|• MNA (NA-14)||Sheryar Afridi|
|• MPA (PK-37 Kohat-1)||Amjid Khan Afridi|
|• MPA (PK-39 Kohat-3)||Imtiaz Qureshi|
|• MPA (PK-38 Kohat-2)||Zia Ullah Bangash|
|Elevation||489 m (1,604 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|Calling code||+92 922|
|Number of Union councils||31|
Kohat (Pashto: کوهاټ), (Urdu: کوہاٹ), is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is the capital of the Kohat District. The town centers on a British-era fort, various bazaars and a military cantonment. A British-built narrow gauge railway line runs through the town.
- 1 History
- 2 Languages
- 3 Geography
- 4 Agriculture
- 5 Wildlife
- 6 Economy
- 7 Civic administration
- 8 Transport
- 9 Utility services
- 10 Culture
- 11 Education
- 12 Notable people
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The decisive engagement which made the Bangash masters of the Kohat valley is said to have been fought near Muhammadzai. Local traditions describe the battle as having lasted day and night for three days, till at last a youth in white appeared on the scene shouting "Dai, Dai, Dai, Sam de BangashO; Ghar de Orakzo," which, being translated, means "It is, it is, it is, the plain of the Bangash; the hill of the Orakzais." This legend is supposed by the Bangash to satisfactorily dispose of any claims of the Orakzais to proprietary rights in the Kohat or Miranzai valleys. According to another tradition the Kohat valley before the Bangash invasion was occupied, not by Orakzais, but by the tribes of the Gabris, Safis and Maujaris, who are not now to be traced. Whoever the original inhabitants may have been they now entirely disappeared. They were either exterminated, or more probably they were incorporated with the Bangash settlers, at first as Hamsayahs till in process of time they became indistinguishable from the real Bangash. A fort constructed by the British army stands near the centre of the town. Little is known about the fort.
The original settlements of the Bangash were in the Kuram valley. Miranzais, Samilzais and Baizais were all located there. The Baizais, whose summer quarters were at Ziran in Kuram, used to move during the winter to the Kohat plain, much as the Waziris and Ghilzais now do. After a time they quarrelled with the inhabitants of the country. Being unable to cope with them alone, they got the men of Upper Miranzai and Hangu to join them, and with their assistance conquered the country, which has been since known as Baizai. In dividing the tract the Hangu and Miranzai confederates got allotments which their descendants still hold.
As the Bangashes took possession of these lower valleys the lands abandoned by them in Kuram were taken possession of by a new tribe, the Turis, who gradually obtained the mastery over the Bangashes that remained, and are now the dominant tribe there. The Bangashes still possess the following tracts in the Kuram valley: Baghzai occupied by Jamshedis, and Shalozam, Makhazai, Hajikhel, and Ziran occupied by Shamilzais.
The city of Kohat rose to its fame because of the Pirs, the descendants of the famous Sufi, Hazrat Adam Banoori and his elite Murid Haji Bahadur whose descendants and disciples became the principal residents in Kohat city and outside the city including in the adjoining villages of Dhoda, Bhawal Nagar and Jurma.
Historically It was home of local Kohatis who use to speak dialect of Punjabi Language (Kohati /Hindko). After demographic changes in recent decades due to Afghan Refugees and Tribal peoples arrival, Pashto language speakers are in majority today. Urdu being National language is also spoken and understood. The main tribes of Kohat are Banoori, Bangash, Kohati, Orakzai, Khattak, Shinwari, Afridi etc.
Kohat City is located at an altitude of 489 metres (1,604 ft). Kohat Pass lies to the north. It is situated on the left bank of the Toi river at a point where after running nearly due east for 50 miles (80 km), it turns to the south. The total area of the district is 2,545 square kilometres (983 sq mi)
The Kohat region is hilly. The climate of Kohat and surrounding areas is comparable to the Mediterranean climate; it is hot from May to September. June is the hottest month. The mean, maximum and minimum temperature recorded during June is about 40 °C and 27 °C respectively. A pleasant change in the weather is noted from October onward, up till February. The winter is cold and severe. In the winter wind from west known as “Hangu Breeze” often blows down the Miranzai valley towards Kohat for weeks. The mean maximum and minimum temperature, recorded during the month of January, is about 18 °C and 6 °C respectively. The rainfall is received throughout the year. The monsoon rain is received from May to October. August is the rainiest month, with an average of about 114 mm. The winter rain occurs from November to April. The highest winter rainfall is received in the month of March. The average annual rainfall is about 638 mm. The maximum humidity has been recorded in the month of August during summer season and in December during the winter season.
Kohat’s primary agricultural products are guava, loquat, berries of different types, pomegranate, persimmons, blackberry, mulberry and pears. Famous trees of Kohat are mulberry, shisham, palosa and chinar, although a number of other fruits and vegetables are produced.
Tanda Lake is the main source of irrigation.
Former Justice M.R Kiyani of Kohat wrote the following lines in Hindko language to describe natural beauty of Kohat:
|“||“Thadda Thadda Parie’n”
“Nikka Nikka Atta”
Kohat Toi is a principal stream, used for the irrigation of guava gardens and fields, it enters from the Hangu district and flowing to east and southeast, drains into the Indus. The river has a small perennial flow, which disappears before it reaches the town of Kohat; it reappears again at some distance downstream and then flows continuously to the Indus. The Kohat Toi has several small tributaries which join it at different places.
Water for irrigation is supplied to Jurma, Shahpur and many villages by means of canals from Tanda lake.
Tanda Lake is also a protected site by Ramsar Convention. Ramsar is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.
It also protects migratory birds from Siberia and Caspian in winter.
In ancient times there were underground bricked tunnels, karaiz, in the city, which had clean drinking water. It is believed they were constructed by Mughals. Unfortunately they are blocked by the city garbage, and only remains are left.
Tanda Wildlife Park
Tanda Wildlife Park is located near Kohat city. The total area of the park is 2800 acres, consisting of Tanda reservoir and its catchments in Kohat. This is the largest wildlife park of NWFP. Its wonderfully rich and varied landscape supports a range of mammals and birds, both migratory and indigenous, as well as a few reptiles.
The park is bounded by three different villages, Bar, Kaghazi, and Tanda Banda. The park is approachable by Hangu-kaghazi metallic road, shahpur-Bar road which is 18 km from Kohat.
The local people do not have any right of grazing, lopping or firewood collection as the ownership lies with the provincial government. The park area falls in the natural habitat of urial and chinkara, and also provides suitable habitat to hog deer. The urial is associated with scrub forest of Olea species and Accassia species. Urial were once abundant in the area but due to continuous habitat destruction these were disappeared from the area in the near past. The natural habitat of urial and chinkara lies in close proximity of human habitation. The park plays an important role in wildlife conservation and awareness raising.
Flora of the Park: Accasia modesta, Prosopis juliflora, Monitheca buxifolia, Olea ferruginea, Salvadora persica, Zizyphus nummularia, Saccharum munja.
Fauna of the park: jungle cat, jackal, hare, porcupine, fox, mongoose, cobra, black partridge, grey partridge, chukar partridge, seesee partridge, common crane, demoiselle crane, geese, grey heron, intermediate egret, little egret, white cheeked bulbul, ducks and swans. Chinkara, hog deer, blue bull and urial have been procured and released in the enclosure of Tanda Wildlife Park.
Kotal Pheasantry is established in Kotal wildlife park in district Kohat over an area of 1 kanal, with an objective to propagate and provide breeding environment to exotic/indigenous wildlife species like silver pheasant, golden pheasant, reeves pheasant, pea-cock etc. About 20-30 visitors including students and general public visit the pheasantry for education and recreation purposes per day. There are four species of pheasants in the pheasantry including ring necked pheasant, silver pheasant, peacock pheasant and white pheasant.
Kotal Wildlife Park
Kotal Wildlife Park is located near the tunnel towards Peshawar.
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Kohat was incorporated as a municipality in 1873.
The post office was built in 1880.
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Kohat's main transport is privately operated, share of railway is very less.
Construction of the railway station and railway line was started in 1897, and was completed in 1902.
Kohat is the terminus railway station of Kohat-Jand railway line and has daily train service to Rawalpindi. It was also the terminus station of a narrow gauge (762 mm or 2 ft 6 in) railway line which connected it with Thall. This railway line was closed in 1991.
Kohat Airbase (IATA: OHT, ICAO: OPKT) is an Pakistan Air Force base. A small runway built by the British is in military use. PIA once used the airport using de Havilland Twin Otter, a small two engine plane.
There are 372 kilometres of metallic roads in the district. The Indus Highway passes through the city connected to the Peshawar, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan and many other big cities of Pakistan.
The 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) Kohat Tunnel was completed in 2004, and connects the southern districts, including Kohat City, to Peshawar. Constructed with Japanese assistance, it is also known as the Pak-Japan Friendship Tunnel.
The city is facilitated by the Tanda Dam. Towards the east are Gandiali Dam, Kandar Dam and Kandar Axillary Dam. Towards the north are Sandy Fateh Khan Dam and Darwazai Dam.
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There are only four public parks in Kohat City.
- Company Bagh (only for males)
- KDA Park (for male and women both)
- Defense Park (only for males)
- Happy Valley (only for females)
- Radio Pakistan Kohat
- Kohat Press Club
The people of the Kohat are very conservative and religious, hence the majority of schools and colleges are separate for men and women, with the exception of a few co-educational schools and colleges.
- NWFP University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar Kohat Campus
- Kohat University of Science & Technology
- Preston University in Kohat
- Cadet College Kohat
- Garrison Cadet College Kohat
- Government Polytechnical College Kohat
- Fazaia Inter College Kohat
- F.G College For Women Kohat Cantt
- Government Post Graduate College for Men Kohat
- Government Post Graduate College for Women Kohat
- Government Post Graduate College for Men #2 Kohat
- Government college of Management Sciences Kohat
Public and private high schools
The government high schools for boys are numbered 1 to 5. There are also the following public high schools:
- Government Comprehensive High School, Kohat
- Army Public School and College Kohat
- Islamia Higher Secondary School No.1
- Islamia Higher Secondary School No.2
- Fauji Foundation Model Schools Kohat
- F.G Public High School Kohat Cantt
- F.G High School, Peshawar Road Kohat
- The City School, Kohat Campus
- St. Joseph's Convent High School Kohat
Before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, there were only two high schools in Kohat: the Islima High School and Barathery High School. After the independence the name of Barathery was changed to Government High School-2.
- 1924 Kohat riots
- History of Kohat " Kohat Tareekh kay Aenay Main " written by a local Journalist Zulfiqar Shah, 2003
- History of Kohat " Sakafat-e-Kohat " written by Ahmad Paracha.
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- "Maps, Weather, Videos, and Airports for Kohat, Pakistan". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2012-11-01.
- Kohat: About Kohat. beautifulkohat.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- kohat railway station,Photo-Pakistan. Ugo.cn. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Kohāt Tahsīl Railway Station / Kohat Tahsil Railway Station, North-West Frontier, Pakistan, Asia. Travelingluck.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Kohat Press Club. "Kohat Press Club | Media, News, Kohat , Kohat Press Club". Kohatpressclub.n.nu. Retrieved 2012-11-01.
- Sarhad Tourism Corporation, Government of NWFP, Pakistan
- Members National Assembly
- Members Provincial Assembly