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Koinon (Greek: Κοινόν, pl. Κοινά, Koina), meaning "common" and interpreted as "commonwealth", "league" or "federation" were a number of associations of cities in ancient and early modern Greek history.
The Koinon was a form of government that had existed in various periods in Greek history. In Epirus itself there had in ancient times existed the Koinon of the Molossians. There was a Koinon of Laconians, centred around Sparta and its old dominions for a period under Roman rule, a Koinon of the Macedonians, also under Roman rule. In modern Greek history, during the Greek War of Independence, a local self-government termed Koinon was set up in the islands of Hydra, Spetsai and Psara.
The various federations termed Koinon were:
- Ionian League (Koinon Ionon), formed in the 7th century BC.
- Koinon of the Aeinautae, recorded on an inscription which was found in Eretria, island Euboea. dated to the 5h century BC.
- Chalcidian League (Koinon Chalkideon), existing ca. 430 BC to 348 BC
- Epirote League (Koinon Epiroton), existing from ca. 320 BC to ca. 170 BC
- Koinon of Crete under the Roman Empire to the 4th century.
- Koinon of Macedonians existing from 3rd century to Roman period.
- Lycian League, founded in 168 BC
- Koinon of Free Laconians, a league of cities in Laconia established by Roman emperor Augustus in 21 BC.
- Koinon of the Zagorisians under the Ottoman Empire, 1670–1868.
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