Kolkata-class destroyer

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Kolkata-class destroyer port view CGI.JPG
An artist's depiction of a Kolkata-class destroyer
Class overview
Name: Kolkata class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:
Indian Navy Ensign
Indian Navy
Preceded by: Delhi-class
Succeeded by: Project 15B (under construction)
Building: 3 (1 Kolkata + 2 Project 15B)[1]
Planned: 3+4 more under Project 15B
Completed: 2
Active: 1
General characteristics
Type: Stealth Guided missile destroyer[2]
Displacement: 7,500 t (7,400 long tons; 8,300 short tons) full load [3][4]
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Draft: 6.5 m (21 ft)
Propulsion:
  • COGAG system: Twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plants with 4× DT-59 reversible gas turbines and 2× RG-54 gearboxes
  • 2× Bergen/GRSE KVM-diesel engines, 9,900 hp (7,400 kW) each
  • 4× 1 MWe Wärtsilä WCM-1000 generator sets driving Cummins KTA50G3 engines and Kirloskar 1MV AC generators
Speed: In excess of 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)
Crew: 325
Sensors and
processing systems:

- *IAI EL/M-2248 MF-STAR S-band AESA multi-function radar[5]

  • Thales LW-08 D-band air search radar[6]
  • IAI EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar[5]
  • BEL HUMSA-NG bow sonar
  • BEL Nagin active towed array sonar[7]
  • BEL Electronic Modular Command & Control Applications (EMCCA Mk4) combat management system[5]
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II countermeasures systems and defensive aids suite
Armament:

Anti-air missiles:
2× 32-cell VLS, for a combination of 64;[8][9]
Barak 1 missiles (Range: 1 km (0.62 mi) to 12 km (7.5 mi))
Barak 8 missiles (Range: 0.5 km (0.31 mi) to 70 km (43 mi)[10])

Anti-ship/Land-attack missiles:
2× 8-cell UVLM for 16 BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles[8][9]

Guns:
1 × 76 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM
4 × AK-630 CIWS

Anti-submarine warfare:
4× 533 mm Torpedo tubes

RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers
Aircraft carried: - 2 x Sea King or HAL Dhruv helicopters
Aviation facilities:
  • Flight deck
  • Dual Enclosed hangar for a combination of 2 Seaking, Chetak or Dhruv helicopters

The Kolkata-class (Project 15A) are a class of stealth guided-missile destroyers[2] constructed for the Indian Navy. The class comprises three ships - Kolkata, Kochi and Chennai, all of which are being built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in India, and are the largest destroyers to be operated by the Indian Navy. Due to delays in their construction, and a problem found during the sea trials, the initial commissioning date of the first ship of the class has been pushed back from 2010 to 2014.[11]

The destroyers are a follow-on of the Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers, but are considerably more capable due to major improvements in the design, the addition of substantial land-attack capabilities, and the fitting-out of modern sensors and weapons systems.[12] An even more enhanced version of the Kolkata-class - Project 15B - has been approved. Project 15B destroyers will feature enhanced stealth characteristics as well as incorporating state of the art weaponry and sensors including the extended range Barak 8 surface-to-air missiles. The keel of the first P-15B ship was laid in October 2013.[13]

Development[edit]

In 1986, the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA) approved a follow-on class of the earlier Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers. The aim was that the follow-on class would incorporate a higher level of air-defence, land attack, anti-submarine and anti-ship capabilities than the preceding class. However, the Indian Navy did not initially take up the option.[8] By the year 2000, the Indian Navy had redesigned the follow-on Kolkata-class to incorporate even higher levels of technology (including modern stealth characteristics) and in May of that year, approval for the construction was given. Concept and function for Project 15A was framed by the navy's Directorate of Naval Design, while the detailed design was developed by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL).[14][15][16]

Construction[edit]

Hull of a 15A destroyer being built at Mazagon Docks.

Construction of three Kolkata-class ships was sanctioned by the Government of India in May 2000, and steel for the lead ship was cut in March 2003.[9] Construction began in September 2003 at Mazagon Docks, Mumbai, with an initial expectation that the first of the class would be handed over to the navy by 2010. However, since then the Kolkata-class has suffered consecutive delays, slow construction procedures and technical problems which will now see the first of the class now enter service during early 2014. The delays in the construction programme have been attributed to - persistent design changes made by the Indian Navy to incorporate new weapons systems and sensors, failure by a Ukrainian shipyard to deliver the ship's propellers and shafts and the contract later being awarded to a Russian firm,[17] and finally the delay in the delivery of the Barak 8 anti-air missiles, which are still in the final stages of completion with Israel Aerospace Industries and the Defence Research and Development Organisation.[18]

The Kolkata-class are the largest destroyers ever to be constructed at Mazagon Docks, and as of 2013, all three ships of the class have been launched and are being fitted out.[19] Technical problems were found during the sea trials of the lead ship Kolkata, which delayed the project by six months to early 2014.[11]

Project 15B[edit]

In January 2011, the Cabinet Committee on Security gave approval for a follow-on order of four more destroyers under Project 15B. Project 15B will retain the same hull as 15A Kolkata-class destroyers, but there will be significant changes in the superstructure that will improve the ships stealth characteristics, it will incorporate a flush deck, include better sound and infrared suppression systems and more sophisticated weaponry such as: Nirbhay land-attack cruise missiles, hypersonic BrahMos-II anti-ship missiles and Barak 8-ER SAMs.[20] They will operate two helicopters, and are expected to displace approximately 8,000 tonnes at full displacement (500 tonnes more than 15A). Russia's Baltic Shipyard has been contracted to provide four sets of line shafts by 2017. Saint Petersburg's Northern Design Bureau was consulted during the design phase.[21][22]

The total cost of the project is expected to be INR300 billion (US$5 billion).[23] Build-time for Project 15B is expected to be shorter than 15A, as no major re-designing would be done and would require only one and a half years of planning. Due to this, each warship is expected to save US$1 billion in costs. After finalisation of design, the first destroyer is expected within four years, with the others delivered at annual intervals, starting from 2018.[24] Mazagon Docks laid the keel for the first P-15B destroyer, INS Bangalore, on 12 October 2013.[13]

Design and description[edit]

The Kolkata-class share similar dimensions to the previous Delhi-class, however they have 2,363 modifications which include major upgrades in weaponry, sensors and helicopter systems.[25] With a standard displacement of 6,800 t (6,700 long tons; 7,500 short tons) and a full-load displacement of 7,500 t (7,400 long tons; 8,300 short tons), they are the largest destroyers ever operated by the Indian Navy.[3][4] These are the first stealth destroyers being built by India and marked a significant development in India's shipbuilding technology. The ships would incorporate modern weapons and sensors, and will have an advanced information warfare suite, an auxiliary control system with a sophisticated power distribution architecture, and modular crew quarters.[26]

The class have a length of 163 m (535 ft), a beam of 17.4 m (57 ft) and a draft of 6.5 m (21 ft). The ship's power and propulsion features a standard Combined gas and gas system utilizing twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plants and four DT-59 reversible gas turbines. The class also features two KVM diesel engines. On-board Wartsila WCM-1000 generators and Kirloskar AC generators supply the ship's electricity. The two propellers are run via two RG-54 gearboxes. This configuration allows the ship to reach speeds in excess of 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph).[9][27] Aviation facilities include a large flight deck, which was re-designed to handle larger helicopters than the Delhi-class, and an enclosed hangar for up to two maritime helicopters.[9][25]

The primary radar sensor of the class is the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multi-mission AESA.[5][28][29] It is also equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar and EL/M-2238 S-band STAR surveillance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries. A Nagin active towed array sonar and a bow-mounted sonar HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array - new generation) are carried for sub-surface surveillance. To protect against anti-ship missiles coming from multiple directions, the ship carries the Elbit Systems Deseaver MK-II decoy control and launching system.[9][25]

The ship's main air-defence armament is composed of two 32-cell vertical launching systems (VLS) allowing for up to a combination of 64 Barak 8 (medium-range) air-defence missiles and Barak 1 (short range) air-defence missiles.[8] In addition, four AK-630 CIWS are fitted for close-in defence.[9] The supersonic BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles are the primary offensive armament of the Kolkata-class.[30] The BrahMos missiles are fitted into a 16-cell Universal Vertical Launcher Module (UVLM) allowing one missile per launch silo, and all 16 missiles can be fired in salvo.[31] Perhaps the most distinctive and noticeable armament of the Kolkata-class is its 76 mm naval gun located forward of the bridge. The 76 mm gun provides limited anti-shipping capability and anti-air capability in addition to its naval gun fire-support role for land based operations.[9] For anti-submarine warfare, the Kolkata-class are equipped with a torpedo launching system via four torpedo tubes and two RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers.[9][32] BEL's Electronic Modular Command & Control Applications (EMCCA) Mk4 provides combat management.[5]

Ships of the class[edit]

Initially in 2008, the total program cost with long-term spare parts was expected to cost INR 3,800 Crore (US $950 Million),[33] but the construction costs escalated about 225% , and by 2011, cost of the program became INR 11,662 Crore (about US $2.6 Billion at that time), with each ship costing INR 3,900 Crore (about US $870 million at that time).[34] The Defense Minister A. K. Antony cited the causes being the delay in supply of warship-grade steel by Russia, increase in costs of Russian specialists due to inflation during the build period, wage revision due from October 2003 and delay in finalisation of cost of weapons and sensors.[35][36]

Name Pennant Laid down Launched Sea trials Commissioning
INS Kolkata D 63 27 September 2003 30 March 2006[37][38] 2013 16 August 2014[39]
INS Kochi D 64 25 October 2005 18 September 2009[40] 2014[41] Jan 2015
INS Chennai D 65 21 February 2006 1 April 2010[42] Late 2014 TBD

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ SP's Exclusive (19 August 2014). "Kolkata commissioned, focus shifts to P15 Bravo". SP's Naval Forces. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Kolkata Class Guided Missile Destroyers - Naval Technology
  3. ^ a b "Navy gets its largest destroyer". The Hindu. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Largest destroyer project of Navy hit by delay". Defence Express. 6 Jun 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Country's most potent indigenous warship joins service this month". SP's Naval Forces. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "Bharat Electronics Ltd. awards LW08 contract to Thales". Thalesgroup.com. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  7. ^ "Indian Navy to get four new destroyers". dnaindia.com. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d Kolkata-class destroyer GlobalSecurity.org
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Kolkata Class Guided Missile Destroyers, India". Naval Technology. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "Israeli navy equipping warships with new missile system: report". XinhuaNet. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Navy's ongoing hunt for heavy torpedoes leads to delay in modernisation process". India Today. 10 June 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  12. ^ Toshi Yoshihara; James Holmes. James R. Holmes, ed. Strategy in the second nuclear age : power, ambition, and the ultimate weapon. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. p. 143. ISBN 1589019288. 
  13. ^ a b "Keel Laid For Yard 12704 (1st ship of P15 Bravo)". mazagondock.gov.in. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  14. ^ Indian Navy: Global & Local - I (15 April 2008). "World-class warships at Indian prices". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  15. ^ "Mazagon Dock lays keel of destroyer". Hindu.com. 27 September 2003. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  16. ^ "Mazagon Dock Annual Report". Mdlindia.com. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  17. ^ "Russia steps in to bail out sinking Project 15-A". Business-standard.com. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  18. ^ Business Standard (20 August 2012). "Kolkotta class ships delayed". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  19. ^ "India's 3rd naval destroyer launched". IBN Live. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  20. ^ Sandeep Unnithan (18 March 2009). "Govt okays construction of 4 more stealth destroyers". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  21. ^ "Russia to help India build 4 guided-missile destroyers". Indrus. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  22. ^ "Project 15B". Global Security. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  23. ^ "CCS nod for 4 more stealth destroyers". The Times of India. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  24. ^ "Navy's destroyer project sets sail". Business Standard. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  25. ^ a b c Shukla, Ajai (20 August 2012). "Dangerous consequences of warships built in India". Rediff News. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  26. ^ "INS Chennai adds to Naval might". Zee News. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "Project 15-A destroyer, INS Kochi To be launched on 18 Sep 2009". PIB. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "IAI Delivers First of MF-STAR Radar System to a Foreign Customer". Deagel. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "Indian Navy Receives First Israeli MR-STAR Radar". Naval Technology. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  30. ^ "First test of BrahMos land-attack variant from the sea". India today. 5 March 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  31. ^ "BrahMos missile test-fired from warship INS Kolkata". The Times of India. 9 June 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  32. ^ "Project 15-A Improved Delhi / Bangalore / DDGHM Kolkata". Global Security. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  33. ^ Ajai Shukla (15 April 2008). "World-class warships at Indian prices". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  34. ^ Ajai Shukla (2 May 2014). "INS Kolkata, navy’s most powerful warship, to be delivered next month". Business-standard. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  35. ^ "Indian warships’ costs escalate over 225%". StratPost. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  36. ^ "Delay in Indigenous Warship Projects of Navy". Press Information Bureau. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  37. ^ Reagan Gavin Rasquinha, TNN, 1 Apr 2006, 08.44pm IST (1 April 2006). "Queen of the high seas - Bombay Times - City". The Times of India. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  38. ^ "National : A lethal combination of stealth and strength". The Hindu. 1 April 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  39. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/PM-Modi-inducts-Indias-largest-indigenously-built-warship-INS-Kolkata/articleshow/40313665.cms
  40. ^ "Mazagon Docks to Launch INS Kochi on Friday". News.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  41. ^ Parth Satam (10 April 2014). "INS Kochi to start sea trials in June". Asian Age. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  42. ^ "India's 3rd indigenous naval destroyer launched". Ibnlive.in.com. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 

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