ugandan Parliament. Before that it was part of Arua District. Koboko District consists of one county, five sub-counties (LC3's), forty three parishes (LC2's) and three hundred and two villages (LC1s). The district has one Urban Council namely, Koboko Town Council.
Koboko District consists mainly of flat rolling plains between 3,160 feet (960 m) and 5,283 feet (1,610 m), above sea level. There are isolated undulating hills mainly in the northern and western parts of the district. The district covers a total land area of 759.7 square kilometres (293.3 sq mi), of which about 12% is forest. Over 88% of the land is arable and suitable for agriculture.
In 1991, the national population census estimated the district population at 62,300. The 2002 national census estimated the population of Koboko District at 129,100 of whom 65,400 (50.6%) were females and 63,800 (49.4%) were males. The annual population growth rate of the district, between 2002 and 2012, was calculated at 6.4%. In 2012, the population in the district at approximately 236,900. The table below illustrates the population growth in the district during the first decade of the 21st century. All numbers are estimates.