Kobyaysky District

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Kobyaysky District
Кобяйский улус (Russian)
Кэбээйи улууһа (Sakha)
Kobyaysky ulus location.PNG
Location of Kobyaysky District in the Sakha Republic
Coordinates: 63°55′27″N 127°28′26″E / 63.92417°N 127.47389°E / 63.92417; 127.47389Coordinates: 63°55′27″N 127°28′26″E / 63.92417°N 127.47389°E / 63.92417; 127.47389
Coat of Arms of Kobyaisky rayon (Yakutia).png
Coat of arms
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic[1]
Administrative structure (as of June 2009)
Administrative center settlement of Sangar[2]
Administrative divisions:[2]
Settlements 1
Rural okrugs 11
Inhabited localities:[2]
Urban-type settlements 1
Rural localities 22
Municipal structure (as of December 2008)
Municipally incorporated as Kobyaysky Municipal District[3]
Municipal divisions:[4]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 11
Statistics
Area (June 2009) 107,800 km2 (41,600 sq mi)[2]
Population (2010 Census) 13,680 inhabitants[5]
- Urban 32.0%
- Rural 68.0%
Density 0.13 /km2 (0.34 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone YAKT (UTC+10:00)[7]
Established April 20, 1937[8]

Kobyaysky District (Russian: Кобяйский улу́с; Sakha: Кэбээйи улууһа) is an administrative[1] and municipal[3] district (raion, or ulus), one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic on the Vilyuy River, 334 kilometers (208 mi) by road north of Yakutsk.[9] The area of the district is 107,800 square kilometers (41,600 sq mi).[2] Its administrative center is the urban locality (a settlement) of Sangar.[2] Population: 13,680 (2010 Census);[5] 14,178 (2002 Census);[10] 20,352 (1989 Census).[11] The population of Sangar accounts for 32.0% of the district's total population.[5]

Geography[edit]

Kobyaysky District covers an area of 107,800 square kilometers (41,600 sq mi).[9] Mountain plains are located in the north and northeast, notably the Verkhoyansk range, while the rest of the district is lowland.

Several rivers flow through the district. These include the Lena River, which flows between the mouths of tributaries of the Aldan and the Linde, and its tributary the Vilyuy in the lower reaches.[9] On the plain of many lakes, the largest of them is Lake Nidzhili. A part of the Ust-Vilyuysky National Park is also located on the district's territory.[12]

Climate[edit]

Due to the sub-polar location, it is bitterly cold in the winter months, with an average January temperature of −36 °C (−33 °F) in the mountains and −40 °C (−40 °F) in the valley, and in July over +10 °C (50 °F) in the mountains and over +18 °C (64 °F) in the valley.[9] Annual precipitation ranges from 200–250 millimeters (7.9–9.8 in) in the east to 500–600 millimeters (20–24 in) in the mountains.[9]

History[edit]

The territory of what is now Kobyaysky District has long been settled by the Even, Evenk, and Yakut peoples. Silver-lead deposits were found in Yendybalskoye as early as 1765.[8] In 1913, the coal potential of the area was noted and coal mining began at Tsugaru in the late 1920s.[8] The first elementary school opened in Kobyay in 1926. In 1928, as the coal mining operations got underway, the miners established the new village of Sangar.[8] In 1931, the first collective farms began to appear, and the first medical dispensary in the area was opened at Tsugaru mine, with the first pharmacy opening a year later.[8] In 1936, a fishing organization was established in the area to unite the small fishing enterprises that had begun to develop.[8]

Kobyaysky District was formed on April 20, 1937 from the remote territories of Namsky, Gorny, and Vilyuysky Districts, with the district's administrative center located in Kobyay.[8] In 1959, however, the administrative center was moved to Sangar.[8] In 1938, thermal power stations operating on coal were built in Sangar, whilst the first library opened in Kobyay. By 1939, the two main villages were connected by radio and in 1946 with a telephone station.[8] In September 1942, 2,482 were recorded as moving into the district.[8] In 1944, the district newspaper Sana oloh (renamed Leninets in 1962 and Dabaan in 1993) was established, and in 1945 an airport was commissioned, 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) from Sangar.[8] The first savings bank opened in 1946 and on April 16, 1947, Sangar commissioned a new steam turbine power plant.[8]

In 1952, the oil and gas reserves of the area began to be exploited, and over the next few years there was extensive planning and drilling to find these reserves.[8] In 1957, mass carp fishing began on Lake Nidzhili. In 1963, the construction of a 400-kilometer (250 mi) gas pipeline Taas-Tumus-Berge-Yakutsk-Mokhsogollokh began — the first in the world on permafrost and in a sub-polar climate.[8] Several schools were established in the district in the 1960s and 1970s, with the folk theater opened in 1973 and Kobyay children's music school in 1974. The oil and gas industry developed extensively during the 1980s and 1990s.[8]

On February 1, 2006, at a frequency of 102 FM, started broadcasting radio NEC "Sakha".[8]

Demographics[edit]

The bulk of the population (as of the 2002 Census) are Yakuts - 9,209 people (64.95%), Russians - 3,425 people (24.16%), Evens - 809 people (5.71%), Ukrainians - 235 people (1.66%), Evenks - 64 (0.45%), and other ethnicities - 436 people (3.07%).[citation needed] The median age is thirty years.

Economy[edit]

The leading industry is agriculture, with cattle, pig, horse breeding, reindeer husbandry, poultry farming, cellular farming, fisheries, mining and furs forming much of the main economic activity in the district.[9] 59,200 hectares to arable land, with some 66.3% of this land being hayfields.[9] The district has notable deposits of gold, silver, lead, zinc, gas, coal, and building materials.[13] In 1998, upon the decision of the Russian Ministry of Energy, the Tsugaru coal mine was closed. In 2000, a fire broke out. In 2008, the Mastakhskoye gas-condensate field was in the final stages of development.

The district has a number of facilities such as printing houses, clubs, a theater in Kobyay, and vocational, educational, sports, and children's art schools.[9]

Transportation[edit]

The Sangar Airport is the main airport in the district.

Inhabited localities[edit]

Municipal composition
Urban settlements Population Male Female Inhabited localities in jurisdiction
Sangar
(Сангар)
4657 2209 (47.4%) 2448 (52.6%)
Rural settlements Population Male Female Rural localities in jurisdiction*
Aryktakhsky Nasleg
(Арыктахский наслег)
509 252 (49.5%) 257 (50.5%)
Kirovsky Nasleg
(Кировский наслег)
628 307 (48.9%) 321 (51.1%)
Kobyaysky Nasleg
(Кобяйскийнаслег)
2605 1238 (47.5%) 1367 (52.5%)
Kuokuysky Nasleg
(Куокуйский наслег)
828 398 (48.1%) 430 (51.9%)
Lamynkhinsky National Nasleg
(Ламынхинский национальный наслег)
796 396 (49.7%) 400 (50.3%)
Luchcheginsky 1-y Nasleg
(Люччегинский 1-й наслег)
256 123 (48.0%) 133 (52.0%)
Luchcheginsky 1-y Nasleg
(Люччегинский 2-й наслег)
658 326 (49.5%) 332 (50.5%)
Mukhuchunsky Nasleg
(Мукучунский наслег)
1221 598 (49.0%) 623 (51.0%)
Nizhilinsky Nasleg
(Нижилинский наслег)
542 274 (50.6%) 268 (49.4%)
Sittinsky Nasleg
(Ситтинский наслег)
503 243 (48.3%) 260 (51.7%)
Tyayinsky Nasleg
(Тыайинский наслег)
477 240 (50.3%) 237 (49.7%)

Divisional source:[14]
Population source:[5]
*Administrative centers are shown in bold

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Constitution of the Sakha Republic
  2. ^ a b c d e Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  3. ^ a b Law #172-Z #351-III
  4. ^ Law #173-Z #354-III
  5. ^ a b c d "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "История улуса, знаменательные события." (in Russian). Ulus of Kobyaysky. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Кобяйский улус" (in Russian). Npeople. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  10. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Protected areas" (in Russian). Ministry of Nature Protection of the Sakha Republic. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  13. ^ "Минерально-сырьевая база Кобяйского улуса (по данным Госкомгеологии РС(Я))" (in Russian). Ulus of Kobyaysky. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  14. ^ Kobyaysky Ulus (Raion) Official website of the Sakha Republic

Sources[edit]

  • Верховный Совет Республики Саха (Якутия). 4 апреля 1992 г. «Конституция (основной закон) Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Конституционного закона №1077-З №1035-IV от 8 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Конституцию (основной закон) Республики Саха (Якутия)». Опубликован: "Якутские ведомости", №7, 26 апреля 1992 г. (Supreme Council of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. April 4, 1992 Constitution (Basic Law) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #1077-Z No. 1035-IV of June 8, 2012 On Amending and Supplementing the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ).
  • Государственное Собрание (Ил Тумэн) Республики Саха (Якутия). Закон №172-З №351-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального района муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Закона №640-З №173-IV от 29 декабря 2008 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха (Якутия) "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального района муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г. (State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Law #172-Z No. 351-III of November 30, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Municipal District Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Law #640-Z No. 173-IV of December 29, 2008 On Amending the Law of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic "On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Municipal District Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Государственное Собрание (Ил Тумэн) Республики Саха (Якутия). Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха (Якутия) "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г. (State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Law #173-Z No. 353-III of November 30, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Urban and Rural Settlement Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Law #1058-Z No. 1007-IV of April 25, 2012 On Amending the Law of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic "On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Urban and Rural Settlement Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).