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The term kodecyte is used to describe cells with detectable FSL constructs,[1][2][3][4] and in concert, the term kodevirion (pronounced co-da-virion), is used to describe virions with detectable Function-Spacer-Lipid (FSL) constructs.[5][6]

The method for labeling virions with FSL constructs is simple, non covalent and only involves incubation of the virion with the FSL construct in saline for a few hours – nothing further is required.[5][6] The FSL construct will spontaneously, stably and quantitatively incorporate into the virion membrane. Virions have been labelled with fluorescent (FSL-FLRO4) and radioactive iodine (FSL-125I). FSL-FLRO4 could be shown to label virions in a dose dependent manner and could be visualized by flow cytometry either directly, or indirectly if the virion had bound to the cell or fused with the cell membrane.[6] FSLs do not appear to significantly affect the virions infectivity or their ability to bind target cells, probably because they integrate into the membrane without exposing the virion to chemical agents or covalent modification[citation needed].


  1. ^ Heathcote D, Carroll T, Wang JJ, Flower R, Rodionov I, Tuzikov A, Bovin N, Henry S. (2010). "Novel antibody screening cells, MUT+Mur kodecytes, created by attaching peptides onto erythrocytes.". Transfusion 50 (3): 635–641. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02480.x. PMID 19912581. 
  2. ^ Henry S (2009). "Modification of red blood cells for laboratory quality control use.". Current Opinion in Hematology 16 (6): 467–472. doi:10.1097/MOH.0b013e328331257e. PMID 19680123. 
  3. ^ Oliver C, Blake D, Henry S (2011). "In vivo neutralization of anti-A and successful transfusion of A antigen incompatible red cells in an animal model". Transfusion (in press) 51 (12): 2664–75. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03184.x. PMID 21599675. 
  4. ^ Oliver C, Blake D, Henry S. Modeling transfusion reactions and predicting in vivo cell survival with kodecytes.. Transfusion (in press). 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.03034.x. PMID 21303367.
  5. ^ a b Hadac EM, Federspiel MJ, Chernyy E, Tuzikov A, Korchagina E, Bovin NV, Russell S, Henry SM (2011). "Fluorescein and radiolabeled Function-Spacer-Lipid constructs allow for simple in vitro and in vivo bioimaging of enveloped virions". J Virological Methods 2011 (in press). 
  6. ^ a b c Blake DA, Bovin NV, Henry SM (2011). "FSL Constructs: A simple method for modifying cell/virion surfaces with a range of biological markers without affecting their viability". J Visualized Experiments (in press).