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Song played on the kokle
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The kokle (or kuōkle) is a Latvian plucked string musical instrument (chordophone), of the zither family. It is similar in construction and origin to the Lithuanian kanklės, Russian gusli, Estonian kannel and Finnish kantele.
The first written information about kokle players is from the 15th century. The Baltic tribes developed the kokle based on similar zithers played by the Finnic and Slavic peoples of the region. Legendarily, the strings of the kokle were said to represent the sun. A kokle at the Historical Museum in Riga shows Latvian runes.
The kokle has a hollow trapezoidal body, topped with a thin wooden soundboard. Wooden tuning pegs are set into the wide tip of the body, while at the narrow tip is a metal rod upon which the strings are secured. The strings may be of gut, plant fibres, brass, or steel. Traditionally, there were 6-9 strings which later increased to 10.
The player generally plays the instrument sitting at a table, strumming with his right hand and muting unwanted strings with his left hand. The kokle is generally tuned in a diatonic scale, with some lower strings functioning as bourdons (drones) which continuously sound.
In the Latvian historical region of Kurzeme, kokles are constructed without a "wing", but with ornate carving and ornaments.
In the largely Catholic Latgale region of Latvia, the kokle has a wing, which reinforces the sound and is used as an arm support. Compared with Kurzemes kokles, the finish is less thorough; the instruments are bigger, and heavier, with more sober decoration.
At the end of the nineteenth century kokle traditions were influenced by the construction of the Western zither. Thus arose the so-called zither kokles: kokles with larger, zither-type cases, steel tuning pins, and an increased number of strings.
A larger "concert kokle" with a wider range of notes has been developed, and some of these have devices to change the pitches of strings in order to change keys.
In modern music
- On Some Relations Between Kokles Styles And Contexts In The Twentieth Century, Valdis Muktupāvels (University of Latvia)
- Valdis Muktupāvels. Kokles un koklesana Latvija (The Baltic Psaltery and Playing Traditions in Latvia). Riga[when?].
- Simon Broughton (1994). World music: the rough guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-017-2. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Arvids Ziedonis (1968). The religious philosophy of Janis Rainis, Latvian poet. Latvju Grāmata. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Benchmark Books; Marshall Cavendish (1 October 2002). Peoples of Europe. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 279–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7378-7. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Ian Peddie (31 August 2011). Popular Music and Human Rights: World Music. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-7546-6853-4. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- published by Edition Wilhelm Hansen (WH21231)