|— district —|
|• Collector||P.G. Thomas IAS|
|• Density||1,038/km2 (2,690/sq mi)|
|• Official||Malayalam, English, Tamil|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL-02, KL-23, KL-24, KL-25, KL-61|
Kollam district (formerly Quilon) is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; it is endowed with a long coastline, a major Arabian Sea seaport and an inland lake (Ashtamudi Lake). Kollam is the capital of Kerala's cashew industry. Plains, mountains, lakes, lagoons and backwaters, forests, farmland and rivers make up the topography of the district. The area had trading relationships with Phoenicia and Ancient Rome. About 30 percent of the district is covered by Ashtamudi Lake, making it a gateway to the Kerala backwaters. The Thevalakara and Thekkumbagam panchyaths established the ancient korekini ("sea pointed inland") port of Tarsish in 1500 BC. Kollam is also known as The God's Own Capital.
Kollam district is located on the southwest coast of India, bordering Arabian Sea in the west, the state of Tamil Nadu in the east, Kerala district of Alappuzha in the north, Pathanamthitta in the northeast and Thiruvananthapuram in the south. It covers 2,492 square kilometres (962 sq mi), is the seventh-largest district in Kerala and is densely populated. Sasthamkotta Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, is located in Kollam; this lake provides drinking water to the city of Kollam. Two major rivers (the Kallada and the Ithikkara) drain the district. Ashtamudi Lake and Paravur Kayal are two important lakes in the district. Ashtamudi Lake covers 30 percent of total area of the district. Kollam is located on Ashtamudi Lake. Neendakara, a major fishing port in southern Kerala, is also located on this scenic lake. Edava and Nadayara Lakes are also partly located in Kollam district.
||Alappuzha district||Pathanamthitta district|
|Lakshadweep Sea||Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Kollam's temperature is almost steady throughout the year. The average temperature ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Summer usually runs from March until May; the monsoon begins by June and ends by September. Kollam receives an annual average rainfall of around 2,700 millimetres (110 in).Kollam receives both Southwest and Northeast Monsoons. Winter is from November to February; the temperature is moderately cool, ranging from 18 to 25 degrees Celsius.
|Climate data for Kollam (Quilon)|
|Average high °C||32||33||33||33||33||30||30||30||31||31||31||32||33|
|Average low °C||22||23||24||25||25||24||23||23||24||24||23||23||22|
|Average high °F||90||91||91||91||91||86||86||86||88||88||88||90||91|
|Average low °F||72||73||75||77||77||75||73||73||75||75||73||73||72|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: |
According to the 2011 census Kollam district has a population of 2,629,703, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada. This gives it a ranking of 155th in India (out of a total of 640 districts). The district has a population density of 1,056 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,740 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 1.72 percent. Kollam has a sex ratio of 1113 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 93.77 percent.
The history of the district's administration can be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and Kottayam. When Travancore and Cochin were combined into Travancore-Cochin, Kollam was one of the three revenue divisions. When the state of Kerala was formed in 1957, Chenkotta taluk was merged with the state of Madras. Later in 1957, the Cherthala, Ambalapuzha, Mavelikara, Karthikapalli, Chengannur and Thiruvalla taluks (formerly in Kollam district) were united to form the new district of Alappuzha. In 1983, Pathanamthitta taluk and nine villages of Kunnathur taluk were removed from Kollam district to form the new Pathanamthitta district.
District administration 
Kollam district has five administrative subdivisions (taluks): Pathanapuram, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara, Karunagappally and Kollam. The district collector, a key functionary of the government, heads the district administration. He or she plays a dual role: the agent of government and chief administrator of the district, reporting to the state government. Among other tasks, maintaning law and order is a priority for district collector. The district collector is also the head of the Land Revenue Department of the district. The district has one revenue division, with its headquarters at Quilon. For administrative purposes, Kollam district is divided into 5 taluks, 13 blocks, 69 Panchayats, 1 corporation, 3 municipalities and 104 villages. The Kollam Civil Station was built in 1956 to incorporate all government offices in one place.
Police administration 
Police administration in Kollam is divided into two districts: urban and rural. The City Police is headed by a City Police Commissioner, an IPS (Indian Police Service) officer with the rank of SP; its headquarters is at Kollam. The rural police is headed by the Rural Superintendent of Police (SP), with its headquarters at Kottarakkara. Both heads report to the Inspector General of Police (IGP), Thiruvananthapuram Range (Kerala).
The Kollam City Police is divided into three subdivisions, each under an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP): Karunagappally, Kollam and Chathannoor. Each subdivision is divided into circles, headed by the Circle Inspector of Police. Each circle is divided into a number of police stations, headed by a Sub-Inspector of Police. The Kollam Rural Police District is divided into two subdivisions, each under a Deputy Superintendent of Police (DySP): Kottarakkara and Punalur. There are a total of 29 police stations, in 13 circles. Kollam city traffic is controlled by the City Traffic Police, with a Traffic Police Station located near the Asramam Ground. Kerala's first coastal police station was established in Neendakara, Kollam.
The first police museum in India (the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum) has a large collection of police artifacts and rare photographs. The museum has a room dedicated to officers killed in the line of duty. The forensic section has a large collection of photographs. The museum is located at the Kollam East Police Station.
Kollam is administratively divided into five taluks they are Kollam, Kottarakkara, Pathanapuram, Punalur, Kunnathur, which are subdivided into 104 villages. The tahsildar is the revenue official in charge of each taluk.
Lok Sabha constituencies 
Three Lok Sabha (lower house) constituencies constitute Kollam district. They include the Chavara, Kundara, Eravipuram, Kollam, Chathannoor, Chadayamangalam and Punalur assembly constituencies. While the Kunnathur, Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram constituencies are in the Mavelikkara Lok Sabha constituency, the Karunagapally assembly constituency is in the Alappuzha Lok Sabha constituency.
Kollam district elects 11 representatives (MLAs) to the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The district has a rich political history; the party receiving the majority of votes in Kollam has always gone on to form the government in Kerala. Kollam district has two ministers in the Kerala government. Kollam is a traditional stronghold for CPI(M) led left democratic front. Currently LDF has 9 seats and UDF has 2 seats in the assmbly from Kollam district. CPI(M) PB member MA Baby and central committee member P K Gurudasan are elected MLA from Kollam.
Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are the prominent religions in this district.
Hindu worship 
EDAKKIDOM THETTIKKUNIL Sree Maha Devi Temple
The Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada (popularly known as Peruviruthy Malanada, or Malanada) is located at Edakkad Ward (Kara) in Poruvazhy Village, Kunnathoor Taluk. It is the northern border of Kollam district and includes Kadampnad in Pathanamthitta and the Alappuzha district. The temple is equidistant from Adoor (MC Road) on the northeast and Sasthamcottah on the southeast. It is also accessible from Kayamkulam and Karunagappally on NH 47 and Kottarakkara (via Puthoor or Enathu) on the MC road (approximately 25 km from each).
Oachira, located in the north of the district on National Highway 47, is known for its Oachira Parabrahma Temple. Oachirakali is an annual event at the padanilam (paddy fields) in the month of Vrichikam. The Oachira Town Masjid (mosque) and the Oachira Temple are situated close to one another, a symbol of communal harmony. This temple is also a Sabarimala edathavalam.
The Mahaganapathi (Ganesha) Temple at Kottarakara, famous for its Unniappom, is one of the most venerated Ganesha temples in Kerala. The major vazhipadu (offerings) of the Kottarakkara temple are the Udayasthamaya pooja. The main deity of this temple is Shiva, but it is now a Ganesha temple.EDAKKIDOM Thettikkunil Sree Maha Devi Temple,The major "vazhipadu,of the Edakkidom temple are theADAMOODAL,Kadumpayasam
Asramam Sreekrishna Swamy Temple, on the shore of Ashtamudi Lake, is one of the best-known temples in Kollam. The main deity is Krishna as a boy, with butter in both palms. The arattu mahotsavam (festival) of this temple is known as kollam pooram. The kollam pooram is held annually in Asramam maidan.
Ammachiveedu Temple is located in the town area. It was established by an aristocratic family, Ammachi Veedu. The annual festival falls on Dhanu every year, but it is to be done after the Mandala Pooja.
Anandavalleswaram is another major temple in Kollam near the District jail. Here both Mahadeva(facing west) and Devi(facing east) are worshipped. In addition to them, Ganesh, Ayyappa, SreeKrishna and also Muruga are worshiped. We could find Hanuman Swamy also being worshiped there.
The Edavanadu Bhagavathi Temple is the major Durga temple in Kollam district. It is situated in the Mathilil Town area, Kollam.
The Anchal Agasthyakode Mahadeva Temple is another major Mahadeva temple in Kollam district. It is situated in Anchal Panchayath. Every year during Sivarathri, people from every caste and religious background come for the religious festivities (such as Jikku Krishnalayam).
The Thrikkadavoor Mahadeva Temple is the best-known Shiva Temple in the District. It is situated in the Thrikkadavoor Panchayath, on the banks of the Ashtamudi lake. The annual Srattu festival attracts thousands of people from around the world; the festival falls in the month of Kumbham (February). The eight artificial horses (which represent the eight areas (karas) around the temple) are a special attraction for tourists.
Kolloorvila Bharanikkavu Devi temple is located in Madannada, on National Highway 47. Its annual festival lasts 41 days, and is held on bharani nakshatra of meenam month (according to the Malayalam calendar, Kollavarsham).
The Veerabhadra Swamy Temple at Ashtamudi is the only temple in the southern part of the district with Veerabhadra as the presiding deity. The temple is woned by the Kuttiyazhikams in Karuva, a 250-year-old Ezhava family.
Umayanalloor Sri Balasubramania (Murugan) Swamy Temple is situated on NH-47, about 8 km from Kollam. The temple is visited by thousands of devotees. Its Aana Vaal Pidutham Mahotsavam (during the Malayalam month of Meenam (mid-March) attracts hundreds of worshipers from all over the state. Devotees run after an elephant and catch its tail, symbolising the childhood pranks between the deities Subramanyan (Murugan) and Ganesha. Thaipuyyam is also celebrated. Legend has it that the temple was built by the powerful female ruler Umayammarani of the Venad Kingdom about 500 years ago. Aryankavu, in the Western Ghats, is the easternmost point in the district on the National Highway. One of five ancient Ayyappa temples is situated here; two others are at Achankovil and Kulathupuzha in the district.
Shri Mahadevar Temple, Padinjattinkara, Sree Bhootha Natha Temple, Kulashekharanallor Srikrishnaswami, the Devi temple at Kottarakara, Chennamath Temple and Vilappuram Bhagavathy Temple at Chathannoor are other well-known temples. Polachira (near Vilappuram Temple) and Anathavalam (elephants' shelter) at Chirakkara are also scenic locations.
Thalavoor Sri Durga Devi Temple, Thazhava Pulimukham Devi Temple, Peroor Karunalloor Bhagavathy Temple, Pattazhy Devi Temple, Pallimon Mahadeva Temple, Vadayattukotta Sree Krishna Swamy Temple, Kundara Ilampalloor Devi Temple and Paravur Puttingal Devi Temple are other Hindu temples in the District.
Another important temple is the Kottamkulangara temple near Chavara, where there is a tradition of males participating in Vilakkeduppu wearing women's dresses.
The Koonambaikulam (Malayalam: വലിയകൂനംബായ്കുളം) temple is also popular. Its deity is a goddess named Koonambaikulathu Amma. Other temples in Kollam include the Peroor Sree Meenakshi Temple at Punthalathazham and the Mangalathu Temple at Punthalathazham.
The guru Mata Amritanandamayi has her spiritual abode on the shores of the Arabian Sea at Amritapuri, in the Karunagappalli taluk of Kollam district. Parayakadavu, a coastal village near Karunagapally, is the birthplace of Mata Amritanandamayi and her headquarters. The Thirumullavarom Temple is another well-known temple in Kollam, situated near the Arabian Sea where thousands came annually for the Vavu Bali.
Christian worship 
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon or Kollam is the first Catholic diocese in India in the state of Kerala. First erected on 9 August 1329 and re-erected on 1 September 1886,The vibrant catholic community of Quilon (Kollam) cherishes its unique history of being founded by St. Thomas the Apostle of Jesus, nurtured by the great apostles St. Bartolommeo and St. Francis Xavier and fostered by the saintly martyrs like Archbishop Jordanus Catalani de Severac and Giovanni Marignoli. According to tradition, St. Thomas the Apostle established seven churches along the southern part of west coast of India, and Quilon (pronounced Koy-lon) is the second in the list of the above seven churches. Since the latter half of the 12 th century, Quilon became the chief centre of missionary expeditions. Franciscan and Dominican Missionaries in the 13 th and 14 th centuries visited Quilon and their letters confirm the existence of a vibrant Christian community in Quilon. In 1329 Pope John XXII, in captivity at Avignon, erected Quilon as the first Diocese in the whole of Indies as suffragan to the Archdiocese of Sultany in Persia through the decree "Romanus Pontifix" dated 9 th August 1329 . By a separate Bull "Venerabili Fratri Jordano", the same Pope, on 21 August 1329 appointed the French Dominican friar Jordanus Catalani de Severac as the first Bishop of Quilon. (Copies of the Orders and the related letters issued by His Holiness Pope John XXII to Bishop Jordanus Catalani and to the diocese of Quilon are documented and preserved in the diocesan archives). The ancient diocese of Quilon had extensive jurisdiction over modern nations of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma and SriLanka. Jordanus Catalani arrived in Surat in 1320. After his ministry in Gujarat he reached Quilon in 1323. He not only revived Christianity but also brought thousands to the Christian fold. He came again to Quilon as the bishop in 1330. He built a church at Quilon, known as St. George's Church . His book " Mirabilia Descripta " is a rare work on plants, animals and the people of India and of other countries in Asia and this is an authoritative work on India dating 800 years back. This book is considered to be a landmark chronicle of its time written around 1324 The first Bishop of Quilon was received with great jubilation by the faithful of Quilon. He brought a message of good wishes from the Pope to the local rulers. As the first bishop in India, he was also entrusted with the duty of spiritual nourishment of the Christian community in Calicut, Mangalore, Thane and ‘Broach' (north of Thane). He was martyred by Muslims in Bombay in 1336. In the year 1348 John De Marignoli, the Papal Legate to China on his way back to Rome sojourned here for 14 months. With the martyrdom of the first Bishop, the See of Quilon remained vacant. There was a ‘historic gap' with regard to ecclesiastical administration in India till the Portuguese landed here in 1498 AD. It follows from the Friar Jordanus tradition that Catholicism – not just Christianity – is deep rooted in Quilon. It is now settled that Latin Catholicism was brought to Kerala in the early fourteenth century by the French Dominicans. It is now evident that while Bishop Jordanus introduced Latin Catholicism, the Portuguese popularized it. The fact that Quilon is the founding seat of the Catholic Church in India is often found obscured in the midst of history. John De Marignolli (Giovanni de' Marignolli) of St. Lorenzo in Florence, joined the Franciscan order and was consecrated bishop in 1338 AD. He was chosen as legate to China by Pope Benedict XII (1334–1342). He preached in China and on his way back from China, he landed at Quilon and lived there for over a year, preaching in St. George's Church, which was founded by Jordanus. In 1338 during the Pontificate of Pope Benedict XII (1334–1342) the great Khan of Peking in China sent a great delegation of ambassadors to the Pope at Avignon and were given a royal reception by the Pope. They requested the Pope to send a legate who would be wise, capable and virtuous to care for their souls. Responding to their request the Pope chose John De Marignolli as his legate to China and he accompanied the ambassadors of Great Khan on their homeward journey. Marignolli departed with a great number of friars and precious gifts for Khan, princes and sovereigns. They departed in March 1339 and after a long and perilous journey reached their destination, Khanbalique in 1342 and were received by the Great Khan, who was the last of the Mongol dynasty in China. After three years of mission Marignolli decided to return to Europe . On his departure on 26 December 1345 he set out for Quilon where he arrived on 23 March 1346 . The Christians of Quilon warmly welcomed him. He lived there for over a year, and preached in St. George's Church, founded by Jordanus. He concentrated himself in the Latin Church of St. George founded by Bishop Jordanus. He preached in this Church and adorned the Church with paintings. He could not do much of missionary activity here since he became sick with dysentery during his stay at Quilon. When he recovered he visited Cape Comorin the extremity of Indian Peninsula where he erected a marble pillar mounted by a cross in full view of Ceylon . It seems that he was an ambitious man and was desirous that the good people of Quilon should never forget him and that was the intention of the erection of the marble pillar. The column, which was to endure till the world's end soon crumbled under the corroding influence of the elements and the inscriptions, were destroyed. Later a wrong tradition developed, attributing this column to St. Thomas. Marignolli set for Sumatra and Ceylon in July 1347. In September 1348 he came back to India. He left India in 1350 AD.
It belongs to the ecclesiastical province of Trivandrum. As of 2013 the bishop is Most Rev Dr Stanley Roman.
Rt. Rev. Dr. Jerome M. Fernandez, the first native Bishop of Quilon, was the great visionary who founded the college for the educational upliftment of the Latin Catholics of the Diocese of Quilon. His Lordship believed that education was a means to enlightenment, social change and material prosperity. Thus, invoking the blessings of the heavenly patroness, our lady of Fatima, Bishop Jerome established Fatima Mata National College in 1951.
Pullichira Our Lady of Immaculate conception is a very famous pilgrim centre in Kollam.
Muslim worship 
sheikh-masjid-karunagapally' ochira-juma-ath-masjid' kottukadu-juma-masjid-chavara' Valiyapalli, Janakappuram, Juma-Atrh-Palli, Kollurvila, Jumma-Ath-Masjid, Thattamala, N-Muslim Jumma-Ath-Palli, Kalamala Palli (Karuva), Muthirapparambu Palli (Kalamala), Muthirapparambu and Siyavathummodu Palli (Kilikolloor) are the best-known mosques.
Kollam has a fairly-well-developed network of medical facilities.
Ashramam Tourist Village is a well-known tourist destinations in Kollam city; the tourist village is located on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake. Ashramam is a hub of tourism activities in Kollam, and the District Tourism Promotion Council (DTPC) office is located within the village.
The Ashramam maidan (Ashramam ground), adjacent to the tourist village, is the largest open space within a Kerala Municipal Corporation. It is used for events, sports, as a helipad, for Kollam Pooram and by driving schools. It covers over 60 acres (24 ha) in an oval.
The first community tourism program in the state is being established on the Munroethuruth islands. Backwater tourism is an activity enjoyed in Kollam; Ashtamudi Lake, Munroe Island, Alumkadavu and Paravur are the main backwater destinations. Accommodation is in resorts and on houseboats.
Kollam was the seat of the Desinganad kings. Kottarakara is well known as the place where a new version of the classical dance form of Kathakali was conceived. It was also the capital of the Elayidath Swaroopam. Kundara is known for the 1812 proclamation against the British by Velu Thampi Dalawa.
Alappad village, located on the seashore, was impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Varkala Beach (also known as Papanasham) is 26 kilometres (16 mi) south of Kollam. The Duriyodana Temple is in Kunnathur Taluk. The Sakthikulangara Dharma Sastha Temple-Sree Ayyappa Swamy Temple is known for its Utsavam in the month of Makaram (between mid-January and mid-February).
Polachira, in Chirakkara Gramapanchayat, is a sightseeing destination. The Anathavalam is near here where one can see domestic elephants, touch and ride them. Mannathippara is at Polachira, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of Chathannoor. Sasthamcotta Lake, about 19 kilometres (12 mi) from Kollam, is the largest freshwater lake in Kerala and a domestic tourist destination. Jetayu Para, a large boulder, is located in Chadayamangalam; it is name for a mythical character in the Ramayana. It is believed that Jatayu fell here, after his failed attempt to stop Ravana.
According to the 2001 census, Kollam has an overall literacy rate of 91.18 percent; the male literacy rate is 94.43 percent and the female rate is 88.18 percent. These statistics are consistent with the state average, which is higher than the national average. Kollam has a number of privately owned and state-owned educational institutions. St. Joseph's Convent School at Tuet receives no government aid and has the largest number of students in the world for a school of its type (over 12,000). The state-run school is the Government Model Higher Secondary School For Boys, the oldest school in Kollam. The district has a total of 128 educational institutions under the Department of Higher Education. the Meenakshi Vilasam Government Vocational Higher Secondary School (MVGVHSS) is o ne of the oldest schools in the district, with over 1,000 students.
S.N. Polytechnic is a nodal polytechnic in the district. SNPTC was founded in 1957 by the Sri Narayana Trusts, Kollam under the initiative of its secretary (R. Sankar, former chief minister of Kerala).
Kollam has one kendriya vidyalaya and three other CBSE schools. Schools in Kerala follow both the English and Malayalam methods of education. Kollam has ten professional engineering colleges and two medical colleges. It has 17 arts and science colleges, 11 teacher-training colleges and 7 nursing schools.
Kollam district is moderately industrialized. Two government enterprises (the Indian Rare Earths Limited in Chavara and Parvathi Mills) are among the industries in Kollam. Kerala Ceramics Ltd. (Kundara), Kerala Electrical and Allied Engineering Company (Kundara), Kerala Premo Pipe Factory (Chavara), Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (Chavara), United Electrical Industries-Kollam and Kerala Agro-Fruit Products in Punalur are state-government-owned companies. Private-sector industries include Thomas Stephen & Co. (Kollam), Floorco (Pozhikkara, Paravur), Cooperative Spinning Mill (Chathannur) and Punalur Paper Mills (Punalur). Nearly 2,000 SSI enterprises have been registered in the district.
Kerala Minerals and Metals (KMML), a Government of Kerala undertaking located on the beaches of Shankaramangalam (Chavara), produces high-grade chemical compounds of titanium such as titanium dioxide pigment, hafnium ore, sillimanite and monazite. These chemicals are used in paints, welding electrodes, ceramics and foundries.
Indian Rare Earths Limited, a Government of India undertaking under the Department of Atomic Energy which incorporated on 18 August 1950, has four production plants: Minerals Divisions at Chavara and Manavalakurichi and an OSCOM and Rare Earths Division at Aluva. IREL is a pioneer in the mining and separation of heavy minerals (such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite) from sand. IREL also conducts research and development in mining and minerals.
United Electrical Industries Ltd. (UNILEC) is a public-sector company under the government of Kerala. This ISO 9001:2000-certified company produces electromechanical meters for domestic and industrial use. This company, unique in Kerala, can produce one lakh meters per month.
The Technopark_kollam (a business park) providing dedicated high speed lines with its own uninterrupted source of power supply is nearing completion on the banks of the Ashtamudi Lake, near Kundara. The park located in a 40-acre (16 ha) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is unique in that it offers access through the backwaters of Kerala from Kollam or from Allepey for the adventurous. These idyllic surrounds are expected to generate around 10,000 jobs within its first three years of operation. An iconic building has been constructed on the lake, along with a boat terminal for commuter boats from other parts of Kollam city.
Construction status is:
- SEZ Notification issued
- The site office is open
- Work on the canal embankment has begun
- Work has begun on the first phase of the IT building (100,000 square feet (9,300 m2))
- Land development (compound wall, internal roads) is in progress
- The work orderfor a 110 kV substation has been awarded to Siemens India Ltd
- Work on the water supply and distribution system is in progress
Cashew industry 
The cashew industry is centralised in this district. Kollam is approved by the central government as a "centre of cashew industry". Most workers in this industry are women; among them, a majority comes from the poorer sections of the society. There are several cashew-processing units in the district. The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Ltd, a Government of Kerala undertaking, has its headquarters in Kollam and serves as a model agency for the cashew-processing industry. The corporation has 30 cashew factories and employs more than 20,000 workers. Another government organisation in this field is CAPEX, which is part of the cooperative sector and has 10 cashew factories. Coir production, handloom industry, clay and wood-based industries contribute to the industrial health of the region.
Forests and wildlife 
According to Government of Kerala estimates 81,438 hectares (314.43 sq mi) of land is under forest cover, mainly in the eastern portion of the district (including the Thenmala, Punalur and a portion of the Achencoil forest divisions). The Thenmala Range, Aryankavu Range and Shendurney Sanctuary comprise the Thenmala division and the Achencoil, Kallar and Kanayar Ranges make up the Achencoil division. The Pathanapuram and Anchal Ranges constitute the Punalur division.
The Shenduruny wildlife sanctuary, 66 kilometres (41 mi) from Kollam, is situated on the southern part of the Western Ghats (8°50' and 8°55'N; 77°5'and 77°15'E) in the Pathanapuram taluk of the district. The name "Shenduruny" is derived from the name of a tree species locally called "Shenkuruny" or "Chenkuruny" (Gluta travancorica), a tree mainly found in this area. An artificial lake of about 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi) has developed following construction of a dam across the Kallada River. Remnants of Stone Age culture from a large cave situated at the northwestern part of the Shenduruny River was excavated from this sanctuary. These remains belong to the Mesolithic period.
This tropical rain forest has a wide variety of wildlife, and some endangered species are found here. Species found in the sanctuary include bonnet and lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langur, gaur (or Indian bison), sambar deer, muntjac (or barking deer), Indian Spotted Chevrotain (or mouse deer), wild boar, Indian elephant and different species of squirrels, such as the Indian giant and Indian palm squirrels.
The district has a total cultivated area of 218,267 hectares (842.73 sq mi). Paddy, tapioca, coconut, rubber, pepper, banana, mango and cashews are the prominent crops. The average per-family holding of farmland is 0.21 hectares (2,100 m2). 70 percent of the district's labor force is engaged in agriculture or allied activities.
|Products||Area under cultivation (ha)||Production (in tonnes)|
Two major rivers, the Kallada and Ithikkara, flow through Kollam. The Kallada Irrigation Project (KIP) uses water from the Kallada for irrigation. The project consists of a dam at Thenmala, from which water is diverted for irrigation.
The western portion of Kollam is bordered by the Arabian Sea. Kollam's coastline is 37.3 kilometres (23.2 mi), 6.3 percent of Kerala's total coastline. Neendakara and Sakthikulangara are important fishing villages. There are an estimated 26 villages whose livelihood depends entirely on fishing. Cheriazheekkal, Alappad, Pandarathuruthu, Puthenthura, Neendakara, Thangasseri, Eravipuram and Paravoor are among the prominent fishing villages. One-third of Kerala's fish production (including 60 percent of its prawn catch) is contributed by Kollam, whose average fish production is estimated at 5,275 tonnes. Nearly 3,000 mechanized boats operate out of its fishing harbour.
Animal husbandry 
Kollam district has one of the largest livestock populations in Kerala. Cattle are reared chiefly for dairy farming. According to the 2000 animal census, Kollam has an estimated population of 182,434 cows, 6162 buffalo, 131,714 goats and 1,034 pigs. In poultry, the district ranks third in Kerala.
Kollam is well-connected to all parts of the state by bus and train service. It is also connected to neighboring states by frequent bus service operated by the Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) and Indian Railways. Kollam has no airport; the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport, about 65 kilometres (40 mi) away. The district has a good railway network, with 22 stations and about 132 kilometres (82 mi) of track.
The district is well-connected to other parts of Kerala and India by National Highways 47, 220 and 744. The state highway—Main Central Road (MC Road) and Punalur-Pathanamthitta-Muvattupuzha (Main Eastern Highway)—connects Kollam with other districts. Intrastate road transportation is served by the KSRTC, Tamil Nadu State Transport and Karnataka State Transport Companies. Indian Railways also operates long distance and shuttle services between Kollam and the neighbouring districts of Thiruvananthapuram, Kottayam and Alappuzha. There is also a shuttle service between Kollam and Ernakulam. KSRTC Interstate bus service operates from the Kollam Transport and Kottarakkara Transport bus stations.
Kollam is connected by inland waterway to Alappuzha. The waterways are popular attractions and scenic tourist destinations in the area. The Kerala State Water Transport Department (KSWTD) has an operating centre near the KSRTC bus stand. Tourists may hire motorised country boats and Houseboats with amenities (kettavulam in Malayalam)to cruise along the waterways.
See also 
- Kollam Beach
- Kollam Fest
- President's Trophy Boat Race
- Kollam pooram
- Muslim Mappila
- List of Sree Narayana Institutions
- List of Hindu temples in Kerala
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon
- University of Kerala
- Protected areas of Kerala
- Covt of kerala website, kollam page
- "Official Web Portal of Government of Kerala". Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- "MSN Weather". Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Kuwait 2,595,62"
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Nevada 2,700,551"
- Administration page of quilon.com
- kollam police official website
- "mukhathala murari temple".
- Oachira website
- Official website of kottarakkara ganapathy temple
- Official website of Asramam Sreekrishna swamy temple
- Official website of Kollam pooram
- http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/05/stories/2008040551540300.htm News article on kollam pooram
- http://www.hindu.com/2009/04/16/stories/2009041653840300.htm News article on kollam pooram Hindu Daily
- Extract on Ammachiveedu temble
- The Hindu Daily news about Balasubrahmanya swamy temple
- News article about Kottamkulangara temple chamaya vilakku
- Amrithapuri website
- Thenmala Ecotourism website
- Thenmala Ecotourism news Hindu Daily
- Thenmala Ecotourism news Hindu Daily
- tourism page of kollam official website.
- Jatayu para article from Hindu Daily t.
- KMML official website
- IREL official website
- Official website of UNILEC
- kera prd site
- Kerala matsyafed
- Southern Railway
- KSRTC official website
- Thiruvanthapuram International airport
- kollam railway information
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