Kohat

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Kohat
کوهاټ
Kohat is located in Pakistan
Kohat
Coordinates: 33°35′N 71°26′E / 33.583°N 71.433°E / 33.583; 71.433
Country Pakistan
Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Government
 • MNA (NA-14) Sheryar Afridi
 • MPA (PK-37 Kohat-1) Amjid Khan Afridi
 • MPA (PK-39 Kohat-3) Imtiaz Qureshi
 • MPA (PK-38 Kohat-2) Zia Ullah Bangash
Elevation 489 m (1,604 ft)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code +92 922
Number of Union councils 31

Kohat (Pashto: کوهاټ‎), is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is the capital of the Kohat District. The town centers around a British-era fort, various bazaars and a military cantonment. A British-built narrow gauge railway line runs through the town.

History[edit]

The first Mughal Emperor Babur in Kohat.

The decisive engagement which made the Bangashes masters of the Kohat valley is said to have been fought near Muhammadzai. Local traditions describe the battle as having lasted day and night for three days, till at last a youth in white appeared on the scene shouting "Dai, Dai, Dai, Sam de Bangasho; Ghar de Orakzo," which, being translated, means "It is, it is, it is, the plain of the Bangashes; the hill of the Orakzais." This legend is supposed by the Bangashes to satisfactorily dispose of any claims of the Orakzais to proprietary rights in the Kohat or Miranzai valleys. According to another tradition the Kohat valley before the Bangash invasion was occupied, not by Orakzais, but by the tribes of the Gabris, Safis and Maujaris, who are not now to be traced. Whoever the original inhabitants may have been they now entirely disappeared. They were either exterminated, or more probably they were incorporated with the Bangash settlers, at first as Hamsayahs till in process of time they became indistinguishable from the real Bangashes. A fort constructed by the British army stands near the centre of the town. Little is known about the fort.

The original settlements of the Bangashes were in the Kuram valley. Miranzais, Samilzais and Baizais were all located there. The Baizais, whose summer quarters were at Ziran in Kuram, used to move during the winter to the Kohat plain, much as the Waziris and Ghilzais now do. After a time they quarrelled with the inhabitants of the country. Being unable to cope with them alone, they got the men of Upper Miranzai and Hangu to join them, and with their assistance conquered the country, which has been since known as Baizai. In dividing the tract the Hangu and Miranzai confederates got allotments which their descendants still hold.

As the Bangashes took possession of these lower valleys the lands abandoned by them in Kuram were taken possession of by a new tribe, the Turis, who gradually obtained the mastery over the Bangashes that remained, and are now the dominant tribe there. The Bangashes still possess the following tracts in the Kuram valley: Baghzai occupied by Jamshedis, and Shalozam, Makhazai, Hajikhel, and Ziran occupied by Shamilzais.

Languages[edit]

Languages of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Historically It was home of local Kohatis who use to speak dialect of Punjabi Language (Kohati /Hindko). After demographic changes in recent decades due to Afghan Refugees and Tribal peoples arrival, Pashto language speakers are in majority today. Urdu being National language is also spoken and understood. The main tribes of Kohat are Banoori, Bangash, Kohati, Orakzai, Khattak, Shenwari, Afridi etc.

Geography[edit]

Kohat City is located at an altitude of 489 metres (1,604 ft).[1] Kohat Pass lies to the north. It is situated on the left bank of the Toi river at a point where after running nearly due east for 50 miles (80 km), it turns to the south. The total area of the district is 2,545 square kilometres (983 sq mi)

Climate[edit]

The region is very hilly, The climate of Kohat and surroundings is hot from May to September. June is the hottest month. The mean, maximum and minimum temperature recorded during June is about 40°C and 27°C respectively. A pleasant change in the weather is noted from October onwards, up till February. The winter is cold and severe. In winter a wrong west wind known as “Hangu Breeze” often blows down the Miranzai valley towards Kohat for weeks. The mean maximum and minimum temperature, recorded during the month of January, is about 18°C and 6°C respectively. The rainfall is received throughout the year. The monsoon rain is received from May to October. August is the rainiest month, with an average of about 114 mm. The winter rain occurs from November to April. The highest winter rainfall is received in the month of March. The average annual rainfall is about 638 mm. The maximum humidity has been recorded in the month of August during summer season and in December during the winter season.

Agriculture[edit]

Kohat’s primary agricultural product is Guava, Lokat, bair (berry), pomegranate, persimmons (amlok) and Gurgura (blackberry) are found in abundance in Kohat. Famous trees of Kohat are mulberry, shisham, palosa and Chinar[2] although number of fruits and vegetables are produced. Tanda Lake is the main source of irrigation.

Former Justice M.R Kiyani of Kohat wrote the following lines in Hindko language to describe natural beauty of Kohat:

Tanda Lake in monsoon

Thadda Thadda Parie’n

Nikka Nikka Atta

Armanay Kohata[2]

Canals[edit]

Water for irrigation is supplied to Jurma, Shahpur and many villages by means of canals
from Tanda lake.
Tanda Lake is also a protective site by Ramsar Convention. Ramsar is an international
treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.
It also protects migratory birds from Siberia and Caspian in winter.
In ancient times there were underground bricked tunnels Karaiz in the city, which had clean drinking water, it is believed they were constructed by Mughals, unfortunately they are blocked by the city garbage, only remains are left.

Toi[edit]

Kohat Toi is a principal stream, used for irrigation of Guava gardens and fields, it enters from Hangu district and flowing to east and southeast, drains into river Indus. The river has a small perennial flow, which disappears before it reaches the town of Kohat, it reappears again at some distance down stream and then flows continuously to the Indus. The Kohat Toi has several small torrents or tributaries, which join it at different places.

Wildlife[edit]

Tanda Wildlife Park[edit]

Tanda wildlife park is located near Kohat city. The total area of the park is 2800 acres, consisting of Tanda reservoir and its catchments in Kohat. Tanda wildlife park is the largest wildlife park of NWFP. It is wonderfully rich and varied landscape supports a range of mammals and birds, both migratory and indigenous moreover the park also support a few reptile. The park is bounded by three different villages i.e. Bar, Kaghazi and Tanda Banda. The park is approachable by Hangu-kaghazi metallic road i.ef shahpur-Bar road which is 18 km from Kohat.the local people do not have any right of grazing, lopping or firewood collection as the ownership lies with the provincial Government. The park area falls in the natural habitat of Urial and Chinkara, and also provide suitable habitat to Hog Deer. The Urial is associated with Scrub forest of Olea spcies and Accassia species. Urial were once abundant in the area but due to continuous habitat destruction these were disappeared from the area in the near past. The natural habitat of Urial and Chinkkara lies in close proximity of Human habitation. The park plays an important role in wildlife conservation and awareness raising.[3] Flora of the Park: Accasia modesta, Prosopis juliflora, Monitheca buxifolia, Olea ferruginea, Salvadora persica, Zizyphus nummularia, Saccharum munja,

Fauna of the Park: jungle cat, jackal, Hare, Porcupine, Fox, Mongoos, Cobra, Black partridge, Grey Partridge, Chukar Partridge, Seesee Partridge, Common Crane, Demoiselle Crane, Geese, Grey Heron, Intermediate Egret, Little Egret, White Cheecked Bulbul, Ducks and Swans. In addition to the above, Chinkara, Hog Deer, Blue Bull and Urial have also been procured and released in the enclosure of Tanda Wildlife Park.

Kotal Pheasantry[edit]

Kotal Pheasantry is established in Kotal wildlife park in district Kohat over an area of 1 kanal, with an objective to propagate and provide breeding environment to exotic/indigenous wildlife species like silver pheasant, golden pheasant, reeves pheasant, pea-cock etc. About 20-30 visitors including students and general public visit the pheasantry for education and recreation purposes per day. There are four species of pheasants in the pheasantry including ring necked pheasant, silver pheasant, peacock pheasant and white pheasant.[4]

Kotal Wildlife Park[edit]

Kotal Wildlife Park, is located near tunnel towards Peshawar.

Economy[edit]


Civic administration[edit]

Kohat was incorporated as a municipality in 1873.

Post Office was built in 1880.

Transport[edit]

Much of Kohat's transport is privately operated within the city limits.

Railway[edit]

Construction of railway station and railway line was started in 1897, and was completed in 1902.
Kohat is the terminus railway station of Kohat[5]-Jand railway line and has daily train service to Rawalpindi.[6] It was also the terminus station of a Narrow gauge (762 mm or 2 ft 6 in) railway line which connected it with Thall. This railway line was closed in 1991.

Roads[edit]

There are 372 kilometres of metallic roads in the district.[citation needed] The Indus Highway passes through the city connected to the Peshawar, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan and many other big cities of Pakistan. Buses run out of the city via the Indus Highway. They go to Peshawar, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) and Islamabad.

Kohat Tunnel[edit]

The Kohat Tunnel is a 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) was completed in 2004,[7] and connects the southern districts, including Kohat City, to Peshawar. Constructed with Japanese assistance, it is also known as the Pak-Japan Friendship Tunnel.[citation needed]

Kohat Tunnel

Air[edit]

Kohat Airbase (IATA: OHTICAO: OPKT) is an Pakistan Air Force base. Small runway built by British, is in military use, PIA once used the airport using de Havilland Twin Otter, a small two engine plane.


Utility services[edit]

The city is facilitated by the Tanda Dam. Towards the east are Gandiali Dam, Kandar Dam and Kandar Axillary Dam. Towards the north is Sandy Fateh Khan Dam and Darwazai Dam.

Culture[edit]

There is only one public park in Kohat City, named after Malik Saad Shaheed.

Media[edit]

Education[edit]

Medical College[edit]

Universities[edit]

Colleges[edit]

Public & Private High Schools[edit]

The Government High Schools for Boys are numbered 1 to 5. There are also the following public high schools:

  • Army Public School & College Kohat
  • Islamia Higher Secondary School No.1
  • Islamia Higher Secondary School No.2
  • Fauji Foundation Model Schools Kohat
  • F.G Public High School Kohat Cantt
  • F.G High School, Peshawar Road Kohat
  • The City School, Kohat Campus
  • St. Joseph's Convent High School Kohat
  • Beacon Public High School Kohat

Before the partition from India, there were only two high schools in Kohat: the Islima High School and Barathery High School. After the partition the name of Barathery was changed to Govt. High School-2

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

  • 1924 Kohat riots
  • History of Kohat " Kohat Tareekh kay Aenay may" written by a local Journalist Zulfiqar Shah, 2003

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Shah, Zulfiqar (2003, 2009 (2nd ed.)). Kohat Tarekh Kay Aeny Main (in Urdu).  - local journalist's book on Kohat History

External links[edit]