Komagata Maru incident

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Sikhs aboard Komagata Maru in Vancouver's Burrard Inlet, 1914
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The Komagata Maru incident involved a Japanese steamship, Komagata Maru, that sailed from Hong Kong, Shanghai, China to Yokohama, Japan and then to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1914, carrying 376 passengers from Punjab, British India. Of them 24 were admitted to Canada, but the 352 other passengers were not allowed to land in Canada, and the ship was forced to return to India.[1] The passengers consisted of 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, and 12 Hindus, all British subjects. This was one of several incidents in the history of early 20th century involving exclusion laws in both Canada and the United States designed to keep out immigrants of only Asian origin.

Immigration controls in Canada[edit]

Within the British Empire, the main class of people who were not British subjects were the rulers of native states formally under the protection of the British Crown, and their peoples. Many such smaller states, especially in India, were for most practical purposes administered by the imperial government, but the sovereignty of all rested in their rulers and not in the British Crown, and all such persons are considered to have been born outside the sovereignty and allegiance of the Crown, so were (and, where these persons are still alive, still are) known as British Protected Persons.

The Canadian government’s first attempt to restrict immigration from India was to pass an order-in-council on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who "in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior" did not "come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality." In practice this applied only to ships that began their voyage in India, as the great distance usually necessitated a stopover in Japan or Hawaii. These regulations came at a time when Canada was accepting massive numbers of immigrants (over 400,000 in 1913 alone – a figure that remains unsurpassed to this day), almost all of whom came from Europe.

Gurdit Singh's initial idea[edit]

Portrait of Baba Gurdit Singh, Komagata Maru Memorial, Budge Budge

Gurdit Singh Sandhu, from Sarhali (not to be confused with Gurdit Singh Jawanda, from Haripur Khalsa, a 1906 Indo-Canadian immigration pioneer), was a well-to-do fisherman in Singapore who was aware of the problems that Punjabis were facing immigrating to Canada due to certain exclusion laws. He wanted to circumvent these laws by hiring a boat to sail from Calcutta to Vancouver. His aim was to help his compatriots whose previous journeys to Canada had been blocked.

Though Gurdit Singh was apparently aware of regulations when he chartered the ship Komagata Maru in January 1914,[2] he continued with his purported goal of challenging the continuous journey regulation and opening the door for immigration from India to Canada.

At the same time, in January 1914, he publicly espoused the Ghadarite cause while in Hong Kong.[3] The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by Indians of the United States and Canada in June 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. It was also known as the Hindi Association of the Pacific Coast.


The passengers consisted of 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, and 12 Hindus, all British subjects. One of the Sikh passengers, Jagat Singh Thind, was the youngest brother of Bhagat Singh Thind, an Indian-American Sikh writer and lecturer on "spiritual science" who was involved in an important legal battle over the rights of Indians to obtain U.S. citizenship (United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind)[4] both born in village Taragarh Talawa.

Indian nationals had engaged in terrorism, assassinating Lord Mayo and William Hutt Curzon Wyllie, wounding Lord Hardinge, gun running with ships off Gray's Harbour and Singapore, as well as breaking immigration laws. The Government of Britain, which held the Canada Immigration portfolio at the time, was worried about Indian nationals spreading rebellion on the eve of the First World War. See Ghadar Conspiracy, Annie Larsen arms plot, and Christmas Day Plot.


Departure from Hong Kong[edit]

Hong Kong became the point of departure. The ship was scheduled to leave in March, but Singh was arrested for selling tickets for an illegal voyage. After several months he was released on bail and given permission by the Governor of Hong Kong to set sail, and the ship departed on April 4 with 165 passengers. More passengers joined at Shanghai on April 8, and the ship arrived at Yokohama on April 14. It left Yokohama on May 3 with its complement of 376 passengers, and sailed into Burrard Inlet, near Vancouver, on May 23. "This ship belongs to the whole of India, this is a symbol of the honour of India and if this was detained, there would be mutiny in the armies,"[citation needed] a passenger told a British officer. The Indian Nationalist revolutionaries Barkatullah and Balwant Singh met with the ship en route. Balwant Singh was head priest of the Gurdwara in Vancouver and had been one of three delegates sent to London and India to represent the case of Indians in Canada. Ghadarite literature was disseminated on board and political meetings took place on board.

Arrival in Vancouver[edit]

Komagata Maru (furthest ship on the left) being escorted by HMCS Rainbow and a swarm of small boats

When Komagata Maru arrived in Canadian waters, first at Coal Harbour in Burrard Inlet some 200 meters off CPR Pier A, it was not allowed to dock. The first immigration officer to meet the ship in Vancouver was Fred "Cyclone" Taylor.[5] The Conservative Premier of British Columbia, Richard McBride, gave a categorical statement that the passengers would not be allowed to disembark, as the then–Prime Minister of Canada Robert Borden decided what to do with the ship. Conservative MP H.H. Stevens organized a public meeting against allowing the ship's passengers to disembark and urged the government to refuse to allow the ship to remain. Stevens worked with immigration official Malcolm R. J. Reid to keep the passengers off shore. It was Reid's intransigence, supported by Stevens, that led to mistreatment of the passengers on the ship and to prolonging its departure date, which wasn't resolved until the intervention of the federal Minister of Agriculture, Martin Burrell, MP for Yale—Cariboo.

Meanwhile a "shore committee" had been formed with Hassan Rahim and Sohan Lal Pathak. Protest meetings were held in Canada and the United States. At one, held in Dominion Hall, Vancouver, it was resolved that if the passengers were not allowed off, Indo-Canadians should follow them back to India to start a rebellion (or Ghadar). A British government agent who infiltrated the meeting wired London and Ottawa to tell them that supporters of the Ghadar Party were on the ship.

The shore committee raised $22,000 as an instalment on chartering the ship. They also launched a test case legal battle under J. Edward Bird's legal counsel in the name of Munshi Singh, one of the passengers. On July 6, the full bench of the B.C. Court of Appeal gave a unanimous judgement that under new orders-in-council, it had no authority to interfere with the decisions of the Department of Immigration and Colonization.[6] The Japanese captain was relieved of duty by the angry passengers, but the Canadian government ordered the harbour tug Sea Lion to push the ship out to sea. On July 19, the angry passengers mounted an attack. The next day the Vancouver newspaper The Sun reported: "Howling masses of Hindus showered policemen with lumps of coal and bricks... it was like standing underneath a coal chute".

Departure from Vancouver[edit]

Inspector Reid, H.H. Stevens and Walter Hose on board Komagata Maru.

The government also mobilized HMCS Rainbow, a former Royal Navy ship under the command of Commander Hose, with troops from the 11th Regiment Irish Fusiliers of Canada, 72nd Regiment "Seaforth Highlanders of Canada", and the 6th Regiment "The Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles". In the end, only 20 passengers were admitted to Canada, since the ship had violated the exclusion laws, the passengers did not have the required funds, and they had not sailed directly from India. The ship was turned around and forced to depart on July 23 for Asia.

Meanwhile, W.C. Hopkinson, a British immigration official, had Punjabi locals supply him with information. Two of these locals were murdered in August 1914, and Hopkinson himself was gunned down at the Vancouver courthouse while attending the Punjabi trials in October, 1914.

Return to India[edit]

Komagata Maru arrived in Calcutta on September 27. Upon entry into the harbour, the ship was stopped by a British gunboat, and the passengers were placed under guard. The government of the British Raj saw the men on Komagata Maru not only as self-confessed lawbreakers, but also as dangerous political agitators. When the ship docked at Budge Budge, the police went to arrest Baba Gurdit Singh and the 20 or so other men that they saw as leaders. He resisted arrest, a friend of his assaulted a policeman and a general riot ensued. Shots were fired, 19 of the passengers were killed. Some escaped, but the remainder were arrested and imprisoned or sent to their villages and kept under village arrest for the duration of the First World War. This incident became known as the Budge Budge Riot.

Ringleader Gurdit Singh Sandhu managed to escape and lived in hiding until 1922. He was urged by Mahatma Gandhi to give himself up as a 'true patriot'; he duly did so, and was imprisoned for five years.


The Komagata Maru incident was widely cited at the time by Indian groups to highlight discrepancies in Canadian immigration laws. Further, the inflamed passions in the wake of the incident were widely cultivated by the Indian revolutionary organisation, the Ghadar Party, to rally support for its aims. In a number of meetings ranging from California in 1914 to the Indian diaspora, prominent Ghadarites including Barkatullah, Tarak Nath Das, and Sohan Singh used the incident as a rallying point to recruit members for the Ghadar movement, most notably in support of promulgating plans to coordinate a massive uprising in India. Lack of support from the general population caused these plans to come to nothing.




Komagata Maru Memorial at Budge Budge

In 1952 the Indian Government set up a memorial to the Komagata Maru martyrs near the Budge Budge. It was inaugurated by the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The monument is locally known as the Punjabi Monument and is modeled as a Kirpan (dagger) rising up to the sky.[7]


A plaque commemorating the 75th anniversary of the departure of Komagata Maru was placed in the Sikh gurdwara (temple) in Vancouver on July 23, 1989.

A plaque commemorating the 80th anniversary of the arrival of Komagata Maru was placed in the Vancouver harbour in 1994.

A monument in remembrance of the Komagata Maru incident was unveiled in July 23, 2012.[8] It is located near the steps of the seawall that lead up to the Vancouver Convention Centre West Building in Coal Harbour.

A stamp commemorating the 100th anniversary of the arrival of Komagata Maru was released by Canada Post on May 1, 2014[9]

The first phase[10] of the Komagata Maru Museum[11] was opened in June 2012 at the Khalsa Diwan Society Vancouver Ross Street Temple.

Governmental apologies[edit]

In response to calls for the government of Canada to address historic wrongs involving immigration and wartime measures, the Conservative government in 2006 created the community historical recognition program to provide grant and contribution funding for community projects linked to wartime measures and immigration restrictions and a national historical recognition program to fund federal initiatives, developed in partnership with various groups. The announcement was made on June 23, 2006, at the time Prime Minister Stephen Harper apologized in the House of Commons for the head tax against Chinese immigrants.[12]

On August 6, 2006, Prime Minister Harper made a speech at the Ghadri Babiyan da Mela (Festival of the Ghadar Party) in Surrey, B.C., where he stated that the government of Canada acknowledged the Komagata Maru incident and announced the government’s commitment to "undertake consultations with the Indo-Canadian community on how best to recognize this sad moment in Canada’s history."[13]

On April 3, 2008, Ruby Dhalla, MP for Brampton—Springdale, tabled motion 469 (M-469) in the House of Commons which read, "That, in the opinion of the House, the government should officially apologize to the Indo-Canadian community and to the individuals impacted in the 1914 Komagata Maru incident, in which passengers were prevented from landing in Canada."[14]

On May 10, 2008, Jason Kenney, Secretary of State (Multiculturalism and Canadian Identity), announced the Indo-Canadian community would be able to apply for up to $2.5 million in grants and contributions funding to commemorate the Komagata Maru incident.[15]

Following further debate on May 15, 2008, Dhalla's motion was passed by the House of Commons.[16]

On May 23, 2008, the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia unanimously passed a resolution "that this Legislature apologizes for the events of May 23, 1914, when 376 passengers of the Komagata Maru, stationed off Vancouver harbour, were denied entry by Canada. The House deeply regrets that the passengers, who sought refuge in our country and our province, were turned away without benefit of the fair and impartial treatment befitting a society where people of all cultures are welcomed and accepted."[17]

On August 3, 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper appeared at the 13th annual Ghadri Babiyan Da Mela (festival) in Surrey, B.C., to issue an apology for the Komagata Maru incident. He said, in response to the House of Commons motion calling for an apology by the government, "On behalf of the government of Canada, I am officially conveying as prime minister that apology."[18][19]

Some members of the Sikh community were unsatisfied with the apology as they expected it to be made in Parliament. Secretary of State Jason Kenney said, "The apology has been given and it won't be repeated," thus settling the matter for the federal government.[20]

As an example of how Canadian society has changed, the British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught’s Own), which was involved in the expulsion of the Komagata Maru, has been commanded by a Sikh since 2011.[21]


The first play in Canada based on the incident was The Komagata Maru Incident, written by Sharon Pollock and presented in January 1976.[22]

Ajmer Rode wrote the play Komagata Maru based on the incident in 1984. In 1989, when Indo-Canadian community of British Columbia commemorated the 75th anniversary of the Komagata Maru, Sadhu Binning and Sukhwant Hundal wrote a play Samundari Sher Nal Takkar (The Battle with the Sealion) and co-edited and produced first issue of Punjabi literary magazine Watan on Komagata Maru incident.

In 2004, Ali Kazimi's feature documentary Continuous Journey was released. This is the first in-depth film to examine the events surrounding the turning-away of the Komagata Maru. The primary source research done for the film led to the discovery of rare film footage of the ship in Vancouver harbour. Eight years in the making, Continuous Journey has won over ten awards, including the Most Innovative Canadian Documentary at DOXA, Vancouver 2005, and a Golden Conch at the Mumbai International Film Festival, 2006.

The CBC radio play Entry Denied, by the Indo-Canadian scriptwriter Sugith Varughese focuses on the incident.

In early 2006, Deepa Mehta, a film director, said she would produce a film about the incident titled Komagata Maru. On October 9, 2008, it was announced that she had recast the lead role in favour of Akshay Kumar and Shriya Saran with a budget of $35 million.[23]

In 2012, filmmaker Ali Kazimi's book Undesirables: White Canada and the Komagata Maru was published by Douglas & McIntyre.[24]

Simon Fraser University Library launched a website Komagata Maru: Continuing the Journey in 2012 funded by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada under the auspices of the Community Historical Recognition Program (CHRP). This website contains information and documents related to the Komagata Maru incident and a timeline that unfolds the details and supports teaching, research and knowledge about the Komagata Maru for school-aged, post-secondary and general audiences.[25]

Kamagata Maru Passenger List, 1914[edit]

Name District Village Ala Amritsar Veroval Achar Amritsar Kalah Ajaib Amritsar Kasel Amar Hissar Dadu Amar Kapurthala Kahma Amar Lahore Sanpura Amir Muhhmand Khan Ludhiana Ludhiana Amrik Ferozepur Jhandian Anwar Khan Shahpur Jahlar Arjan Ferozepur Mehna Arjan Jullundur Dhaded Arjan Jullundur Randhawe Arjan Ludhiana Dholan Arjan Ludhiana Dholan Arjan Patiala Khiala Arjan Shahpur Chauowk Asa Amritsar Kotdata Assa Lahore Gude Attar Amritsar Ruriwala Attar Amritsar Gharka Bachan Patiala Thikriwala Bachitar Patiala Kheri Badan Ambala Salamatpur Bag Ali Shahpur Jahlar Bagga Ferozepur Dhudike Bagga Patiala Rampura Baghal Lahore Punia Baghel Amritsar Kotdata Bahadur Amritsar Kalarwalia Bahadur Gurdaspur Gilianwali Bahal Lahore Kirka Bakhshish Ludhiana Pandori Bakhtawar Patiala Harikaburj Bansi Lal Ferozepur Tungwali Bant Lahore That Banta Amritsar Sarhali Barkat Gujjranwala Santpura Baru ( ) Ludhiana Dhodewal Basant Ludhiana Pandori Bavaodin ( ) Shahpur Jali Bela Amritsar Khan Chabri Behla Layallpur Kakar Bhag Jullundur Randhawa Bhag Lahore Mokisava Bhag Patiala Sahena Bhagat Ferozepur Rajeana Bhagat Lahore Suler Bhagat Lahore Punia Bhagwan Amritsar Muse Bhagwan Ferozepur Alamwala Bhagwan Jullundur Raipur Bhajan Nabha Rajia Bhan Jullundur Waring Bhan Lahore Lahore Bhola Hoshiarpur Sus Bhozangan ( ) Amritsar Tumowal Beant Jullundur Salan Bidhi Jullundur Khuradpur Bijla Patiala Jaitoi Bir Ferozepur Suhag Bir Lahore Gude Bishan Amritsar Dadehar Bishan Ferozepur Lohgara Bishan Ferozepur Chuharchak Bishan Patiala Shamir Bishan Patiala Khudi Bishan Das Shahpur Chauki Burh Amritsar Johal Bhail Burh Amritsar Jaura Burh Ferozepur Landeana Buta Amritsar Musal Budha Ferozepur Tungwali Chanan Ferozepur Kishanpura Chanan Ferozepur Takhanvadh Chanan Patiala Talwandi Chanan Patiala Wajidke Chanda Hoshiarpur Kot Fatuhi Chanda Patiala Thikriwala Chanda Patiala Bihla Dan Ludhiana Acharwal Dalwara Ferozepur Mallan Dalip Hoshiarpur Moranwali Dalip Jullundur Mulanpur Dalip Jullundur Budala Daljit Ferozepur Kauni Dan Ludhiana Fulewal Deva Amritsar Sheron Deva Ferozepur Landeana Dhambi ( ) Layallpur Nalur Jafna Dhian Ludhiana Ghuman Dyal Amritsar Kakarh Dial Patiala Sandheri Dogar Lahore Manke Durbhajan Gujjranwala Santpura Faqir Mohmad Shahpur Jahlar Fateh Shaw Shahpur Jahlar Fauja Amritsar Jham Ke Fauja Amritsar Tumowal Gajan Ferozepur Badan Ganda Jullundur Bal Ganda Ludhiana Jaspal Bhaike Ganesha Amritsar Kherpura Ganesha Lahore Bharhana Gobind Ferozepur Ware Godi Ludhiana Boparai Gohar Ali Shahpur Jahler Gopi Ram Ludhiana Acharwal Gulab Shahpur Jahlar Guna Patiala Ghalote Gurbaksh Jullundur Bhaloli Gurcharan Jullundur Sarinh Gurdit Amritsar Sarhali Gurdit Jullundur Kahoor Gurdit Patiala Shekhan Gurdit Patiala Khase Gurmukh Ferozepur Tungwali Gurmukh Ferozepur Ware Gurmukh Ludhiana Lalte Haidar Khan Shahpur Jahlar Haji ( ) Shahpur Jahlar Hakam Ambala Patto Hakam Hissar Pucka Hakam Ludhiana Nat Harbishan Hoshiarpur Moranwali Hardit Patiala Dhadhe Harnam Amritsar Amritsar Harnam Amritsar Pangota Harnam Amritsar Shero Harnam Ferozepur Rode Harnam Jullundur Randhawe Harnam Jullundur Sidham Harnam Jullundur Mehali Harnam Lahore Khalra Harnam Ludhiana Malla Harnam Ludhiana Gujarwal Harnam Ludhiana Dhalia Harnam Patiala Kunbharwal Hishara Jullundur Pasta Hira Ferozepur Tungwali Hira Patiala Kele Bandar Hira Patiala Ram Garh Hoshiar Ludhiana Kular Indar Amritsar Dadehar Inder Ferozepur Dunewala Inder Ferozepur Rama Inder Gurdaspur Ghanie ke Bangar Inder Jullundur Sidhwan Inder Jullundur Bajer Inder Lahore Bhikhiwind Inder Patiala Thikriwala Inder Patiala Joga Inder Ferozepur Rode Inder Ferozepur Dhudike Isher Ferozepur Rouli Isher Jullundur Bohar Ishar Ludhiana Manoke Jagat Singh Thind[26] Amritsar Taragarh Talawa Jagat Lahore Bhagpur Jahangir Patiala Bihla Jai Patiala Bihla Jaimal Ferozepur Sekha Jaimal Ferozepur Sekha Jaimal Ferozepur Landeana Jawaia ( ) Shahpur Jahlar Jawala Ferozepur Ware Jawand Amritsar Kotdata Jawand Amritsar Fatehgarh Jiwan Ferozepur Dhudike Jhagar Ferozepur Sugmi Jivan Patiala Kele Bandar Kabal Ambala Salamatpur Kabal Jullundur Haripur Kaka Ludhiana Dabba Kakar Ferozepur Bhakri Kanwal Nabha Mahraj Bheni Kapur Ferozepur Lopo Kapur Patiala Khiala Karam Jullundur Rurka Karam (Dad ) Jehlam Nadhu Kamam Ilahi Ambala Dhang Karta Ram Ferozepur Tungwali Kartar Jullundur Mulanpur Kartar Jullundur Raipur Kehar Ambala Patto Kehar Amritsar Kotdata Kehar Faridkot Khemoana Kehar Ferozepur Tungwali Kehar Ferozepur Rode Kehar Ferozepur Sekha Kehar Ferozepur Rode Kehar Ludhiana Acharwal Khan Muhmad Shahpur Jali Khushal Ludhiana Dholan Kirpa Ambala Miapur Kirpa Jullundur Dharoli Kishan Amritsar Mudha Kishan Amritsar Chajal Vadi Kishan Amritsar Jhander Kishan Ferozepur Jiwanwala Kishan Gurdaspur Dalla Kishan Patiala Thikriwala Kishan Kaur Amritsar Tumowal Kundan Ludhiana Sarabha Lachaman Amritsar Manochahal Lakhraj Ferozepur Mahraj Lal Ludhiana Khiali Lal Ludhiana Man Lal Ludhiana Jartoli Lal Nabha Gill Burj Maha Lahore Bharana Mahima Patiala Sheel Mahinga Sialkot Dinga Mahiraj Bhaini Nabha Mahala Ferozepur Jaimalwala Maya Lahore Bharana Makhan Amritsar Ladhowal Mal Ludhiana Lakha Mal Ludhiana Acharwal Mal (Ala) Amritsar Wadali Malla Ferozepur Sekha Mangal Ambala Salamatpur Mangal Hoshiarpur Mirajapur Mangal Lahore Karanke Mangal Lahore Dhun Mana Amritsar Dhotian Mansha Patiala Chaner Masta Ludhiana Lilmegha Mastan Ludhiana Lohar Mastan Patiala Mum Mela Jullundur Khurdpur Mewa Ferozepur Dhudike Mia Muhmad Shahpur Jahlar Mihan Jullundur Raipur Mit Ferozepur Tharaj Mit Ferozepur Bugi Pur Mit Lahore Gude Mota Jullundur Bhagoli Munsha Hoshiarpur Tutomajra Munsha Jullundur Muhem Munshi Ferozepur Gholia Munshi Hoshiarpur Gulpur Nadar Shah Shahpur Jahlar Nahar Patiala Joga Rala Nahar Patiala Ralla Nahar Ferozepur Abo Nanak Gujjranwala Gujjranwala Nand Ambala Salamatpur Nand Ferozepur Ganga Ablu Nand Ferozepur Lahira Nand Lahore Sur Singh Nand Lahore Suler Nar Lahore Kot Rai Buta Narain Ferozepur Longodeva Narain Ferozepur Gonewala Narain Patiala Bhinder Narain Amritsar Kalah Narain Lahore Dhun Narain Lahore Sur Singh Natha Ludhiana Chakarvala Natha Ludhiana Boparai Nodha Patiala Kele Bandar Nihal Ludhiana Gujarwal Nur Khan Shahpur Jahlar Narang Amritsar Munda Pind Naurang Ludhiana Devatwal Pakhar Ludhiana Pandori Pal Patiala Jalaldiwal Pala Ludhiana Luhara Pala Ludhiana Rumi Pala Ludhiana Boparai Panjab Jullundur Kotlithan Partap Ferozepur Mallhan Partap Ferozepur Bagha Purana Partap Ludhiana Nathowal Partap Patiala Bihla Phuman Patiala Sandoha Pehlo Hoshiarpur Anandpur Prabha Patiala Bahadurgarh Prem Ludhiana Jawadi Prem Patiala Pandori Puran Ferozepur Gholia Puran Ferozepur Dhudike Puran Ludhiana Janetpura Puran Ludhiana Vanjal Puran Ludhiana Chop Raghunath (Dr.) Ludhiana Gujarwal Raghunath (Smt.) Ludhiana Gujarwal Raijada Ferozepur Abo Rajam Ali Shahpur Jahlar Ralla Kapurthala Taspur Ralla Ludhiana Dhe Pai Ralla Hoshiarpur Sus Ralla Jullundur Muhem Ram Ambala Dapar Ram Ferozepur Abo Ram Ferozepur Tungwali Ram Hoshiarpur Jandoli Ram Patiala Maur Ram Ji Ferozepur Tungwali Ram Ratan Ferozepur Tungwali Ramjan ( ) Shahpur Jahlar Ranjit Ferozepur Harike Rattan Jullundur Jamsher Rattan Patiala Bhalake Ritlohan Kalsia Chubara Rurh Amritsar Nanoke Rurh Ferozepur Landeana Sada Ferozepur Chuharchak Sadhu Amritsar Kotdata Sajan Amritsar Fur Sampuran Amritsar Nathpura Santa Amritsar Kat Gill Santa Ferozepur Rajeana Santa Hoshiarpur Nangal Santa Kapurthala Kapurthala Santa Patiala Kale Ke Santa Patiala Khudi Santokh Ludhiana Kmalpur Sarup Jullundur Khurdpur Sarup Patiala Wanawali Sawan Ferozepur Bundala Sewa Ludhiana Farwahiwala Samsher Amritsar Sarhali Shiha Amritsar Johal Bhail Sher Amritsar Nanoke Sher Ferozepur Alamwala Sher Ferozepur Tungwali Sher Jullundur Bhaliwal Sher Jullundur Bhaliwal Sher Ludhiana Kmalpur Sher Patiala Wadali Sher Khan Shahpur Jahlar Shiha Amritsar Sarhali Shiha Amritsar Kotdata Sirkhur Khan Shahpur Jahlar Sohan Patiala Mahita Suba Ludhiana Dholan Sucha Ferozepur Machike Sucha Lahore Sur Singh Sunder Amritsar Tumowal Sundar Ferozepur Ajitwal Sundar Ferozepur Khote Sundar Gurdaspur Bachoke Sundar Jullundur Nigarh Sundar Jullundur Kale Sundar Lahore Talwandi Gill Sundar Lahore Ichogil Sundar Ludhiana Chimne Sunder Ludhiana Man Sunder Ferozepur Mallhan Surain Lahore Bharana Suren Lahore Kirtoval Surain Amritsar Sarhali Surjan Amritsar Pandhori Surjan Amritsar Pandhori Surjan Nabha Gill Burj Surjan Nabha Kania Tahil Amritsar Ranivalah Tahil Amritsar Cholasaheb Tara Amritsar Jasmatpura Tara Ludhiana Alune Miane Teja Amritsar Kasel Thakar Amritsar Udu Nangal Thamar Hoshiarpur Mahapur Thaman Ferozepur Tungwali Udham Jullundur Khuradpur Vir Jullundur Kular Vir Lahore Karban Vir Ludhiana Gurhe Vir Patiala Ralla Vir Amritsar Chambal Vir Baksh Jullundur Nur Mahal Vadhava Amritsar Bhakna Wazir Patiala Talwandi Yahin ( ) Shahpur Jahlar

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Voyage of the Komagata Maru: the Sikh challenge to Canada's colour bar. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. 1989. pp. 81, 83. ISBN 0-7748-0340-1. 
  2. ^ Johnston, H., op. cit., p. 26.
  3. ^ Johnston, H., op. cit., pp. 24 and 25.
  4. ^ "Komagata Maru". www.bhagatsinghthind.com. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  5. ^ Whitehead, E., Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend, p. 159
  6. ^ Re Munshi Singh (1914), 20 B.C.R. 243 (B.C.C.A.)
  7. ^ Chakraborti Lahiri, Samhita (26 September 2010). "Ship of Defiance". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Hager, Mike (24 July 2012). "Komagata Maru passengers remembered with Vancouver monument". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  9. ^ "Komagata Maru: Booklet of 6 International Stamps". Canada Post. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  10. ^ "Komagata Maru memorial approved for Vancouver". CBC News. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  11. ^ "Komagata Maru Museum Official Website". Khalsa Diwan Society Vancouver. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ Government of Canada (2 April 2008). "Journals" (70). Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  15. ^ [3] [4][dead link]
  16. ^ Government of Canada (15 May 2008). "Journals" (96). Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  17. ^ "Votes and Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia". Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  18. ^ "PM apologizes for 1914 Komagata Maru incident". Prime Minister of Canada. 3 August 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  19. ^ CP (CANOE.ca). 4 August 2008 http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2008/08/03/6345366-cp.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  20. ^ "Sikhs unhappy with PM's Komagata Maru apology". CTV News. 3 August 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  21. ^ Roberts, Nadine (24 May 2014). "B.C. regiment that once forced out the Komagata Maru is now commanded by a Sikh". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "The Komagata Maru Incident". Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  23. ^ [5][dead link]
  24. ^ Undesirables: White Canada and the Komagata Maru
  25. ^ Komagata Maru: Continuing the Journey
  26. ^ http://www.bhagatsinghthind.com/popup_kom_list.html


  • Chilana, Rajwant Singh, International Bibliography of Sikh Studies (Dordrecht: Springer, 2005), pp. 461 to 463
  • Ferguson, Ted, "A White Man's Country" (Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1975)
  • Johnston, Hugh J.M., The Voyage of the Komagata Maru: the Sikh Challenge to Canada's Colour Bar. (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1979)
  • Josh, Sohan Singh, "Tragedy of the Komagata Maru" (New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1975)
  • Kazimi, Ali, Continuous Journey, feature-length documentary about the Komagata Maru. 2004
  • Kazimi, Ali (2011). Undesirables: White Canada and the Komagata Maru. Vancouver: D&M Publishers. ISBN 978-1553659730. 
  • McKelvie, B.A., "Magic, Murder and Mystery", (Duncan, B.C., Cowichan Leader, 1965)
  • Morse, Eric Wilton. "Some Aspects of the Komagata Maru Affair." Canadian Historical Association Report (1936). p. 100-109.
  • Reid, Robie L., "The Inside Story of the Komagata Maru" in British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol V, No. 1, January 1941, p. 4
  • Report of the Komagata Maru Inquiry (Calcutta, 1914)
  • Singh, Baba Gurdit, "Voyage of the Komagatamaru: or India's Slavery Abroad" (Calcutta; n.d.)
  • Singh, Jaswant, "Baba Gurdit Singh: Komagatamaru" (Jullundur; New Book Co., 1965)[written in Gurmukhi]
  • Singh, Kesar, Canadian Sikhs (Part One) and Komagata Maru Massacre. Surrey, B.C.: 1989.
  • Singh, Malwindarjit, and Singh, Harinder, War against King Emperor: Ghadr of 1914-15: A verdict by special tribunal (Ludhiana: Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh Trust, 2001)
  • Somani, Alia Rehana. "Broken Passages and Broken Promises: Reconstructing the Komagata Maru and Air India Cases" (PhD thesis) (Archive). School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, University of Western Ontario, 2012.
  • Ward, W. Peter, "The Komagata Maru Incident" in White Canada Forever: Popular Attitudes and Public Policy toward Orientals in British Columbia. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2d ed., 1990, pp. 79–93
  • Waraich, Malwinderjit Singh (ed.), Sidhu, Gurdev Singh (ed.), Komagata Maru: A Challenge to Colonialism Key Documents (Unistar Books, 2005)
  • Whitehead, Eric, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend (Toronto; Doubleday Canada, 1977), pp. 158–163

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