||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Kolathiri. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2011.|
|Capital||Ezhimalai and various other capitals|
|Languages||Malayalam, Tulu, Kannada|
|-||Established||c. 12th century|
Kolattunādu (Kola Swarupam, as Kingdom of Cannanore in foreign accounts, Chirakkal (Chericul) in later times) was one of the three most powerful feudal kingdoms on the Malabar Coast during the arrival Portuguese Armadas to India, the others being Zamorin's Calicut and Quilon. Kolattunādu had its capital at Ezhimalai and was ruled by Kolattiri Royal Family and roughly comprised the whole northern districts of Kerala state and parts of Karnataka in India. Traditionally, Kolattunādu is described as the land lying between Perumba river in the north and Putupattanam river in the south.
The ruling house of Kolathunādu, which was known as Kolattunau, was one of the major political powers which sprang up in Kerala after the disappearance of the Cheras of Mahodayapuram by the 12th century AD. Kolattiris traces their ancestry back to the ancient Mushika kingdom (Ezhimalai kingdom, Eli-nadu) of the Tamil Sangam Age. After king Nannan of Mushika dynasty was killed in a battle against the Cheras, the history of the dynasty is obscure. However, it is generally agreed among the scholars that Kolattiris are the descendents of king Nannan, and later literary works point towards kings such as Vikramaraman, Jayamani, Valabhan and Srikandan from Mushika dynasty. Kolathunad was the northernmost province of the Later Chera kingdom and had considerable autonomy during 12th century.
Though the rulers of this house (popularly known as Kolattiris) were generally credited with a superior political authority over the geographical zone lying between the kingdoms of Canara and Zamorin's Calicut, their political influence was more or less confined to Kolattunādu. Ezhimalai, the ancient capital of the kingdom, was one of the most important trading centres on Malabar along with Quilon and Calicut, and has found mention in the writings of Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo and Wang Ta-Yuan and several other explorers. In the course of time, their territories were divided into a number of petty vassal principalities, chief among them Cannanore and Laccadives, Cotiote and Wynad, Cartinad (Badagara), Irvenaad, and Randaterra. The so-called "Five Friendly Northern Rulers" (Nilesvaram, Kumbla, Vitalh, Bangor, and Chowtwara) were contiguous to Kolattnad, north of the Kavvayi river. They engaged in frequent rivalry with their powerful neighbors in the south, the Zamorins of Calicut—a permanent feature of Kerala history.
When Portuguese explores under Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived in India, Kolattiris warmly welcomed them in Cannanore (1501) and allowed the construction of a strategic fort in Kolattunadu, seeking fortunes against the Zamorins. Later, Kolathiri gave up the Portuguese, and helped the Dutch, and then followed the English East India Company.
In spite of its fluctuating political fortunes throughout its existence, the Kola Swarupam was considered as one of the most prominent political houses in Kerala until the British occupation of the region by the end of the 18th century. At least from the second half of the 15th century, Cannanore occupied the prime position of being the leading port town of Kolathunādu and, consequently, it was the core area of socio-economic and political dynamics of the region.
During the Mysore occupation of Malabar, the Kolattiris found refuge in Travancore, and the territories were taken over by the British after the Anglo-Mysore Wars. Kingdom of Chirakkal was taken over by Mysore between 1766 and 1773. The ruler then came under the English East India Company's protection until 1777, when he made his peace with Hyder Ali who allowed him to rule in Chirakkal upon payment of tribute. He again changed sides in 1790 and was restored by the English East India Company in 1792. By the settlement of that year,he was allowed to retain his rights and authority, subject to the control of the Company. 1798-99, the Company assumed the management and granted to the Kolattiri a political allowance known as Malikhana, fixed at one fifth of the then ascertained revenue of the territory.
The political lordship of the original Kingdom of Kolattiri was partitioned along various matrilinial-divisions of the Kolattiri family and had rulers of the respective parts or Kũrvāzhcha (part-dominions) namely Kolattiri, Tekkālankũr, Vadakkālankũr, Naalāmkũr, and Anjāmkũr. The administration of Kolattunādu was divided into various segments of authority each of which performed functions similar to those of the superior powers but on a smaller scale.
The administration was conducted through chiefs-in-tenant under the Kolattiri. This included dignitaries called "nāduvazhis", "desavazhis" and "mukhyastans". The nāduvazhis, who were heads of "nādus" or districts headed Nair militias of 500 -20,000. Below the nāduvazhis in the administrative hierarchy were desavazhis who were heads of hamlets called "desams". These were divisions of nādus. Desavazhis headed Nair militias ranging from 100 to 500 men. Below the desavazhis were other local potentates called mukhyastans. However, as in any feudal society, the Kolattiris were unable to centralize their state and the inability of the Kolattiris to monopolize the use of force in the realm on account of their weak economic position meant that the outward appearance of regal authority remained more or less nominal.
There appears to have been a significant discrepancy between the ideal type of polity presented in Brahmanical texts such as the Keralolpathi, where the Kolathiri Rājā is presented as the custodian of legitimized political power, and the actual working of power relations in the region. It appears that the Kolathiris never exercised a monopoly of authority in the realm. Authority was a decentralized, shared, and pluralistic entity. The kingly status attributed to the Kolathiris remained more or less a nominal one. The Kolathiris had to sustain their political dignity within the constraints set by the limits of their economic resource base as the geographical features of Kolathunādu did not guarantee a large-scale agricultural surplus. Shaped by the limited agrarian economy in Kolathunādu, the possibility of a centralized political structure to emerge was limited. This constricted opportunity to exploit the limited agricultural surplus obviously restricted the chances of the Kolathiris to exercise considerable influence over the people of the region. Instead, there emerged a fluctuating field of powerful taravādus of Nāyars exercising control over the resources from their respective landed properties and the dependent labour-service classes. The inability of the Kolathiris to monopolize the use of force in the realm on account of their weak economic position meant that the outward appearance of regal authority remained more or less nominal.
The origin of the Ezhi Malai rulers, the Mushaka Kingdom and Kolathunad is obscure in history.
Ezhi Malai rulers
During the Sangam period, the early centuries of the Christian era, both present day Kerala and the Tamil Nadu were considered to be part of a common cultural realm and to belong to a common geographical settlement pattern, in spite of being under distinct political entities. More specifically, Tamil anthologies of the early Christian era make no sharp cultural or social distinction between the Pandyas, the Cheras, or the Cholas, and the Velir chiefs, all operating within a common cultural and geographical milieu. Also later, the Hindu temples on the western coast were also included in the sacred geography of the Tamil Bhakti movement and were profusely praised by the Alwars and Nayanars, the main proponents of the movement, in their verses.
In the Tamil Sangam Age, northern Malabar was under the rule of a dynasty with capital at Ezhil Malai (and with second capital at Pazhi). Ezhil Malai (Mount Deli in European accounts) and its neighboring regions werebecame dynamic centers of socio-political activities in the early centuries of the Christian era. The Ezhil Malai kingdom (Konka-nam, a part of the Puzhi-nadu) comprised practically the whole of the present Kannur, Kasaragode and Wynad districts and a portion of the Tulu country and parts of Coorg and Gudalur as well. This was the north-western most Tamil speaking area of the ancient Tamil country.
Cheras fought with the Ezhil Malai rulers for the supremacy over the area in the Sangam ages. It was during their military expansion to the north, the Chera forces came to face with the Ezhil Malai forces. Probably, the earliest Chera ruler who exercised control over some portions of Puzhinadu was "Puzhiyar-kon" Palyani Sel Kelu Kuttuvan.
Nannan of Ezhil Malai was the most celebrated ruler of this dynasty. Surviving Tamil anthologies draw a brilliant picture of Nannan and describe his engagements with ruling elites such as the Cheras. He was more of a tribal chieftain who engaged primarily in plundering raids in the neighboring territories. However, in the beginning of the 1st century AD, the kingdom of Ezhil Malai rose to political prominence under Nannan with his capital at Pazhi. Nannan was a warrior king who conducted expeditions deep into the interior regions and brought the Wynad-Gudalur region and a part of Kongunadu (Salem-Coimbatore region) under his control. According Tamil poets he made several victories (including the Battle of Pazhi) over the Cheras. King Narmudi Cheral, the successor of Sel Kelu Kuttuvan, sent Chera forces under General Migili against Nannan. But, he was defeated in the Battle of Pazhi against the Ezhil Malai forces. But later, Nannan was defeated in a series of subsequent engagements. He was forcesd to flee his capital Pazhi and seek asylum in Wynad hills. The battles ended when Narmudi Cheral crushed Nannan's forces in the Battle of Vagai Perum Turai. According to Agananuru, Nannan was killed in the battle. After his death, the control of the Ezhimalai kingdom came under the Cheras.
The city of Pazhi, the later capital of the Ezhil Malai kingdom, was famous for its rich treasures. They had close trade relations with Roman sailors on Malabar Coast.
By the 8th century the political atmosphere in southern India had changed rather dramatically as a new political culture based on settled agrarian exploitation took root in the region. As in other parts of the Indian sub-continent, Brahmanism provided the ideological support for these newly emerging regional, primarily agrarian states.
Between 9th and 12th centuries, a dynasty called "Mushaka" controlled the Chirakkal-Kasaragodu areas of northern Malabar (the Wynad-Tellichery area was part of the Second Chera Kingdom). Mushakas were probably the descendants of the ancient royal family of Nannan of Ezhi Malai and were perhaps a vassal of the Cheras. Some scholars have expressed the view that Mushakas were not under of the Cheras, since the ruler of Mushaka does not figure along the rulers of Eralnadu and Valluvanadu as a signatory in the famous Terisappalli and Jewish Copper Plates. Up to 11th century, the Mushaka kings followed the patrilineal system of succession and that thereafter they gradually switched over to the matrilineal system.
A Sankrit poem (called Mushika Vamsa) written Atula describes a number of Mushaka kings such as Vikrama Rama, Jayamani, Vallabha II and Srikantha. Atula was the court poet of King Srikantha who ruled towards the end of 11th century AD.
King Vikrama Rama is said to have saved the famous Buddhist vihara of Sri Mulavasa from a terrible sea erosion on the Malabar Coast. Prince Vallabha II was despatched by King Jayamani to assist the Chera forces during the invasion of the Chola ruler Kulottunga. However, before he could join with the Chera army, he heard the death of his father and he returned to the capital to prevent the usurpation of the Mushaka throne by his enemies. On reaching the capital, he defeated his rivals and ascended the throne. Vallabha II also founded the port of Marahi (Madayi) at the mouth of Killa river and port of Valabha Pattanam (Valiaptam). The city of Valabha Pattanam was protected with lofty towers and high walls. He also annexed Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi islands of Arabian sea. Srikantha (also known as Raja Dharma), his younger brother, succeeded Vallabha II.
According to the Mushika Vamsa, Rama Ghata Mushaka established the lineage of Kola Swarupam. Whatever may have been the authority for the Mushika Vamsa, inscriptional evidence from at least the 8th century AD seems to support the existence of the Mushaka dynasty. In addition, an inscription dating to 929 AD mentions about one Vikrama Rama identifiable with the ruler Vikrama Rama who appears in the Mushika Vamsa. Another inscription from 10th century AD mentions a cheftain, Udaya Varma, who bore the title "Rama Ghata Muvar"— an epithet used by the Mushaka kings. An inscription from the Tiruvattur temple mentions an Eraman Chemani (Rama Jayamani) who is identifiable with the king who appears as the 109th ruler in the Mushika Vamsa.
They intermarried very frequently with the Cheras, the Pandyas and the Cholas, and also might have given rise to the royalties of the Lakshadweep and the Maldives. The Mushaka family has found mention in surviving mythical Indian texts like the Vishnu Purana and also in Greek accounts like that of Strabo.
Rise of Kolathunadu (Cannanore)
The socio-cultural uniqueness of the state called Kolathunadu became more distinctive only after the disappearance of the Second Cheras by the early 12th century. But by 14th century, the Kolathiris were vassals of Hoysala Empire. Before the arrival the Portuguese, Calicut fought a number of wars against Cannanore (Kolathunad). A prince of the Kolattiri royal family was stationed at Pantalayini Kollam as southern Viceroy. Pantalayini Kollam was an important port on the Malabar Coast. During his conquests, the Zamorin occupied Pantalayini Kollam as a preliminary advance to Cannanore. Kolattri immediately sent ambassadors to submit to whatever terms Calicut might dictate. Cannanore officially transferred the regions already occupied to Calicut and certain Hindu temple rights.
The Kolathiris are praised as Vadakkan Perumals ("Kings of the North") by the famous "Keralolpathi". Foreign accounts also corroborate the distinct identity of Kolathunadu. Marco Polo, who visited Malabar coast in the 12th century, noticed the independent status of the king of this region. The 14th century narrative of Ibn Battuta refers to the ruler of this region as residing at a city called Balia Patanam. This offers a clue that by this time, the capital of Kolathunadu had shifted from Ezhil Malai to Balia Patanam, a town located south of Ezhil Malai. In the 16th century, a Portuguese official Duarte Barbosa also mentions Balia Patanam ("Balia Patam" in European records) as the residence of the king of Cannanore.
Events leading to British colonization
Important Events between 1689-1801 leading to British colonization of Kolathunādu.
1689: Kolattiri Rājā and his Prince Regent (Vadakkālankũr), to protect the latter from his adversary Kurangoth nāyar, sent an ultimatum to the then British interlopers in Malabar to let them know that they could continue to trade in north Malabar only if they agreed to build a factory in the area.
1708: Completion of Thalassery fort.
1722 : The French claim for a factory was staked at Māhe to protect their interest in Malabar. They started to wage a war against the Vāzhunor of Badagara with a view to establishing a factory in Māhe which was only three miles south of Thalassery. Kolattiri through a royal writing granted to the East India Company ’all the trades and farms’ within his ’territory from Canharotte down the Pudupatnam river’, excluding the areas where concessions were held by the Dutch who were based at Kannũr. The British were also authorized to ’punish, prevent and driveaway’ ’any other stranger’ who interfered with their concessions.
1725: French established factory at Māhe by making a deal with Vāzhunor.
1720s Ali Raja of Arackal Raja attacked the then Prince Regent of Kolathunād, Cunhi Homo and he approaches the British for succour in return for the privileges and factory granted to them by his uncle the Kolathiri.
1728 Chief of Thalassery, Adams, was recalled to Bombay and Prince regent asks for military assistance from Dutch at Cochin. The Dutch demanded the port of Dharmapatanam in return. The East India Company fearing Dutch influence supplied Kolathunād with 20,000 fanams of military stores and Ali Rājā was silenced. The British in return were given exclusive permission over other Europeans to buy spices in Kolathunādu by Prince Udaya Varman.
1732-34: Kanarese invaded North Malabar in 1732 at the invitation of the Arackal Raja. Under the command of Gopalaji, 30,000 strong Kanarese soldiers, easily overran Cunhi Homo’s forts in northern Kolathunād. Early in 1734 the Kanarese soldiers captured Kudali and Dharmapatanam
1736: Kanarese army was driven out of the whole of North with assistance from the British but the Prince Regent incurs a huge debt with the factors at Tellichery as a result 1737: Nayaks of Bednur plan another attack on Kolathunādu. Prince Cunhi Homo agreed to sign a peace treaty with the Kanarese which fixed the northern border of Kolathunād on the Madday. The factors of Tellicherry also signed their own treaty with the Nayak of Bedanur which guaranteed the integrity of British trading concessions in Malabar in the event of future conflicts between the Kanarese and the rulers of Kolathunād.
1739-42 Prince Ockoo, a French supported adversary of the Prince regent and his followers were killed by the factors of Tellichery.
1741 Prince regent asked his vassals, the Achanmārs of Randuthara to contribute 30,000 fanams towards defraying state debt. The Achanmārs refused. Prince Regent’s threatened to assume the collection of tribute in Randuthara unless the Achanmārs agreed. the British arranged to pay the Prince Regent the sum of 30,000 fanams on behalf of the Achanmārs in exchange for the land revenue collection of Randuthara. Thus The debt trap was an important instrument which the British used to secure the monopoly of trade in Malabar.
1745: The direct relations which the factors of Tellicherry were cultivating with the vassals of Kolathunād, however, tended to alienate the Kolattiri. The Prince Regent of Kolathunād accused the factors of Tellicherry of interfering ’too much in the government of his country’.
1746: Death of Prince Udaya Varman. The disintegration of the Kolathiri's dominion had started and the English fanned dissensions in the royal family. The British started taking control of more and more area by purchasing land through consorts of the royal family.
October 1747: Minor war between Kolathiri and factors at Tellichery who using Prince Raman Unithiri ’chastized’ ’ant-British ministers’ in the samastanom. On succession due to Prince Kunhi Homos death, Prince Cunhi Raman tried to ambition to reaffirm his authority upon his Vassals to the East India Company concern. Having consolidated his authority, Prince Cunhi Raman embarked on a policy of centralizing the administration of Kolathunād so as to acquire more power over his vassals. He expressed the desire to collect the land revenue of Randuthara because he felt that the Achanmār no longer obeyed him.
1749: Prince cunhi Raman threatened to appoint his own sons to administer the taluks of Iruvalinad and Kadattanad. In the same year, however, the Boyanore cut the last links of Vassalage with the Kolathunād palace and declared himself Rājā of Kadattanad. The Nambiārs of Iruvalinād threatened to follow suit. The Achanmār of Randuthara appealed to the British for more protection. Kolathunād was being dismembered. The Kolattiri and his Prince Regent were being forced to withdraw to Kolathunād ’proper’ and so restrict their authority to what was to become the taluk of Chirakkal.
April 1751: Following the Boyanore’s assumption of the title of Rājā, Prince Cunhi Raman declared war on Kadattanad, Iruvalinad where the East India Company had acquired the monopoly of buying pepper . Following many discussions, the factors managed to convince the Kolattiri (the Senior Rājā of Kolathunād) to dismiss Prince Kunhi Raman and appointed Ambu Tamban as Prince Regent in the presence of Thomas Derryl of the East India Company at Thalassery .
January 1752: The Rājā of Cotiote mediated for a settlement between Tellicherry and Kolathunād.
1760: Death of Prince Rama Varma
1761: Kolattiri dismisses the Prince Regent and took charge of the Kolathunād Raj directly and granted the British the right to collect all the custom duties of North Malabar on behalf of the samastanom.
1764: Prince of Chirakkal took over the administration of Kolathunād.
1765: Prince of Chirakkal recognized the dominant position of Tellicherry in the taluk of Randuthara by ceding the area to the East India Company.
Feb 1766: Hyder Ali along with a formidable force is welcomed into Kerala by the Ali Rājā of Kannũr. The Mysorean army guided by Ali Rājā and his brother seize the palace of the Rājā of Kolathiri at Chirakkal. The Rājā and his family flee south to take refuge at the English trading station in Thalassery. He appointed Ali Rājā as his Naval Chief (High Admiral) and the Rājā 's brother Sheik Ali as Chief of Port Authority (Intendant of Marine).
1773: Hyder Ali invaded Malabar for a second time in 1773 on the pretext that the Rajas of Malabar had not paid him tribute as agreed in 1768.
Feb 1789: Tipu Sultan enters Malabar for the second time as all the Rājā and Chieftains of North Malabar had revolted and declared their independence from Mysore. He devastated Kadathanād and marries off his son (Abdul Khalic) to the daughter of the Arackal Bibi of Kannũr. One of the princes of the Kolathiri family was killed by Tippu´s soldiers during his escape and his dead body was dragged by elephants through Tippu's camp and it was subsequently hung up on a tree along with seventeen of his followers who had been captured alive.
May 1790: Tipu leaves Malabar never to return
March 1792: Malabar was formally ceded to the British. The British entered into agreements with the Rājā of Chirakkal, Kottayam and Kadathanād and all of them acknowledged the full sovereignty of the Company over their respective territories. The British Government divided the province of Malabar into two administrative divisions - the Southern and Southern, presided over by a superintendent each at Thalassery and Cherpulasseri, under the general control of the supervisor and chief magistrate of the province of Malabar who had his headquarters at Kozhikode.
1800: Malabar was made a part of the Madras Presidency
1801: Death of the last Kolathiri Rājā who ceded all his dominions to the British (was commonly known as the first Rājā of Chirakkal). Major Macleod took charge as the first principal collector of Malabar on October 1, 1801.
Kolathunād remained part of Malabar District (an administrative district of British India under Madras presidency till 1947 and later part of India's Madras State till 1956. On November 1, 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu, and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanaramerged with Karnataka.
Constitution of the Kolathiri family
By the 17th century, the Kolaswarũpam had to share its political authority with two other lineages in north Kerala. The Nileswaram (Alladam) Swarũpam and the Arackal Swarũpam claimed independent political identity. Moreover, political power within the Kolaswarũpam was also disseminated into different kovilakams. In the Keralolpathi there are four kovilakams sharing the political authority of the Kolaswarupam namely: Talora Kovilakam; Arathil Kovilakam; Muttathil Kovilakam; and Karipathu Kovilakam. According to the Keralolpathi Kolathunādu tradition, the Karipathu Kovilakam claimed some sort of superiority over the others. However, it was the Palli Kovilakam and the Udayamangalam Kovilakam, as apparent from the Dutch records, which dominated the political scene of Kolathunadu Both these kovilakams had again branched into various kovilakams, thereby, creating a network of political houses within the Kolaswarupam.
The original kingdom of Kolathiri was partitioned along 5 matrilinial-divisions of the Kolathiri family and had rulers of the respective parts/ Kũr-Vāzhcha (part-dominions) namely Kolattiri, Tekkālankũr, Vadakkālankũr, Naalāmkũr, Anjāmkũr.
|The matrilinial divisions of the Kolathiri family (Kovilakams)|
|Chenga||Prāyikkara at Māvelikkara, Ennakkāt' (Further divided into Ennakkāt and Māvelikkara)|
During the period of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan from 1766 to 1792 multiple military invasions, plunder and systematic forcible conversions were performed in North and South Malabar alike. Fearing forcible conversion, a significantly large section (Chieftains and Brahmins) of Malabar chose to take refuge in the erstwhile Kingdom of Travancore as Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English". Thus at various time points between 1766 to 1792 all female members and many male members of Kolathiri family had taken refuge in southern kerala. On the restoration of peace in Malabar, while the family went back, three sisters stayed back in Travancore at Mavelikkara. Dissensions resulted in one of them moving to Ennakkad while another settled at Prayikkara. Thus three matrilinial branches of the Kolathiri family settled in Travancore and established the royal houses of Mavelikkara, Ennakkat and Prayikkara.
The Kolathiri family has been a constant source for providing heirs to the Travancore Royal Family by permiiting their members to be adopted.The first adoption took place around 1315 whereby the two princesses of the Kolathiri family were installed as Senior and Junior Rāni s of Attingal, with the titles of Āttingal Mootha Thampurān and Āttingal Elaya Thampurān respectively. Adoptions into the Travancore Royal Family followed in 1684, 1688, 1718, 1748 and 1788 until the 19th century. The celebrated Mārthanda Varma the Great was a result of the 1688 adoption and his successor Dharmarājā who fought and defeated Tipu Sultan of Mysore was an offspring of the 1718 adoption. The weak Balarama Varma who ruled after Dharmarājā in the early 19th century belonged to the 1748 line. The famous Maharanis Gowri Lakshmi Bayi and Gowri Parvathi Bayi belonged to the 1788 line as did the Maharajahs Swāthi Thirunāl, Uthram Thirunāl, Āyilyam Thirunāl, Visākham Thirunāl and Moolam Thirunāl.
Supersession of the title Kolathiri Rājā
Earlier members of both Udayamangalam and Palli divisions were eligible to assume the title of Kolathiri Rājā based on their seniority in age. The invasion of the domains of Kolathiri family by Rājā of Bednũr / Ikkeri and subsequent settlement between Kolathiri and the invader in AD 1736-37 led to considerable change within the family of Kolathiris .The Udayamangalam branch was shut out from assuming the title Rājā and the title of Kolathiri fell into disuse. The ruling family (Palli division) monopolized the right of succession as Rāja, leading to the supersession of the ancient title of Kolathiri Rājā to the Chirakkal Raja.
Ascension to Kshatriyahood
In 1617 A.D Kolathiri Rāja, Udayavarman, wished to further promote himself to full recognition by performing Hiranya-garbhā, which the Nambũdiris refused. As he attempted to force the Nambũdiri Brahmins of Taliparamba (Perumchellũr) to perform this ritual for him, the Nambũdiri Brahmins refused him by stating:
‘Kolathiri had no right to ask them to perform a sacrifice since in the jurisdiction of Perumtrikkovilappan (the deity of the Rajarajeswara temple of Perumchellũr, Taliparamba) the order of any king would not be valid’ (The epithet of the deity rajarajeswara or king of the kings blatantly indicates the royal status assumed by the deity).
Consequently Udayavarman brought 237 Brahmin families (Sāgara Dwijas) from Gokarnam and settled them in five Desams. (Cheruthāzham, Kunniriyam, Arathil, Kulappuram and Vararuchimangalam of Perinchelloor Grāmam) . The latter adopted Nambũdiri customs and performed Hiranya-garbhā and conferred Kshatriyahood on the former. Later, on the request of Rājā of Travancore, 185 of these Sāgara dwijans families were sent to Thiruvalla. (Thiruvalladesi Embraanthiris).
The version of Kolla-Varsham or Kolla-varsham practiced in central/south Kerala excepting North Malabar (Kolathunadu) began on August 25 825 A. D and the year commences with Simha-raasi (Leo) and not in Mesha-raasi (Aries) as in other Indian calendars. Although there are several accounts, current, recorded and hearsay about the commencement of the Kollam era, however in erstwhile North Malabar / Kolathunadu, the Kollam era is reckoned from the next month, Kanya-rasi (Virgo) (September 25) instead. This variation has two interesting accounts associated with it.
(1) The traditional text Kerolopathi attributes the introduction of Kollam era to Shankaracharya. So if you convert the word “Aa chaa rya vaa ga bhed ya” (meaning Shankaracharya's word/law is unalterable) into numbers in the Katapayadi notation it translates into 0 6 1 4 3 4 1 and these written backwards gives the age of the Kali yuga on the first year of the Kollam era. Kali day 1434160 would work out to be September 25, 825 A.D which corresponds to the beginning of Kollam era in Kolathunadu, i.e. the first day of the Kanya-raasi (Virgo) .
(2) The second account is that Kollam era commenced with the proclamation made at Kollam.
Royal symbols of Kolathiri
According to legend, Lord Parasurama is said to have provided Ramaghatha Mooshikan on his day of coronation (1) Naandakam Vaal (a special sword)(2) and assignied the herb Nenmeni-vaka (Mumosa lebbek) as the tree associated with the dynasty (3)and further assigned Vaakapookkula (infloresense of Mumosa lebbek) and Changalavattam Vilakku (This is a heavy bronze lamp used in temple processions and the lamp itself has an oil storage space with a spoon attached to it by chain), as the royal symbols. The Kola-swaroopam dynasty believes that it is this association of theirs with Nenmeni-vaka (Mumosa lebbek) that led to their nomenclature as Mooshikan. The Royal flag and the Royal seal of the Kolathiri family therefore was a combination of images namely : Thoni (a boat), Changalavattam Vilakku, Naandakam Vaal and Nenmeni-vaka.
Royal flag/standard (Kodikkoora or dwajam)
The imagery of the flag consisted of two Naandakam-Vaal-swords on either sides with a centrally placed Vaakapookkula-infloresense of Mumosa lebbek and five half crescents beneath.
Royal seal (Mudra)
The imagery of the seal consisted of a thoni-boat beneath, a changalavattam-lamp above it, further above a vertically placed Naandakam-vaal-sword, followed on either adjacent sides by a Vaakapookkula-infloresense each.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (July 2010)|
- Keralolpatti Granthavari: The Kolattunad Traditions (Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Calicut University, 1984) M. R. Raghava Varier (ed.)
- Perumal of Kerala by M. G. S. Narayanan (Kozhikode: Private Circulation, 1996)
- Duarte Barbosa, The Book of Duarte Barbosa: An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and their Inhabitants, II, ed. M. L Dames (repr., London: Hakluyt Society, 1921)
- The Dutch in Malabar: Selection from the Records of the Madras Government, No. 13 (Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1911), 143.
- Lectures on Enthurdogy by A. Krishna Ayer Calcutta, 1925.
- Female Initiation Rites on the Malabar Coast, Gough, Kathleen 1955a, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
- Ibid. Narayanan, Re-Interpretations in South Indian History, 6-10
- Foundations of South Indian Society and Culture by M. G. S. Narayanan, (Delhi: Bharatiya Book Corporation, 1994), 194
- Kolathupazhama by Kumaran
- Rajan Gurukkal, ‘Antecedent of the State Formation in South India’, in R. Champakalakshmi, Kesavan Veluthat, T. R. Venugopalan, (eds.), State and Society in Pre-modern South India (Trissur: Cosmobooks, 2002), 39-59
- Mushikavamsam. Raghavan Pilla (ed.), Mushikavamsam, 26, 268
- A History of Mushikavamsa by N. P. Unni, (Trivandrum: College Book House, 1978), 14
- "Content". Organiser. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- V.Jayaram. "Traces of the Mahabharat in Sangam Literature". Hinduwebsite.com. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- The Vishnu Purana - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- Age of the Nandas and Mauryas - Google Books. Google.co.in. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- Ibid. Narayanan, Re-Interpretations in South Indian History, 6-10
- Varier, Keralolpatti Granthavari, 51
- The Book of Ser Marco Polo: The Venetian, Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, III, 3rd edn. ed. Henry Yule and Henri Cordier (repr., Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1975), 385
- The Rehla of Ibn Battuta (India, Maldive Islands and Ceylon), tr. and commentary by Mahdi Husain (Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1953), 186
- Ibid. The Book of Duarte Barbosa
- Ibid. Malabar Manual by William Logan
- Ibid. Varier, Keralolpatti Granthavari, 52-3
- Establishment of British power in Malabar, 1664 to 1799 By N. Rajendran
- Malabar Manual by William Logan (Printed and published by Charitram Publications under the editorship of Dr. C.K, Kareem, Trivandrum)
- Voyage to East Indies by Fra Bartolomaeo (Portuguese Traveller and Historian)
- Historical Sketches by Col. Wilks, Vol. II.
- Ibid. Kerala District Gazetteers: Cannanore (1962)
- Ibid. Establishment of British power in Malabar, 1664 to 1799
- Srauta Sacrifices in Kerala (Kozhikode: Calicut University, 2002), 98 by V. Govindan Namboodiri;Freeman, ‘Purity and Violence’, 527-8
- Namboothiri Websites Kozhikode. "The Saagara Dwijans of Kerala". Namboothiri.com. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- K.V Sarma (1996), Kollam era, Indian Journal of History of Science, 31 (1)