Kofta (see section Name for other names) is a Middle Eastern, South Asian and Balkan meatball or meatloaf. In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat—usually beef or lamb—mixed with spices and/or onions. In Pakistan, Turkey and Iran, koftas are usually made of beef, lamb, mutton or chicken, whereas Greek and Cypriot varieties are usually made of beef, veal, pork or mixtures of them.
They are often shaped into meatballs which are prepared with a mixture of ground meat, rice and leeks, and served dry. In Iran and Pakistan, koftas are served with a spiced gravy, as dry versions are considered to be kebabs. In India, vegetarian varieties, like lauki kofta and shahi aloo kofta, are popular, as religious beliefs generally forbid consumption of meat. Shrimp and fish koftas are found in South India, coastal Pakistan, and in some parts of the Persian Gulf states.
The meat is often mixed with other ingredients such as rice, bulgur, vegetables, or eggs to form a smooth paste. Koftas are sometimes made with fish or vegetables rather than red meat, especially in India. They can be grilled, fried, steamed, poached, baked or marinated, and may be served with a rich spicy sauce. Variations occur in North Africa, the Mediterranean, Balkans and South Asia. In Pakistan, koftas are made of beef and chicken. According to a 2005 study done by a private food company, there were 291 different kinds of kofta in Turkey.  In Arab countries, kufta is usually shaped into cigar-shaped cylinders.
Early recipes (included in some of the earliest known Arabic cookbooks) generally concern seasoned lamb rolled into orange-sized balls, and glazed with egg yolk and sometimes saffron. This method was taken to the West and is referred to as gilding, or endoring. Many regional variations exist, notable among them the unusually large Iranian kufteh Tabrizi, having an average diameter of 20 cm, (8 in). and despite its association with Iran, it is equally as popular in northern Pakistan.
Koftas were introduced to South Asia after Muslims started ruling South Asia. Koftas in South Asian cuisine are normally cooked in a spiced gravy, or curry, and sometimes simmered with hard boiled eggs. Kofta dishes are very popular with South Asian immigrants, and are widely available from many Pakistani and Indian restaurants. Vegetarian koftas are generally eaten by Hindus, with the exception of Kashmiri Hindus who by and large prefer meat koftas. Likewise, many Indian Muslims consume vegetarian koftas, including those that migrated to Pakistan in 1947. The British dish Scotch egg may have been inspired by the Moghul dish nargisi kofta ("narcissus kofta"), where hard-boiled eggs are encased in a layer of spicy kofta meat. In Bengal, a region of eastern India, koftas are made with prawns, fish, green bananas, cabbage, as well as minced goat meat. In Kashmir and northern Pakistan, mutton is often used in the preparation of koftas, as opposed to beef or lamb.
In the Lebanese cuisine, kafta is usually prepared by mixing the ground beef with onion, parsley, allspice, black pepper and salt.
In Moroccan cuisine, kufta may be prepared in a tagine.
See also 
- Inegol Koftesi
- Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. kofta
- Hinkhoj.com: Meaning of "Nargisis" in Hindi Retrieved 2013-01-28
- Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. kofta and Scotch egg
- Alan S. Kaye, "Persian loanwords in English", English Today 20:20-24 (2004), doi:10.1017/S0266078404004043.
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