Koidanov (Hasidic dynasty)
Koidanov (also spelled Koidenov) is a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Shlomo Chaim Perlow (alternately: Solomon Ḥayyim Perlow) in 1833 in the town of Koidanov (present-day Dzyarzhynsk, Belarus). According to the YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Koidanov was the smallest of the three Lithuanian Hasidic dynasties, the others being Slonim and Karlin-Stolin. On the eve of World War II, its centers of influence were in the regions of Koidanov and Minsk. After its Rebbes and most of its Hasidim were murdered in the Holocaust, the dynasty was re-established in 1948 in Tel Aviv, where it thrives to this day.
The Koidanov dynasty represents a branch of the Karlin-Stolin dynasty and a continuation of the Lechovitch dynasty. The founder of the Koidanov dynasty was Shlomo Chaim (1797–1862), the son of Rabbi Aharon of Lyakhavichy (Lechovitch) (c.1772–1800) and grandson of Rabbi Mordechai of Lechovitch (c. 1742–1810). According to the Revision List of 1916, his family name was Malovich or Malovitsky. On his mother's side, Shlomo Chaim was the grandson of Rabbi Asher Perlow of Karlin and the great-grandson of Rabbi Nachum Twersky of Makarov.
Shlomo Chaim's father died when he was 3 years old and he was raised by his paternal grandfather, Rabbi Mordechai of Lechovitch, until the age of 13. Rabbi Mordechai arranged his grandson's engagement to a granddaughter of both Rabbi Shlomo of Karlin and Rabbi Asher Perlow of Karlin, and he was married the same day his grandfather died, 18 January 1810 (13 Shevat 5570). After his marriage he moved into the house of his wife's grandfather, Rabbi Asher Perlow, with whom he studied religious topics. He took on his father-in-law's surname, which was also his mother's maiden name.
Shlomo Chaim was mentored by his uncle, Rabbi Noah of Lechovitch, who led the yeshiva in that town. He also studied with the Rebbes of Mezhibuz, Apta, Chernobyl, and Ruzhin, and the sons of the Rebbe of Zlotshov. He moved to the town of Koidanov in the 1820s. When his uncle, Rabbi Noah of Lechovitch, died in 1833, the latter's Hasidim asked Perlow to become their Rebbe and he agreed. He also established a Koidanov community in Tiberias, Palestine.
Following Rebbe Shlomo Chaim's death in 1862, his son, Rebbe Boruch Mordechai Perlow (1818–1870), assumed the mantle of leadership for the next eight years until his own demise. He was succeeded by his son, Rebbe Aharon Perlow (1839-1897), a charismatic leader and scholar of Kabbalah. Thousands of followers joined the Koidanov dynasty under Rebbe Aharon's leadership. Rebbe Aharon published a siddur, Seder Tefilot Yisrael Or Hayashar ("The Direct Light: Order of Prayers of Israel"), in 1877, which includes his "eight mystical practices for spiritual perfection"; this prayer book is still used by Koidanover Hasidim today.
Rebbe Aharon's son, Rebbe Yosef Perlow of Koidanov-Minsk (1854-1915), was the last Koidanover Rebbe to serve in Koidanov. He opened a large yeshiva named Tomchei Tzedek. During his tenure, Koidanov synagogues were also established in Vilna and the United States. After World War I, the Koidanov dynasty relocated to Baronovitch, Poland, as did the Slonim dynasty.
Following Rebbe Yosef's death in 1915, his son, Yaakov Yitzchok (1903–1919), became Koidanover Rebbe in Baronovitch. Rebbe Yosef was a child prodigy who attracted his first Hasidim before his bar mitzvah and became Rebbe shortly after that occasion. Upon Rebbe Yaakov Yitzchok's death four years later in a typhus epidemic, Rebbe Yosef's younger brother, Rebbe Nechemiah (1860-1927) became the new Koidanover Rebbe. He, in turn, was succeeded by his son, Rebbe Shalom Alter (1906-1941), who was murdered in the Ponary massacre. Most of the Koidanover Hasidim were also murdered during the Holocaust.
The Koidanov dynasty was re-established in Tel Aviv by Rebbe Chanoch Henoch Dov Zilberfarb (1890-1978), who had been named Koidanov-Botoshaner Rebbe in 1929 and had immigrated to Israel in 1948. Rebbe Chanoch Henoch's father, Rebbe Meshulam Zalman Yosef Zilberfarb (1868–c. 1943), was the grandson of the Alesker Rebbe, Rebbe Chanoch Henoch Ashkenazi, and the son-in-law of Rebbe Aharon Perlow of Koidanov; he led his court in Toporov, Eastern Galicia according to the traditions of both Lechovitch and Koidanov.
Rebbe Chanoch Henoch Dov Zilberfarb was succeeded as Rebbe by his son, Rebbe Aharon (d. 1994), and then by his grandson, the present Koidanover Rebbe, Rebbe Yaakov Tzvi Meir Ehrlich.
Under Rebbe Yaakov Tzvi Meir Ehrlich's direction, the Koidanover dynasty maintains synagogues in Tel Aviv and Bnei Brak and a yeshiva, in addition to chesed projects. The Rebbe is heavily involved in kiruv (outreach). His beis medrash, located in Dizengoff Square, serves as an outreach center where weekly lectures and a Friday-night Oneg Shabbat attract many secular Jews and guide them towards religious observance. Rebbe Yaakov Tzvi Meir is well known as an inspiring speaker and educator of youth.
Machon Siach Avos, the Koidanov publishing house in Israel, has reprinted all the works of the Koidanover Rebbes and other members of the dynasty. These include:
- Seder Tefilot Yisrael Or Hayashar, the Koidanov siddur, written by Rebbe Aharon Perlow with an introduction by his son, Rebbe Yosef Perlow
- Haggadah shel Pesaḥ Siaḥ Avot, a commentary on the Passover Haggadah by Rebbe Aharon Perlow
- Zekher Tzadik (1905), by Rebbe Aharon Perlow
- Divrei Shalom (1882), an anthology of teachings of the Rebbes of Koidanov, plus genealogies, by Rabbi Shalom of Koidanov-Brahin, brother of Rebbe Aharon Perlow
- Mishmeres Shalom, by Rabbi Shalom of Koidanov-Brahin, which explores the sources of minhagim (customs) in halacha
- Rebbe Shlomo Chaim Perlow (1797–1862) – founder
- Rebbe Boruch Mordechai Perlow of Koidanov (1818–1870) – son of Rebbe Shlomo Chaim Perlow
- Rebbe Aharon Perlow of Koidanov (1839–1897) – son of Rebbe Boruch Mordechai Perlow
- Rebbe Yosef Perlow of Koidanov–Minsk (1854–1915) – son of Rebbe Aharon Perlow
- Rebbe Yaakov Yitzchok Perlow (1903–1919) – son of Rebbe Yosef Perlow
- Rebbe Nechemiah Perlow (1860–1927) – brother of Rebbe Yosef Perlow
- Rebbe Shalom Alter Perlow (1906–1941) – son of Rebbe Nechemiah Perlow
- Rebbe Meshulam Zalman Yosef Zilberfarb (1868–c. 1943) – son-in-law of Rebbe Aharon of Koidanov
- Rebbe Chanoch Henoch Dov Zilberfarb of Koidanov–Botoshan (1890–1978) – son of Rebbe Meshulam Zalman Yosef Zilberfarb
- Rebbe Aharon Zilberfarb of Koidanov (d. 1994) – son of Rebbe Chanoch Henoch Dov Zilberfarb
- Rebbe Yaakov Tzvi Meir Ehrlich of Koidanov – nephew of Rebbe Aharon Zilberfarb and grandson of Rebbe Chanoch Henoch Zilberfarb
- Nadler, Allen (2010). "Koidanov Hasidic Dynasty". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Rabinowitsch, Wolf Zeev (2012). "Koidanov". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Glassman, Deborah G. (2004). "Rabbonim, Rebbes, and Crown Rabbis, of Lyakhovichi". JewishGen. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Bernstein, Dovid (2 November 2009). "Koidenover Rebbe in Queens Tonight". matzav.com. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
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- Bromberg, Abraham Isaac (1963). Mi-Gedole ha-ḥasidut (Jerusalem).
- Rabinowitsch, Wolf Zeev (1961). Ha-Ḥasidut ha-Lita'it.
- Rabinowitsch, Wolf Zeev (1970). Lithuanian Hasidism from Its Beginnings to the Present Day (London).
- Stamm, S.E. (1905). Zekher Zaddik.