Kohat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kohat
کوهاټ
Kohat is located in Pakistan
Kohat
Coordinates: 33°35′N 71°26′E / 33.583°N 71.433°E / 33.583; 71.433
Country Pakistan
Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Government
 • MNA (NA-14) Sheryar Afridi
 • MPA (PK-37 Kohat-1) Amjid Khan Afridi
 • MPA (PK-39 Kohat-3) Imtiaz Qureshi
 • MPA (PK-38 Kohat-2) Zia Ullah Bangash
Elevation 489 m (1,604 ft)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code +92 922
Number of Union councils 31

Kohat (Pashto: کوهاټ‎), (Urdu: کوہاٹ‎), is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is the capital of the Kohat District. The town centers on a British-era fort, various bazaars and a military cantonment. A British-built narrow gauge railway line runs through the town.

History[edit]

The first Mughal Emperor Babur in Kohat.

Kohat is an ancient town, an Oasis and a trading hub situated in the east of Afghanistan, capital of Kabul and west of Peshawar, Afghanistan former winter capital and todays Provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtun Khawa. It is surrounded by the mountains some with white peaks and valleys where most notable and famous tribesmen including those of the Afridis and the Orakzais, the Shinwaris and others who over a period when forestry gave way to increase of agriculture land and the demand for the farmers gredualy migrated to the outskirts of the city and in the adjoining villages. During Afghanistan rule the city of Kohat played a key role in trade with other towns of Afghanistan situated in the south down to Baluchistan and those in the Iranian territory. The city of Kohat rose to its fame because of the Pirs, the descendants of the famous Sufi, Hazrat Adam Banoori and his elite Murid Haji Bahadur whose descendants and disciples became the principle residents in Kohat city and outside the city including in the adjoining villages of Dhoda and Bhawal Nagar..

Outside the city borders a Fort constructed by the British remind the residents of the colonial occupation for a period of almost one century, turning kohat area into a military canton on the requisition and confiscated land of the Banoori nobility, which the Pakistan military has ever since maintained the status quo. In the south outside the city there is a Railway line which the British Governor authorised to connect the city with Rawalpindi city. The key language of the People of Kohat was Pashto which later was supplemented with other languages including that of Hindko(the mix of sanskrit and urdu) as more and more people, artisans and trades men migrated from India and settled down in the main city giving rise to a language dialect called Kohati. The Persian language gradually disappeared.

Languages[edit]

Languages of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Historically It was an integral part of Afghanistan where Persian and Pashto language was spoken in the city as well as in the outsits and villages around it. As the people migrated from India in search of trade and work, they brought in the language of Hindko or Kohati( a dialect of sanskrit and urdu mix) which is also somewhat similar to Punjabi dialect also spoken by the Sikhs who for a limited period occupied the Pashtun land. The demographic changes in recent decades due to Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and later by the Americans forcing the refugees from the mainland as well as tribal lands, arriving in the cities of KPK has also resulted the more Pashto speaking among the Kohat folks. The main tribes of Kohat are Banoori, Bangash, Kohati, Orakzai, Khattak, Shinwari, Afridi etc.

Geography[edit]

Kohat City is located at an altitude of 489 metres (1,604 ft).[1] Kohat Pass lies to the north. It is situated on the left bank of the Toi river at a point where after running nearly due east for 50 miles (80 km), it turns to the south. The total area of the district is 2,545 square kilometres (983 sq mi)

Climate[edit]

The Kohat region is hilly. The climate of Kohat and surrounding areas is comparable to the Mediterranean climate, it is hot from May to September. June is the hottest month. The mean, maximum and minimum temperature recorded during June is about 40 °C and 27 °C respectively. A pleasant change in the weather is noted from October onward, up till February. The winter is cold and severe. In the winter wind from west known as “Hangu Breeze” often blows down the Miranzai valley towards Kohat for weeks. The mean maximum and minimum temperature, recorded during the month of January, is about 18 °C and 6 °C respectively. The rainfall is received throughout the year. The monsoon rain is received from May to October. August is the rainiest month, with an average of about 114 mm. The winter rain occurs from November to April. The highest winter rainfall is received in the month of March. The average annual rainfall is about 638 mm. The maximum humidity has been recorded in the month of August during summer season and in December during the winter season.

Agriculture[edit]

Kohat’s primary agricultural product is guava, loquat, berries of different types, pomegranate, persimmons, blackberry, mulberry and pears are found in abundance in Kohat. Famous trees of Kohat are mulberry, shisham, palosa and Chinar[2] although number of fruits and vegetables are produced. Tanda Lake is the main source of irrigation.

Former Justice M.R Kiyani of Kohat wrote the following lines in Hindko language to describe natural beauty of Kohat:

Tanda lake
Tanda lake in monsoon

Toi[edit]

Kohat Toi is a principal stream, used for irrigation of guava gardens and fields, it enters from Hangu district and flowing to east and southeast, drains into the Indus. The river has a small perennial flow, which disappears before it reaches the town of Kohat, it reappears again at some distance downstream and then flows continuously to the Indus. The Kohat Toi has several small tributaries, which join it at different places.

Canals[edit]

Water for irrigation is supplied to Jurma, Shahpur and many villages by means of canals from Tanda lake.
Tanda Lake is also a protective site by Ramsar Convention. Ramsar is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.
It also protects migratory birds from Siberia and Caspian in winter.
In ancient times there were underground bricked tunnels Karaiz in the city, which had clean drinking water, it is believed they were constructed by Mughals, unfortunately they are blocked by the city garbage, only remains are left.

Wildlife[edit]

Tanda Wildlife Park[edit]

Tanda wildlife park is located near Kohat city. The total area of the park is 2800 acres, consisting of Tanda reservoir and its catchments in Kohat. Tanda wildlife park is the largest wildlife park of NWFP. It is wonderfully rich and varied landscape supports a range of mammals and birds, both migratory and indigenous moreover the park also support a few reptile. The park is bounded by three different villages i.e. Bar, Kaghazi and Tanda Banda. The park is approachable by Hangu-kaghazi metallic road i.ef shahpur-Bar road which is 18 km from Kohat.the local people do not have any right of grazing, lopping or firewood collection as the ownership lies with the provincial Government. The park area falls in the natural habitat of Urial and Chinkara, and also provide suitable habitat to Hog Deer. The Urial is associated with Scrub forest of Olea spcies and Accassia species. Urial were once abundant in the area but due to continuous habitat destruction these were disappeared from the area in the near past. The natural habitat of Urial and Chinkkara lies in close proximity of Human habitation. The park plays an important role in wildlife conservation and awareness raising.[3] Flora of the Park: Accasia modesta, Prosopis juliflora, Monitheca buxifolia, Olea ferruginea, Salvadora persica, Zizyphus nummularia, Saccharum munja,

Fauna of the park: jungle cat, jackal, hare, porcupine, fox, mongoose, cobra, black partridge, grey partridge, chukar partridge, seesee partridge, common crane, demoiselle crane, geese, grey heron, intermediate egret, little egret, white cheecked bulbul, ducks and swans. Furthermore chinkara, hog deer, blue bull and urial have been procured and released in the enclosure of Tanda Wildlife Park.

Kotal Pheasantry[edit]

Kotal Pheasantry is established in Kotal wildlife park in district Kohat over an area of 1 kanal, with an objective to propagate and provide breeding environment to exotic/indigenous wildlife species like silver pheasant, golden pheasant, reeves pheasant, pea-cock etc. About 20-30 visitors including students and general public visit the pheasantry for education and recreation purposes per day. There are four species of pheasants in the pheasantry including ring necked pheasant, silver pheasant, peacock pheasant and white pheasant.[4]

Kotal Wildlife Park[edit]

Kotal Wildlife Park, is located near tunnel towards Peshawar.

Economy[edit]

Kohat Tehsil gate in 1919

Civic administration[edit]

Kohat was incorporated as a municipality in 1873.

Post Office was built in 1880.

Transport[edit]

Kohat's main transport is privately operated, share of railway is very less.

Railway[edit]

Construction of railway station and railway line was started in 1897, and was completed in 1902.
Kohat is the terminus railway station of Kohat[5]-Jand railway line and has daily train service to Rawalpindi.[6] It was also the terminus station of a Narrow gauge (762 mm or 2 ft 6 in) railway line which connected it with Thall. This railway line was closed in 1991.

Railway station in 1900

Air[edit]

Main article: Kohat Airbase

Kohat Airbase (IATA: OHTICAO: OPKT) is an Pakistan Air Force base. Small runway built by British, is in military use, PIA once used the airport using de Havilland Twin Otter, a small two engine plane.

Roads[edit]

There are 372 kilometres of metallic roads in the district.[citation needed] The Indus Highway passes through the city connected to the Peshawar, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan and many other big cities of Pakistan. Buses run out of the city via the Indus Highway. They go to Peshawar, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) and Islamabad.

Kohat Tunnel[edit]

The 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) Kohat Tunnel was completed in 2004,[7] and connects the southern districts, including Kohat City, to Peshawar. Constructed with Japanese assistance, it is also known as the Pak-Japan Friendship Tunnel.

Utility services[edit]

The city is facilitated by the Tanda Dam. Towards the east are Gandiali Dam, Kandar Dam and Kandar Axillary Dam. Towards the north is Sandy Fateh Khan Dam and Darwazai Dam.

Culture[edit]

There are only 4 public park in Kohat City. 1:Company Bagh (Only for male) 2:KDA Park ( for male and women both) 3:Defence Park (for only males) 4:Happy velly (for Females Only)


Media[edit]

  • Radio Pakistan Kohat
  • Kohat Press Club[8]

Education[edit]

People of the Kohat are very conservative and religious, hence majority of schools and colleges are separate for men and women, with the exception of few schools and colleges, which have co-education system.

Medical College[edit]

Universities[edit]

Colleges[edit]

  • Cadet College Kohat
  • Garrison Cadet College Kohat
  • Government Polytechnical College Kohat
  • Fazaia Inter College Kohat
  • F.G College For Women Kohat Cantt
  • Government Post Graduate College for Men Kohat
  • Government Post Graduate College for Women Kohat
  • Government Post Graduate College for Men #2 Kohat
  • Government college of Management Sciences Kohat

Public & Private High Schools[edit]

The Government High Schools for Boys are numbered 1 to 5. There are also the following public high schools:

  • Government Comprehensive High School, Kohat
  • Army Public School & College Kohat
  • Islamia Higher Secondary School No.1
  • Islamia Higher Secondary School No.2
  • Fauji Foundation Model Schools Kohat
  • F.G Public High School Kohat Cantt
  • F.G High School, Peshawar Road Kohat
  • The City School, Kohat Campus
  • St. Joseph's Convent High School Kohat

Before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, there were only two high schools in Kohat: the Islima High School and Barathery High School. After the independence the name of Barathery was changed to Govt. High School-2

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

  • 1924 Kohat riots
  • History of Kohat " Kohat Tareekh kay Aenay Main " written by a local Journalist Zulfiqar Shah, 2003
  • History of Kohat " Sakafat-e-Kohat " written by Ahmad Paracha.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]