Kollam district

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kollam District
കൊല്ലം ജില്ല
Quilon District
District
From top: Paravur estuary, Light house and clock tower in Kollam city, 13 Ring bridge of Thenmala, Check dam across Kallada river
From top: Paravur estuary, Light house and clock tower in Kollam city, 13 Ring bridge of Thenmala, Check dam across Kallada river
Nickname(s): Cashew capital of the world
Kollamdistrict.png
Coordinates: 8°48′N 76°36′E / 8.80°N 76.6°E / 8.80; 76.6Coordinates: 8°48′N 76°36′E / 8.80°N 76.6°E / 8.80; 76.6
Country India
State Kerala
Headquarters Kollam
Government
 • Collector Pranab Jyothi Nath IAS
Area
 • Total 2,491 km2 (962 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Population (2011)
 • Total 2,635,375
 • Density 1,058/km2 (2,740/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English, Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-KL-02, KL-23, KL-24, KL-25, KL-61
Vehicle registration Kollam, Paravur: KL-02, Karunagappally: KL-23, Kottarakkara: KL-24, Punalur: KL-25, Kunnathur: KL-61
Sex ratio 1112 /
Literacy 93.77%[1]
Website www.kollam.gov.in, www.kollam.nic.in

Kollam district (formerly Quilon) is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; it is endowed with a long coastline, a major Arabian Sea seaport and an inland lake (Ashtamudi Lake). Kollam is the capital of Kerala's cashew industry. Plains, mountains, lakes, lagoons and backwaters, forests, farmland and rivers make up the topography of the district. The area had trading relationships with Phoenicia and Ancient Rome. About 30 percent of the district is covered by Ashtamudi Lake,[2] making it a gateway to the Kerala backwaters. The Thevalakara and Thekkumbagam panchyaths established the ancient korekini ("sea pointed inland") port of Tarsish in 1500 BC. Kollam is also known as The God's Own Capital.[3]

Geography[edit]

Kollam district is located on the southwest coast of India, bordering Laccadive Sea in the west, the state of Tamil Nadu in the east, Kerala district of Alappuzha in the north, Pathanamthitta in the northeast and Thiruvananthapuram in the south. It covers 2,492 square kilometres (962 sq mi), is the seventh-largest district in Kerala and is densely populated. It has the shortest coastal line among districts in Kerala (37 Kilometers).

Four major urban centers are Kottarakara(കൊട്ടാരക്കര), Punalur, Karunagapally and Paravur.

Sasthamkotta Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, is located in Kollam; this lake provides drinking water to the city of Kollam. Two major rivers (the Kallada and the Ithikkara) drain the district. Ashtamudi Lake and Paravur Lake are two important lakes in the district. Ashtamudi Lake covers 30 percent of total area of the district. Kollam is located on Ashtamudi Lake. Neendakara, a major fishing port in southern Kerala, is also located on this scenic lake. Edava and Nadayara Lakes are also partly located in Kollam district. The Kollam sea port was founded by Mar Abo with a sanction from Udayamarthandavarma the Tamil king from Venad, otherwise called Ay, Kingdom in 825 CE instead of re-opening the inland sea port(kore-ke-ni kollam) near Backare (Thevalakara), also known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and The Greeks and Thondi to the Tamils, and was also the foundation of the new city. It is also believed that Mar Abo actually volunteered to the Chera king to create a new sea port town near Kollam instead of his request for renewing the almost vanishing Tyndis or Nelcynda inland sea port(kore-ke-ni) at Kollam, lying idle without trade for a few centuries because of the Cheras being overrun by Pallavas in the 6th century AD ending the spice trade from Malabar coast. This allowed Mar Abo to stay for many decades in Chera kingdom and streamline Christian faith among the Nampoothiri Vaishnavites & Nair sub castes in the St. Thomas tradition with Syrian liturgy as Reference for the Doctrine of Trinity without replacing the Sanskrit and Vedic traditions.

Climate[edit]

Kollam
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
24
 
32
22
 
 
31
 
33
23
 
 
78
 
33
24
 
 
160
 
33
25
 
 
247
 
33
25
 
 
459
 
30
24
 
 
409
 
30
23
 
 
259
 
30
23
 
 
211
 
31
24
 
 
333
 
31
24
 
 
231
 
31
23
 
 
65
 
32
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Govt. of Kerala

Kollam's temperature is almost steady throughout the year. The average temperature ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Summer usually runs from March until May; the monsoon begins by June and ends by September. Kollam receives an annual average rainfall of around 2,700 millimetres (110 in).Kollam receives both Southwest and Northeast Monsoons. Winter is from November to February; the temperature is moderately cool, ranging from 18 to 25 degrees Celsius.[2]

Climate data for Kollam (Quilon)[2]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
33
(91)
33
(91)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(90)
33
(91)
Average low °C (°F) 22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
Precipitation mm (inches) 24.4
(0.961)
30.9
(1.217)
77.7
(3.059)
159.5
(6.28)
246.9
(9.72)
458.8
(18.063)
408.9
(16.098)
258.9
(10.193)
211.2
(8.315)
332.5
(13.091)
230.8
(9.087)
65.4
(2.575)
2,700
(106.299)
Source #1: [4]
Source #2: [5]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Kollam district has a population of 2,629,703,[6] roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait[7] or the US state of Nevada.[8] This gives it a ranking of 155th in India (out of a total of 640 districts).[6] The district has a population density of 1,056 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,740 /sq mi) .[6] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 1.72 percent.[6] Kollam has a sex ratio of 1113 females for every 1000 males,[6] and a literacy rate of 93.77 percent.[6]

In 2001 Indian Census Muslim Population is 4,74,071(18.34%), Hindu 16,85,044(65.18%), Christian 4,23,745(16.39%).

Urban Structure[edit]

The Kollam Urban Agglomeration (UA) is the 6th most populous UA in the state. Kollam is placed 49th in the list of most populous urban agglomerations in India. The total Urban population of the entire district is 1,187,158.[1] The Metropolitan area of Kollam includes Adichanalloor, Adinad, Ayanivelikulangara, Chavara, Elampalloor, Eravipuram (Part), Kallelibhagom, Karunagappally, Kollam, Kottamkara, Kulasekharapuram, Mayyanad, Meenad, Nedumpana, Neendakara, Oachira, Panayam, Panmana, Paravur, Perinad, Poothakkulam, Thazhuthala, Thodiyoor, Thrikkadavoor, Thrikkaruva, Thrikkovilvattom, and Vadakkumthala[9]

Administration[edit]

Red-and-white-striped lighthouse, behind a stand of palm trees
Lighthouse, Thangasseri, Kollam

The history of the district's administration can be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and Kottayam. When Travancore and Cochin were combined into Travancore-Cochin, Kollam was one of the three revenue divisions. When the state of Kerala was formed in 1957, Chenkotta taluk was merged with the state of Madras. Later in 1957, the Cherthala, Ambalapuzha, Mavelikara, Karthikapalli, Chengannur and Thiruvalla taluks (formerly in Kollam district) were united to form the new district of Alappuzha. In 1983, Pathanamthitta taluk and nine villages of Kunnathur taluk were removed from Kollam district to form the new Pathanamthitta district.[10]

District administration[edit]

Paravur estuary: Scenic beauty of backwaters and beaches

Kollam district has six administrative subdivisions (taluks): Pathanapuram(new taluk), Punalur, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara, Karunagappally and Kollam. The district collector, a key functionary of the government, heads the district administration. He or she plays a dual role: the agent of government and chief administrator of the district, reporting to the state government. Among other tasks, maintaning law and order is a priority for district collector. The district collector is also the head of the Land Revenue Department of the district. The district has one revenue division, with its headquarters at Quilon. For administrative purposes, Kollam district is divided into 5 taluks, 13 blocks, 69 Panchayats, 1 corporation, 3 municipalities and 104 villages. The Kollam Civil Station was built in 1956 to incorporate all government offices in one place.

Police administration[edit]

Police administration in Kollam is divided into two districts: urban and rural. The City Police is headed by a City Police Commissioner, an IPS (Indian Police Service) officer with the rank of SP; its headquarters is at Kollam. The rural police is headed by the Rural Superintendent of Police (SP), with its headquarters at Kottarakkara. Both heads report to the Inspector General of Police (IGP), Thiruvananthapuram Range (Kerala).

The Kollam City Police is divided into three subdivisions, each under an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP): Karunagappally, Kollam and Chathannoor. Each subdivision is divided into circles, headed by the Circle Inspector of Police. Each circle is divided into a number of police stations, headed by a Sub-Inspector of Police. The Kollam Rural Police District is divided into two subdivisions, each under a Deputy Superintendent of Police (DySP): Kottarakkara and Punalur. There are a total of 29 police stations, in 13 circles. Kollam city traffic is controlled by the City Traffic Police, with a Traffic Police Station located near the Asramam Ground. Kerala's first coastal police station was established in Neendakara, Kollam.[11]

The first police museum in India (the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum) has a large collection of police artifacts and rare photographs. The museum has a room dedicated to officers killed in the line of duty.[11] The forensic section has a large collection of photographs. The museum is located at the Kollam East Police Station.

Taluks[edit]

Kollam is administratively divided into 6 taluks they are Kollam, Karunagappally, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara, Punalur and Pathanapuram, which are subdivided into 104 villages. The tahsildar is the revenue official in charge of each taluk.

Taluk Headquarters
Kollam Taluk Kollam
Karunagappally Taluk Karunagappally
Kunnathur Taluk Sasthamkotta
Kottarakkara Taluk Kottarakkara
Punalur Taluk Punalur
Pathanapuram Taluk Pathanapuram

Municipalities[edit]

There are 3 municipalities in Kollam District. Punalur, Paravur and Karunagappally are the municipalities. There is a long standing demand for upgrading Kottarakkara & Anchal panchayaths into municipal status.

Lok Sabha constituencies[edit]

Three Lok Sabha (lower house) constituencies constitute Kollam district. They include the Chavara, Kundara, Eravipuram, Kollam, Chathannoor, Chadayamangalam and Punalur assembly constituencies. While the Kunnathur, Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram constituencies are in the Mavelikkara Lok Sabha constituency, the Karunagapally assembly constituency is in the Alappuzha Lok Sabha constituency.

Politics[edit]

Kollam district elects 11 representatives (MLAs) to the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The district has a rich political history; the party receiving the majority of votes in Kollam has always gone on to form the government in Kerala. Kollam district has two ministers in the Kerala government. Kollam is a traditional stronghold for CPI(M) led left democratic front. Currently LDF has 9 seats and UDF has 2 seats in the assembly from Kollam district. CPI(M) PB member MA Baby and central committee member P K Gurudasan are elected MLA from Kollam.

Leaders like T.M.Varghese, C.Kesavan and Kumbalathu Sanku Pillai, were the architects of freedom movement in Kollam. R.Shanker, who played a prominent role as an educationalist and social reformist, hails from Kolam. The district gave birth to well known freedom fighters like Chandiran Kali ambi (Kadakkal Manthri) and Franco Raghavan Pillai.

Culture[edit]

Kollam, the capital of the erstwhile Venad, was a great centre of learning and culture. It attracted distinguished scholars from all parts of south India. Leelethilakam and Unnuneeli Sandesam, two outstanding literacy works of historical importance, is contributions o0f 14th century Kollam. The dance from of Kathakali in its new version of Ramanattam was the creation of Kottarakkara Thampuran, who also improved Krishnanattam by substituting Malayalam for Sanskrit.

Music Director Paravur G.Devarajan

Mahakavi K.C.Kesava Pillai was born in Paravur, a gifted poet, prose writer, dramatist and Scholar, originated the musical play in Malayalam through his work Sadarama. His Kesaveeyam, a Mahakavyam, is of outstanding literary importance. In the history of Malayalam music, he has a prominent place as a gifted composer of songs. Paravoor Kesavan Asan, the founder editor of Sujananandini, another prominent literacy figure, was a journalist and a prose writer of eloquence. His Saratchadrika is a contribution to the study of Ayurvedic system of medicine. E.V.Krishna Pillai, another literacy celebrity has etched his name in the field of humor and satire. C.V.Kunjuraman, editor of Kerala Kaumudi and Malayalarajayam was a poet, literacy critic, prose writer and journalist of outstanding distinction.

Coming to modern times, Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai and Sooranadu Kunjan Pillai, noted literary luminaries hailing from this district. Oyoor Kochu Govinda Pillai, and Chavara Parukkutty the Katha Kali artists, Paris Viswanathan and Jayapala Panicker the renowned artists also belong to this district. Famous poets O. N. V. Kurup, Thirunalloor Karunakaran, Punaloor Balan, novelists K. Surendran and A.P.Kalakkad,journalist K. Balakrishnan and actors Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair and O. Madhavan, Kadhaprasangam artist V. Sambasivan are from Kollam.

Religion[edit]

Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are the prominent religions in this district.

Kollam sea port was founded by Mar Abo with sanction from Udayamarthandavarma the Tamil king from Venad otherwise called Ay kingdom in 825 AD instead of re opening the inland sea port(kore-ke-ni kollam) near Backare (Thevalakara) also known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and The Greeks and Thondi to the Tamils and is also the foundation of the new city. It is also believed that Mar Abo actually volunteered to the Chera king to create a new sea port town near at Kollam instead of his request for renewing the almost vanishing Tyndis or Nelcynda inland sea port( kore-ke-ni) at Kollam, lying idle without trade for a few centuries because of the Cheras being overrun by Pallavas in the 6th century AD ending the spice trade from Malabar coast. This allowed Mar Abo to stay for many decades in Chera kingdom and streamline Christian faith among the Nampoothiri Vaishnavites &Nair sub castes in the St. Thomas tradition with Syrian liturgy as Reference for the Doctrine of Trinity without replacing the Sanskrit and Vedic prayers.

Hindu worship[edit]

Low brown buildings with pink roofs, around a dirt square
Mukathala Murari (Sri Krishna) Temple

The Mukhathala Murari (Sri Krishna Swamy) Temple[12] at Mukhathala is about 10 km from Kollam city.

The Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada (popularly known as Peruviruthy Malanada, or Malanada) is located at Edakkad Ward (Kara) in Poruvazhy Village, Kunnathoor Taluk. It is the northern border of Kollam district and includes Kadampnad in Pathanamthitta and the Alappuzha district. The temple is equidistant from Adoor (MC Road) on the northeast and Sasthamcottah on the southeast. It is also accessible from Kayamkulam and Karunagappally on NH 47 and Kottarakkara (via Puthoor or Enathu) on the MC road (approximately 25 km from each).

Oachira, located in the north of the district on National Highway 47, is known for its Oachira Parabrahma Temple.[13] Oachirakali is an annual event at the padanilam (paddy fields) in the month of Vrichikam. The Oachira Town Masjid (mosque) and the Oachira Temple are situated close to one another, a symbol of communal harmony. This temple is also a Sabarimala edathavalam.

The Mahaganapathi (Ganesha) Temple at Kottarakara,[14] famous for its Unniappom, is one of the most venerated Ganesha temples in Kerala. The major vazhipadu (offerings) of the Kottarakkara temple are the Udayasthamaya pooja. The main deity of this temple is Shiva, but it is now a Ganesha temple.[14] Edakkidom Thettikkunil Sree Maha Devi Temple, The major "vazhipadu" of the Edakkidom temple are the Adamoodal, Kadumpayasam

Asramam Sreekrishna Swamy Temple,[15] on the shore of Ashtamudi Lake, is one of the best-known temples in Kollam. The main deity is Krishna as a boy, with butter in both palms. The arattu mahotsavam (festival) of this temple is known as kollam pooram.[16] The kollam pooram is held annually in Asramam maidan.[17][18]

Twin banners, held aloft against the sky
Kettu kala (an offering to God) from Kollam district

Ammachiveedu Temple[19] is located in the town area. It was established by an aristocratic family, Ammachi Veedu. The annual festival falls on Dhanu every year, but it is to be done after the Mandala Pooja.

Anandavalleswaram is another major temple in Kollam near the District jail. Here both Mahadeva(facing west) and Devi(facing east) are worshipped. In addition to them, Ganesh, Ayyappa, SreeKrishna and also Muruga are worshiped. We could find Hanuman Swamy also being worshiped there.

The Edavanadu Bhagavathi Temple is the major Durga temple in Kollam district. It is situated in the Mathilil Town area, Kollam.

Varattuchira Devi Temple, keralapuram, Temple Dedicated to form of Bhadrakali in peace after "Dharika vadom" ( killing of Dharika a rakshasa), or other form of Mondaicaud Bhagavathi

The Anchal Agasthyakode Mahadeva Temple is another major Mahadeva temple in Kollam district. It is situated in Anchal Panchayath. Every year during Sivarathri, people from every caste and religious background come for the religious festivities (such as Jikku Krishnalayam).

The Thrikkadavoor Mahadeva Temple is the best-known Shiva Temple in the District. It is situated in the Thrikkadavoor Panchayath, on the banks of the Ashtamudi lake. The annual Srattu festival attracts thousands of people from around the world; the festival falls in the month of Kumbham (February). The eight artificial horses (which represent the eight areas (karas) around the temple) are a special attraction for tourists.

Kolloorvila Bharanikkavu Devi temple is located in Madannada, on National Highway 47. Its annual festival lasts 41 days, and is held on bharani nakshatra of meenam month (according to the Malayalam calendar, Kollavarsham).

The Veerabhadra Swamy Temple at Ashtamudi is the only temple in the southern part of the district with Veerabhadra as the presiding deity. The temple is woned by the Kuttiyazhikams in Karuva, a 250-year-old Ezhava family.

Umayanalloor Sri Balasubramania (Murugan) Swamy Temple[20] is situated on NH-47, about 8 km from Kollam. The temple is visited by thousands of devotees. Its Aana Vaal Pidutham[20] Mahotsavam (during the Malayalam month of Meenam (mid-March) attracts hundreds of worshipers from all over the state. Devotees run after an elephant and catch its tail, symbolising the childhood pranks between the deities Subramanyan (Murugan) and Ganesha. Thaipuyyam is also celebrated. Legend has it that the temple was built by the powerful female ruler Umayammarani of the Venad Kingdom about 500 years ago. Aryankavu, in the Western Ghats, is the easternmost point in the district on the National Highway. One of five ancient Ayyappa temples is situated here; two others are at Achankovil and Kulathupuzha in the district.

Shri Mahadevar Temple, Padinjattinkara, Sree Bhootha Natha Temple, Kulashekharanallor Srikrishnaswami, the Devi temple at Kottarakara, Chennamath Temple and Vilappuram Bhagavathy Temple at Chathannoor are other well-known temples. Polachira (near Vilappuram Temple) and Anathavalam (elephants' shelter) at Chirakkara are also scenic locations.

Pattazhy Devi Temple

Thalavoor Sri Durga Devi Temple, Thazhava Pulimukham Devi Temple, Peroor Karunalloor Bhagavathy Temple, Pattazhy Devi Temple, Pallimon Mahadeva Temple, Vadayattukotta Sree Krishna Swamy Temple, Kundara Ilampalloor Devi Temple and Paravur Puttingal Devi Temple are other Hindu temples in the District.

Another important temple is the Kottamkulangara temple near Chavara,[21] where there is a tradition of males participating in Vilakkeduppu wearing women's dresses.

The Koonambaikulam (Malayalam: വലിയകൂനംബായ്കുളം) temple is also popular. Its deity is a goddess named Koonambaikulathu Amma. Other temples in Kollam include the Peroor Sree Meenakshi Temple at Punthalathazham and the Mangalathu Temple[22] at Punthalathazham.

Collection of low buildings, with a fence in front
Vadakkevila Koonambaikulam Temple

The Kadaikodu Mahadeva Temple is the main attraction in the village of Kadaikodu near Edakkidom.

Name Location Deity
Subramanya Swamy Temple Vilangara Kottarakara Lord Subramanya
Sasthamcotta Sree Dharma Sastha Temple[23] Sasthamcotta Shri Dharma Sastha
Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada Temple[24] Poruvazhy Duryodhana
Sree Puttingal Bhagavathi Temple Paravur Goddess Durga
Sree Ayiravilli Mahadeva Temple Paravur Lord Shiva
Sree Pozhikara Devi Temple Paravur Goddess Lakshmi
Kottekkunnil Subramanya Temple Paravur Lord Subramanya
Bhoothakulam Dharmasastha Temple Paravur Lord Ayyappan
Sri Vikundapuram Mahavishnu Kshethram Bhoothakulam, Paravur Lord Vishnu
Sree Bhoothanatha Temple Chathannoor
Sree Chenamath Mahadeva Temple Chathannoor Lord Shiva
Sree Kalangara Bhagavathi Temple Chathannoor
Sree Kanjiramvilla Bagathavi Temple Chathannoor
Thazhava Sree Krishna Swamy Temple Lord Krishna
Kariyappallil Sree Bhadrakali Temple Thazhava Goddess Bhadrakali
Vithoor Kizhakkathil Sree Durga-Bhadra Temple Thazhava Goddess Durga
Kalarivathukkal Devi Temple Karunagappally
Kadakkal Devi Temple Kadakkal
Magour Siva Temple Kadakkal Lord Shiva
Sree Mangalathu Mahalekshmi Temple[25] Punthalathazham, Kollam-kannanalloor Goddess Lakshmi
Peroor Sree Meenakshi Temple Punthalathazham
Pulimukham Devi Temple Thazhava Goddess Bhagavathi
Radha Madhava Temple Allenchery
Sree Kuzhithrachalil Murugan Temple Karingannor, Oyoor, Kollam Lord Murugan
Sri Mahadevar Temple Agastiacode, Anchal
Vayalil Thrikkovil Mahavishnu Temple Ilamkulam, Kalluvathukkal Lord Vishnu
Kodumootil Sree Badrakali Temple Parippally Sree badrakaali
Sree Chavambalam Poovathoor, pulikuzi, parippally Mahadevan, chavarappupan
Ammachiveedu Devi Temple Lord Ganesha, Chamundi, Yogeshwaran
Ananthavalleeswaram Temple
Kottarakulam Sree Maha Ganapathy Temple Kottarakulam Lord Ganesh
Edakkidom ഇടയ്ക്കിടം Thettikkunil Sree Maha Devi Temple Edakkidom,ഇടയ്ക്കിടം Devi
Mukathala Murari Temple Mukhathala
Rameshwaram Shiva Kshetram Anchukallumoodu Lord Shiva
Sree Krishna Swamy Temple, Asramom Lord Krishna
Sree Maha Ganapathy Temple Thamarakulam Lord Ganesh
Umikkicham Veedu Sree Krishna Swamy Temple Lord Krishna
Oachira Parabrahma Ksetram[26] Oachira Lord Parabrahman
Shree Subrahmania Swami Temple Alappadu Lord Subramanya
Sree Dharma Sastha Temple Kulathupuzha Lord Ayappan
Pavumba Vishnu And Shiva Temple Pavumba Lord Vishnu
Pavumba Kali Amma Temple Pavumba Goddess Kali
Kottarakkara Sree Mahaganapathi Kshethram[27] Kottarakara Lord Ganesh
Sri Indilayappan Temple[28] Marayikkodu, Karickom, Kottarakara Lord Shiva, Goddess Parvathi, Lord Vishnu
Sri Dharma Shastha Temple Achankovil Lord Ayappan
Sri Dharma Shastha Temple Aaryankavu Lord Ayappan
Sri Dharma Shastha Temple Kulathupuzha Lord Ayappan
Sri Shankara Narayana Temple Thenmala
Sri Mariyamman Kovil Devi Temple Thenmala
Azhakiyakavu Devi Temple Manapally
Kadaikodu Mahadeva Temple Kadaikodu near Edakkidom Lord Shiva
Koonambaikulam (വലിയകൂനംബായ്കുളം) )Temple
Chirakkidavu Sree Devi Temple Neduvathur, Kottarakara
Sree Mahadevar Temple Padinjattinkara, Kottarakara
Sree Muthumari Amman Kovil Tb Junction, Kottarakara
Thiruvilangonappan Temple Kamukum Cherry, Pathanapuram
Kulashekharanallur Sree Krishnaswami & Devi Temple Kottarakara Lord Krishna
Thrikkupaleswaram Devi Temple Kalayapuram
Sri Durga Bhagavathi Temple Uliyakovil Goddess Durga
Sri Bhagavathy Temple Kollavila Uloor
Poovattoor Bhagavathy Temple Poovattoor
Kumaranchira Devi Temple Soorandu South, Patharam Goddess Durga
Mavelikkonam Devi Temple Nagaroor Kilimanoor
Sri Pazhayidam Narasimha Swamy Temple Anayadi, Sooranadu North Lord Narasimha
Puthiyidam Sreekrishnaswamy Temple Punaloor Lord Krishna
Varattuchira Devi Temple Keralapuram
Sri Mahavishnu Kshethram (Appooppan Kovil) Cheiryaudeswaram, Palkulangara, Trivandrum Lord Vishnu
Vadamon Sreekrishna Swamy Temple Vadamon, Anchal Lord Krishna
Sree Darma Sastha Temple Sakthikulangara Lord Ayappa
Thrikkadavoor Sree Mahadevar Temple Kadavoor Lord Shiva
Sree Mahadevar Temple Manalil Mamuttilkadavu
Sree Mahathevar (Mahavishnu) Temple Mamuttilkadavu Lord Vishnu
Anoor Pattupurackal Devi Temple Anoor, Kottarakkara
Ayyampally Devi Temple Chanthoor, Kottarakkara
Sree Mahadeva Temple Kakkakottoor, Kottarakkara Lord Shiva
Vadamon Sree Dharma Sastha Temple (Kochambalam) Vadamon, Anchal Lord Ayappa
Kallada Thondickal Annapoorneswari Temple West Kallada Lord Yogeeswaran
Thenmala Sree Mahaganapathy Temple Near Railway Station Lord Mahaganapathy
Anasthanathu Kudumba Kshetram Alumpeedika Lord Shiva
Peroor Karinalloor Bhagavathy Temple[29] kollam
Thevalakara Devi Temple Thevalakara Goddess Durga
Thekkan Guruvayoor Sree Krishna swami Temple Thevalakara Lord Krishna
Indilayappan Kiratha Moorthi Temple Thavalakara, Padinjattakara Lord Siva
Ayyankoikkal Dharma Shastha Temple Koivila,Thevalakara Lord Ayyappa
Kanineezhuthe Muhoothi Temple Thevalakara,Padinjattakara Twin Goddess - Durga and Muhoorthi
Areekkave Bhagavathi Temple Arinaloor, Thevalakara
Veluthanmmar kaave devi Temple Thevalakara, Padinjattakara
velamannur Sri Devi Temple Velamannur Durga
Varattuchira Devi Temple Keralapuram Bhadrakali
Mottotu Mahadevar Temple Vayala, Anchal Shiva
kottankulangara Devi Temple Chavara,kollam Durga(Chamaya vilakku festival)
Mannorkave devi temple Mynagappally, Durga

Ashram[edit]

Main article: Mata Amritanandamayi

The guru Mata Amritanandamayi has her spiritual abode on the shores of the Laccadive Sea at Amritapuri,[30] in the Karunagappalli taluk of Kollam district. Parayakadavu, a coastal village near Karunagapally, is the birthplace of Mata Amritanandamayi and her headquarters. The Thirumullavarom Temple is another well-known temple in Kollam, situated near the Laccadive Sea where thousands came annually for the Vavu Bali.

Christian worship[edit]

New cathedral in Thangassery, Kollam

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon or Kollam is the first Catholic diocese in India in the state of Kerala. First erected on 9 August 1329 and re-erected on 1 September 1886,The vibrant catholic community of Quilon (Kollam) cherishes its unique history of being founded by St. Thomas the Apostle of Jesus, nurtured by the great apostles St. Bartolommeo and St. Francis Xavier and fostered by the saintly martyrs like Archbishop Jordanus Catalani de Severac and Giovanni Marignoli. According to tradition, St. Thomas the Apostle established seven churches along the southern part of west coast of India, and Quilon (pronounced Koy-lon[1]) is the second in the list of the above seven churches.

400-year-Infant Jesus Cathedral at Quilon-Tangasseri. In 2006 it was demolished and replaced by a new building.

Since the latter half of the 12 th century, Quilon became the chief centre of missionary expeditions. Franciscan and Dominican Missionaries in the 13 th and 14 th centuries visited Quilon and their letters confirm the existence of a vibrant Christian community in Quilon.

In 1329 Pope John XXII, in captivity at Avignon, erected Quilon as the first Diocese in the whole of Indies as suffragan to the Archdiocese of Sultany in Persia through the decree "Romanus Pontifix" dated 9 th August 1329 . By a separate Bull "Venerabili Fratri Jordano", the same Pope, on 21 August 1329 appointed the French Dominican friar Jordanus Catalani de Severac as the first Bishop of Quilon. (Copies of the Orders and the related letters issued by His Holiness Pope John XXII to Bishop Jordanus Catalani and to the diocese of Quilon are documented and preserved in the diocesan archives). The ancient diocese of Quilon had extensive jurisdiction over modern nations of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma and SriLanka. Jordanus Catalani arrived in Surat in 1320. After his ministry in Gujarat he reached Quilon in 1323. He not only revived Christianity but also brought thousands to the Christian fold. He came again to Quilon as the bishop in 1330. He built a church at Quilon, known as St. George's Church . His book " Mirabilia Descripta " is a rare work on plants, animals and the people of India and of other countries in Asia and this is an authoritative work on India dating 800 years back. This book is considered to be a landmark chronicle of its time written around 1324 The first Bishop of Quilon was received with great jubilation by the faithful of Quilon. He brought a message of good wishes from the Pope to the local rulers. As the first bishop in India, he was also entrusted with the duty of spiritual nourishment of the Christian community in Calicut, Mangalore, Thane and 'Broach' (north of Thane). He was martyred by Muslims in Bombay in 1336. In the year 1348 John De Marignoli, the Papal Legate to China on his way back to Rome sojourned here for 14 months. With the martyrdom of the first Bishop, the See of Quilon remained vacant. There was a 'historic gap' with regard to ecclesiastical administration in India till the Portuguese landed here in 1498 AD. It follows from the Friar Jordanus tradition that Catholicism – not just Christianity – is deep rooted in Quilon. It is now settled that Latin Catholicism was brought to Kerala in the early fourteenth century by the French Dominicans. It is now evident that while Bishop Jordanus introduced Latin Catholicism, the Portuguese popularized it. The fact that Quilon is the founding seat of the Catholic Church in India is often found obscured in the midst of history. John De Marignolli (Giovanni de' Marignolli) of St. Lorenzo in Florence, joined the Franciscan order and was consecrated bishop in 1338 AD. He was chosen as legate to China by Pope Benedict XII (1334–1342). He preached in China and on his way back from China, he landed at Quilon and lived there for over a year, preaching in St. George's Church, which was founded by Jordanus. In 1338 during the Pontificate of Pope Benedict XII (1334–1342) the great Khan of Peking in China sent a great delegation of ambassadors to the Pope at Avignon and were given a royal reception by the Pope. They requested the Pope to send a legate who would be wise, capable and virtuous to care for their souls. Responding to their request the Pope chose John De Marignolli as his legate to China and he accompanied the ambassadors of Great Khan on their homeward journey. Marignolli departed with a great number of friars and precious gifts for Khan, princes and sovereigns. They departed in March 1339 and after a long and perilous journey reached their destination, Khanbalique in 1342 and were received by the Great Khan, who was the last of the Mongol dynasty in China.

Quilon bishop's chapel, memorial stone to commemorate the founding of the Syro-Malankara rite, 1930

After three years of mission Marignolli decided to return to Europe . On his departure on 26 December 1345 he set out for Quilon where he arrived on 23 March 1346 . The Christians of Quilon warmly welcomed him. He lived there for over a year, and preached in St. George's Church, founded by Jordanus. He concentrated himself in the Latin Church of St. George founded by Bishop Jordanus. He preached in this Church and adorned the Church with paintings. He could not do much of missionary activity here since he became sick with dysentery during his stay at Quilon. When he recovered he visited Cape Comorin the extremity of Indian Peninsula where he erected a marble pillar mounted by a cross in full view of Ceylon . It seems that he was an ambitious man and was desirous that the good people of Quilon should never forget him and that was the intention of the erection of the marble pillar. The column, which was to endure till the world's end soon crumbled under the corroding influence of the elements and the inscriptions, were destroyed. Later a wrong tradition developed, attributing this column to St. Thomas. Marignolli set for Sumatra and Ceylon in July 1347. In September 1348 he came back to India. He left India in 1350 AD.

It belongs to the ecclesiastical province of Trivandrum. As of 2013 the bishop is Most Rev Dr Stanley Roman.

Rt. Rev. Dr. Jerome M. Fernandez, the first native Bishop of Quilon, was the great visionary who founded the college for the educational upliftment of the Latin Catholics of the Diocese of Quilon. His Lordship believed that education was a means to enlightenment, social change and material prosperity. Thus, invoking the blessings of the heavenly patroness, our lady of Fatima, Bishop Jerome established Fatima Mata National College in 1951. Pullichira Our Lady of Immaculate conception is a very famous pilgrim centre in Kollam.

Muslim worship[edit]

sheikh-masjid-karunagapally' ochira-juma-ath-masjid' kottukadu-juma-masjid-chavara' Valiyapalli, Janakappuram, Juma-Masjid Kolloorvila, Jumma-Ath-Masjid, Thattamala, N-Muslim Jumma-Ath-Palli, Kalamala Palli (Karuva), Muthirapparambu Palli (Kalamala), Muthirapparambu and Siyavathummodu Palli (Kilikolloor) are the best-known mosques. KOLLOORVILA JAMA-ATH one of the large mahalla in Kerala. Kolloorvila is a historical place which is 4 kilometers away from Kollam city. Kolloorvila, where the poor, rich and people belonging to various religion lives in harmony is the second largest Muslim population in Kerala. Pallimukku is the headquarters of Kolloorvila where the Kolloorvila Juma Masjid is situated. Presence of Asayyid Kochu Koya Thangal's maqam is a blessing from Allah for the people of this region. Sayyid Kochu Koya Thangal Bafaqi was born in Halar town of Yemen. He was a great scholar and Humanitarian who spent most of his life for the spiritual and social uplift of Kolloorvila.

Kolloorvila Juma Masjid

The Kollorvila Juma Masjid is a well architectured and a beautifully constructed Mosque. It can accommodate a very large number of believers and more than 5000 can offer prayers at a time. This masjid is one of the biggest mosque in the region. There are more than 7000 families in Kollorvila Muslim Jamaath.

Maa'danul Uloom Arabic College

The Maa'dunal Uloom Arabic college is one of the famous colleges in Kerala. There are students from various part of Kerala pursuing Arabic courses here.

Bustanul Talibeen Madrasah


More than 1500 students are studying in BT Madrasah. The Madrasah runs in a beautiful two storeyed building which was constructed in 1988. KMJ Central School The Kolloorvila Muslim Jamaath established a school with the intend of providing good education. The school is located near the masjid and is easily accessible from the national highway.

Health[edit]

Kollam has a fairly-well-developed network of medical facilities.[citation needed] At the Foot of the mountains outside Kollam also believed to a supposed place for the fountain of youth according to The Travels of Sir John Mandeville.

Entrance of Paravur Taluk Hospital

The health care sector of Kollam has changed a lot in the past decade. Once there were no medical colleges in the district, but now having a total of 3 Medical Colleges. 2 is under consideration of the officials(One is a Kerala Government Medical College and the other one is Valiyath Institute of Medical Sciences, Karunagappally). The one and only ESI Medical College in Kerala is situated in the Kollam district.[31] Azeezia Medical College and Dental College in Meeyannoor and Travancore Medicity Medical College in Mevaram bypass junction are the two other medical colleges in the district.

The famous Samad in Vitro Fertilization (IVF) hospital has a branch in Kollam. Padmavathi Medical Foundation and Hospital is a speciality heart hospital, situated in Sasthamkotta. A lot of Christian Missionary Hospitals are there in the district like Bishop Benziger Hospital and Holy Cross Hospital, Kollam, CSI Hospital and Christuraj Hospital, Kottarakkara etc. The district is having Government Taluk hospitals in every 30 Kilometer distance. The important Taluk Hospitals are situated in Kollam, Kottarakkara, Paravur, Punalur, Karunagappally and Sasthamkotta.

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Kollam is well-connected to all parts of the state by bus and train service.[32][33] It is also connected to neighboring states by frequent bus service operated by the Kerala State Road Transport Corporation(KSRTC) and Indian Railways.[32][33] These are the KSRTC Depots & Sub Depots. & Operating Centres(OS) in the district in the district;

Kollam KSRTC Bus Station

The district is well-connected to other parts of Kerala and India through the National Highways – NH 66 (Earlier NH 47), NH 183 (Earlier NH 220), NH 744 (Earlier NH 208). The state highway - Main Central Road (MC Road) and Punalur-Pathanamthitta-Muvattupuzha Main Eastern Highway — connects Kollam with other districts. Intrastate road transportation is served by the KSRTC, Tamil Nadu State Transport and Karnataka State Transport Companies. KSRTC Interstate bus service operates from the Kollam Transport and Kottarakkara Transport bus stations.

Rail[edit]

Kollam Junction railway station(QLN) is the one and only rail head in the district. A total of 128 short & long distant services(including weekly) and 10 services of MEMU are running through Kollam Junction railway station. A most modern MEMU maintenance shed is working in the railway station premises of Kollam city. In addition to that, there are some other major railway stations in the district namely Paravur(PVU), Karunagappally(KPY), Punalur(PUU), Sasthamkotta(STKT), Kottarakkara(KKZ), Kundara(KUV) and Mayyanad(MYY). The district has a good railway network, with 25 stations and about 132 kilometres (82 mi) of track. Kollam district boasts the record of having most numbers of railway stations in the state.[34]

Railway stations in Kollam District
Ochira Karunagapally Sasthamkotta
Mandrothuruthu Perinad Kollam Junction
Eravipuram Mayyanad Paravur
Kilikolloor Chandanathoppe Kundara
Kundara East Ezhukone Kottarakara
Kuri Avaneeswaram Punalur
Edamon Ottakkal Thenmala
Kazhuthurutty Edappalayam Aryankavu[34]

Trains from here connect the city of Kollam to major cities of India, including New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Indore, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Mumbai, Madurai, Vizag, Jammu, Howrah, Guwahati, Madgaon, Itarsi, Hubli, Ahmedabad, Kanyakumari, Gwalior, Nagpur, Pune, Kota, Bhubaneshwar, Gorakhpur, Kochi, Kozhikode, Amritsar, Vijayawada, Coimbatore, Chandigarh and Mangalore. There is also passenger services running in Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam-Ernakulam and Kollam-Punalur routes.[32]

Air[edit]

Asramam Airport in Kollam City was the first airport of Kerala. The first flight to Kerala landed in Kollam Asramam Airport.[35] The first Amphibian Aircraft[Seaplane] of Kerala also landed in Kollam. However Kollam district has no airport right now. The nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport, about 65 kilometres (40 mi) away.[36] Daily domestic flight services are available to major cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore and Kochi. International flight services connecting to Sharjah, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Kuwait, Muscat, Male, Doha, Singapore and Colombo are available from here. A project is under planning stage to build an airstrip in Pathanapuram area of Kollam district.

Water[edit]

Kollam-Dalavapuram boat service

The district is having a fairly good network of waterways. The State Water Transport Department operates boat services to West Kallada, Munroe Island and Alappuzha. Double decker luxury boats run between Kollam and Allepey daily. Luxury boats, operated by Government and private owners, operate from the main boat jetty during the tourist season. The West coast canal system, which starts from Thiruvananthapuram in the south and ends at Hosdurg in the north, passes through Paravur, the city of Kollam and Karunagappally taluk. The Thiruvananthapuram-Shornur canal, which forms a part of the Thiruvananthapuram-Hosdurg system, runs a distance of about 62 km. The other canal systems include the Paravur Kayal, Kollam canal and Chavara canal. The waterways are popular attractions and scenic tourist destinations in the area. The Kerala State Water Transport Department (KSWTD) has an operating centre near the KSRTC bus stand. Tourists may hire motorised country boats and Houseboats with amenities (kettavulam in Malayalam)to cruise along the waterways.

Sports[edit]

Western entrance of Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Kollam

Kollam district is very famous because of its interest to Hockey. The district is giving maximum importanace to hockey, cricket and football. Kollam is home to a number of local cricket, hockey and football teams participating in district, state level and zonal matches. A hockey stadium with most modern facilities and international hockey turf is under construction in the city. The land for the construction of stadium is taken over from the Postal Department at Asramam, Kollam. Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium is the famous stadium in the district, situated at the heart of Kollam city. That is a multipurpose stadium, hosted the sports events like Renji Trophy, Santhosh Trophy and National Games many times.[37] Grounds like Asramam Maidanam and Peeranki Maidanam in the city are also used for sports events, practicing and warm-up matches. The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium is getting ready to host the 35th National Games of India. The construction works of the International Hockey stadium is in full pace for the same reason.

Kerala First-Class Matches played on Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Kollam(Quilon)
Year Date Tournament Teams Played
1979 3 November Ranji Trophy 1979/80 Kerala vs Andhra
1988 10 December Ranji Trophy 1988/89 Kerala vs Goa
1988 17 December Ranji Trophy 1988/89 Kerala vs Karnataka

There are so many grounds, mini stadiums in the district capable to host the district and state level matches.

Education[edit]

Ornate, pink-and-white building with traditional Mughal architecture
TKM Engineering College, Kollam

According to the 2001 census, Kollam has an overall literacy rate of 91.18 percent; the male literacy rate is 94.43 percent and the female rate is 88.18 percent. These statistics are consistent with the state average, which is higher than the national average.[2]

Bishop Jerome Institute, Kollam - An integrated campus offering MBA, Architecture and Engineering courses, situated at the heart of the 'Lake City of Kerala'

Kollam has a number of privately owned and state-owned educational institutions. St. Joseph's Convent School at Tuet receives no government aid and has the largest number of students in the world for a school of its type (over 12,000). The state-run school is the Government Model Higher Secondary School For Boys, the oldest school in Kollam. The district has a total of 128 educational institutions under the Department of Higher Education. the Meenakshi Vilasam Government Vocational Higher Secondary School (MVGVHSS) is one of the oldest schools in the district, with over 1,000 students.

Distant view of modern, low white building with trees in front
SN Polytechnic College (SNPTC), Kottiyam, in 2008

S.N. Polytechnic is a nodal polytechnic in the district. SNPTC was founded in 1957 by the Sri Narayana Trusts, Kollam under the initiative of its secretary (R. Sankar, former chief minister of Kerala).

Two tan buildings (one larger than the other) separated by dirt road and line of trees

Kollam has one kendriya vidyalaya and three other CBSE schools. Schools in Kerala follow both the English and Malayalam methods of education. Kollam has ten professional engineering colleges and two medical colleges. It has 17 arts and science colleges, 11 teacher-training colleges and 7 nursing schools. The TKM College of Engineering has been at the forefront of Engineering Education in the state for the past five decades. Bishop Jerome Institute(School of Management, School of Engineering & School of Architecture), lead by the Kollam Diocese is another important college in the city, situated near to the Kollam Railway Station. It has contributed over ten thousand brilliant engineers, many of whom are stalwarts in their fields across the world. Over the years, the TKM College of Engineering has emerged as a centre of excellence, offering a wide spectrum of Graduate and Post Graduate Courses in Engineering and related areas. NATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL is one the CBSE schools in KOLLAM and is situated in Thazuthala Kottiyam.It is managed by National Educational Society.National public school is certified by ISO 9001:2008.

Industry[edit]

Fishing nets anchored to lakeside, surrounded by palm trees
Chinese nets on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake

Kollam district is moderately industrialized. Two government enterprises (the Indian Rare Earths Limited in Chavara and Parvathi Mills) are among the industries in Kollam. Kerala Ceramics Ltd. (Kundara),[38] Kerala Electrical and Allied Engineering Company (Kundara), Kerala Premo Pipe Factory (Chavara), Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (Chavara), United Electrical Industries-Kollam and Kerala Agro-Fruit Products in Punalur are state-government-owned companies. Private-sector industries include Thomas Stephen & Co. (Kollam), Floorco (Pozhikkara, Paravur), Cooperative Spinning Mill (Chathannur) and Punalur Paper Mills (Punalur). Nearly 2,000 SSI enterprises have been registered in the district.

Kerala Minerals and Metals (KMML), a Government of Kerala undertaking located on the beaches of Shankaramangalam (Chavara), produces high-grade chemical compounds of titanium such as titanium dioxide pigment, hafnium ore, sillimanite and monazite. These chemicals are used in paints, welding electrodes, ceramics and foundries.[39]

Two women spinning coconut fiber on small green loom outside a home
Women at a small-scale coir (coconut fiber) spinning unit at Kollam

Indian Rare Earths Limited, a Government of India undertaking under the Department of Atomic Energy which incorporated on 18 August 1950, has four production plants: Minerals Divisions at Chavara and Manavalakurichi and an OSCOM and Rare Earths Division at Aluva. IREL is a pioneer in the mining and separation of heavy minerals (such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite) from sand.[40] IREL also conducts research and development in mining and minerals.

United Electrical Industries Ltd. (UNILEC) is a public-sector company under the government of Kerala. This ISO 9001:2000-certified company produces electromechanical meters for domestic and industrial use. This company, unique in Kerala, can produce one hundred thousand meters per month.[41]

Technopark–Kollam[edit]

The Technopark_kollam (a business park) providing dedicated high speed lines with its own uninterrupted source of power supply is nearing completion on the banks of the Ashtamudi Lake, near Kundara. The park located in a 40-acre (16 ha) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is unique in that it offers access through the backwaters of Kerala from Kollam or from Allepey for the adventurous. These idyllic surrounds are expected to generate around 10,000 jobs within its first three years of operation. An iconic building has been constructed on the lake, along with a boat terminal for commuter boats from other parts of Kollam city.

Construction status is:

  • SEZ Notification issued
  • The site office is open
  • Work on the canal embankment has begun
  • Work has begun on the first phase of the IT building (100,000 square feet (9,300 m2))
  • Land development (compound wall, internal roads) is in progress
  • The work orderfor a 110 kV substation has been awarded to Siemens India Ltd
  • Work on the water supply and distribution system is in progress

Cashew industry[edit]

Two bright-yellow cashew fruits on tree, with green nuts on bottom
Twin cashew nuts, ready for harvest from kottarakkara tree

The cashew industry is centralised in this district. Kollam is approved by the central government as a "centre of cashew industry". Most workers in this industry are women; among them, a majority comes from the poorer sections of the society. There are several cashew-processing units in the district. The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Ltd, a Government of Kerala undertaking, has its headquarters in Kollam and serves as a model agency for the cashew-processing industry. The corporation has 30 cashew factories and employs more than 20,000 workers. Another government organisation in this field is CAPEX, which is part of the cooperative sector and has 10 cashew factories.[42] Coir production, handloom industry, clay and wood-based industries contribute to the industrial health of the region.[43]

Forests and wildlife[edit]

According to Government of Kerala estimates 81,438 hectares (314.43 sq mi) of land is under forest cover, mainly in the eastern portion of the district (including the Thenmala, Punalur and a portion of the Achencoil forest divisions). The Thenmala Range, Aryankavu Range and Shendurney Sanctuary comprise the Thenmala division and the Achencoil, Kallar and Kanayar Ranges make up the Achencoil division. The Pathanapuram and Anchal Ranges constitute the Punalur division.

The Shenduruny wildlife sanctuary, 66 kilometres (41 mi) from Kollam, is situated on the southern part of the Western Ghats (8°50' and 8°55'N; 77°5'and 77°15'E) in the Pathanapuram taluk of the district.[44] The name "Shenduruny" is derived from the name of a tree species locally called "Shenkuruny" or "Chenkuruny" (Gluta travancorica), a tree mainly found in this area. An artificial lake of about 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi) has developed following construction of a dam across the Kallada River. Remnants of Stone Age culture from a large cave situated at the northwestern part of the Shenduruny River was excavated from this sanctuary.[44] These remains belong to the Mesolithic period.

This tropical rain forest has a wide variety of wildlife, and some endangered species are found here. Species found in the sanctuary include bonnet and lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langur, gaur (or Indian bison), sambar deer, muntjac (or barking deer), Indian Spotted Chevrotain (or mouse deer), wild boar, Indian elephant and different species of squirrels, such as the Indian giant and Indian palm squirrels.[44]

Agriculture[edit]

The district has a total cultivated area of 218,267 hectares (842.73 sq mi). Paddy, tapioca, coconut, rubber, pepper, banana, mango and cashews are the prominent crops. The average per-family holding of farmland is 0.21 hectares (2,100 m2). 70 percent of the district's labor force is engaged in agriculture or allied activities. Kollam is historically known for Cashew nut cultivation and is home to a number of cashew nut factories. However on analyzing the area of last few years, it is seen that the area of cashew cultivation is continuously decreasing in the district. Kollam district occupies the first position in the production of Tapioca and Tuber (Colocasia and Yam) in the state.

Agricultural production in Kollam district
Products Area under cultivation (ha) Production (in tonnes)
Rice 11,457 24,204
Pepper 10,633 3,235
Ginger 612 1,648
Cashewnut 4,663 3,043
Tapioca 24,065 556,140
Coconut 71,310 411 million
Arecanut 2,502 1,710
Rubber 36,797 48,386

Irrigation[edit]

Upstream view of small road bridge over a river, with three supports
Kallada River

Two major rivers, the Kallada and Ithikkara, flow through Kollam. The Kallada Irrigation Project (KIP) uses water from the Kallada for irrigation. The project consists of a dam at Thenmala, from which water is diverted for irrigation.

Fishing[edit]

The western portion of Kollam is bordered by the Laccadive Sea. Kollam's coastline is 37.3 kilometres (23.2 mi), 6.3 percent of Kerala's total coastline. Neendakara and Sakthikulangara are important fishing villages. There are an estimated 26 villages whose livelihood depends entirely on fishing. Cheriazheekkal, Alappad, Pandarathuruthu, Puthenthura, Neendakara, Thangasseri, Eravipuram and Paravoor are among the prominent fishing villages.[45] One-third of Kerala's fish production (including 60 percent of its prawn catch) is contributed by Kollam, whose average fish production is estimated at 5,275 tonnes. Nearly 3,000 mechanized boats operate out of its fishing harbour.[45]

Animal husbandry[edit]

Kollam district has one of the largest livestock populations in Kerala. Cattle are reared chiefly for dairy farming. According to the 2000 animal census, Kollam has an estimated population of 182,434 cows, 6162 buffalo, 131,714 goats and 1,034 pigs. In poultry, the district ranks third in Kerala.

Tourism[edit]

Train on arch bridge, running next to a road through a forest
Thirteen-ring bridge, Punalur
Large gray concrete dam, viewed from below
Thenmala Dam

Palaruvi Falls, Thenmala (forests and reservoir), the Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve, Ashtamudi (backwater) and beaches at Kollam, Thirumullavaram and Thangassery are scenic areas.

Ashramam Tourist Village is a well-known tourist destinations in Kollam city; the tourist village is located on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake. Ashramam is a hub of tourism activities in Kollam, and the District Tourism Promotion Council (DTPC) office is located within the village.

The Asramam Maidan(Ashramam ground) , adjacent to the tourist village, is the largest open space within a Kerala Municipal Corporation. It is used for events, sports, as a helipad, for Kollam Pooram and by driving schools. It covers over 60 acres (24 ha) in an oval.

Entrance to low building with four white columns, triangular roof and blue sign
Kottarakkara Palace

The first community tourism program in the state is being established on the Munroethuruth islands. Backwater tourism is an activity enjoyed in Kollam; Ashtamudi Lake, Paravur, Munroe Island, and Alumkadavu are the main backwater destinations. Accommodation is in resorts and on houseboats.

Thenmala, located 66 kilometres (41 mi) east of Kollam, is the first ecotourism project in India and run by the Thenmala Ecotourism Promotion Society.[46][47][48]

Kollam was the seat of the Desinganad kings. Kottarakara is well known as the place where a new version of the classical dance form of Kathakali was conceived. It was also the capital of the Elayidath Swaroopam. Kundara is known for the 1812 proclamation against the British by Velu Thampi Dalawa.[43]

Alappad village, located on the seashore, was impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Varkala Beach (also known as Papanasham) is 26 kilometres (16 mi) south of Kollam. The Duriyodana Temple is in Kunnathur Taluk. The Sakthikulangara Dharma Sastha Temple-Sree Ayyappa Swamy Temple is known for its Utsavam in the month of Makaram (between mid-January and mid-February).

Polachira, in Chirakkara Gramapanchayat, is a sightseeing destination. The Anathavalam is near here where one can see domestic elephants, touch and ride them. Mannathippara is at Polachira, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of Chathannoor. Sasthamcotta Lake, about 19 kilometres (12 mi) from Kollam, is the largest freshwater lake in Kerala and a domestic tourist destination.[49] Jetayu Para, a large boulder, is located in Chadayamangalam; it is name for a mythical character in the Ramayana. It is believed that Jatayu fell here, after his failed attempt to stop Ravana.[49][50]

Kollam Beach[edit]

An evening view of Arabian Sea from Kollam Beach

Kollam Beach is also known as Mahatma Gandhi Beach. It is one among the twin beaches of the city. The other one is Thirumullavaram beach. Kollam Beach is situated at a distance of 2 km from Kollam city. It is one of the top crowd pulling beaches in Kerala. The beach also has a park of international standard. The Mahatma Gandhi Park was inaugurated on January 1, 1961 by the then Vice President of India, Zakir Hussein. Kollam Corporation had started the construction of a marine aquarium at Kollam Beach which is first of its kind in the state of Kerala. Harbour Engineering Department is constructing the aquarium at the eastern side of the beach.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Kollam District Level Statistics 2011". ecostat.kerala.gov.in. 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Covt of kerala website, kollam page
  3. ^ http://kollam.nic.in/default.htm
  4. ^ "Official Web Portal of Government of Kerala". Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  5. ^ "MSN Weather". Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  7. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Kuwait 2,595,62" 
  8. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. "Nevada 2,700,551" 
  9. ^ "Kollam city population Census". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  10. ^ Administration page of quilon.com
  11. ^ a b kollam police official website
  12. ^ "mukhathala murari temple". 
  13. ^ Oachira website
  14. ^ a b Official website of kottarakkara ganapathy temple
  15. ^ Official website of Asramam Sreekrishna swamy temple
  16. ^ Official website of Kollam pooram
  17. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/05/stories/2008040551540300.htm News article on kollam pooram
  18. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2009/04/16/stories/2009041653840300.htm News article on kollam pooram Hindu Daily
  19. ^ Extract on Ammachiveedu temble
  20. ^ a b The Hindu Daily news about Balasubrahmanya swamy temple
  21. ^ News article about Kottamkulangara temple chamaya vilakku
  22. ^ http://mangalathutemple.com
  23. ^ aneeshms. "sasthamcottatemple,sreedharmasasthatemple,sasthamcotta". Sasthamcottatemple.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  24. ^ "Malanada Temple - The one and only Dhuryodana Temple". Malanada.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  25. ^ Sree Mangalathu Mahalekshmi Temple
  26. ^ "piligrimage to Dakshina kashi". Ochira.com. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "Kottarakkara Sree Maha Ganapathy Temple | Kottarakara | Kerala | India". Kottarakaratemple.org. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  28. ^ "Marayikkodu Sree Indilayappan Temple, Karickom, Kottarakara, Kollam, Kerala". Marayikkodu.org. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  29. ^ Peroor Karinalloor Bhagavathy Temple
  30. ^ Amrithapuri website
  31. ^ Title = ESI Medical College Inaugurated
  32. ^ a b c Southern Railway
  33. ^ a b KSRTC official website
  34. ^ a b kollam railway information
  35. ^ Kollam Asramam Airport
  36. ^ Thiruvanthapuram International airport
  37. ^ Stadiums in India KCA-Cricket Archive
  38. ^ http://www.keralaceramics.com
  39. ^ KMML official website
  40. ^ IREL official website
  41. ^ Official website of UNILEC
  42. ^ http://www.cashewcorporation.com
  43. ^ a b http://www.kollamcity.com
  44. ^ a b c kera prd site
  45. ^ a b Kerala matsyafed
  46. ^ Thenmala Ecotourism website
  47. ^ Thenmala Ecotourism news Hindu Daily
  48. ^ Thenmala Ecotourism news Hindu Daily
  49. ^ a b tourism page of kollam official website.
  50. ^ Jatayu para article from Hindu Daily t.

External links[edit]