The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia. By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia. It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. Most of the Jews were later murdered at Treblinka.