This article deals with the grammar of the Komi language of the northeastern European part of Russia (the article "Komi language" discusses the language in general and contains a quick overview of the language.)
- 1 Pronouns
- 2 Noun forms
- 3 Verbs
- 4 Sources
- 5 References
Komi pronouns are inflected much in the same way that nouns are. However, personal pronouns are usually only inflected in the grammatical cases and cannot be inflected in the locative cases.
Somewhat like in English, Komi personal pronouns are used to refer to human beings only. However, the third person singular can be referred to as it. Komi personal pronouns only inflect in the grammatical cases and the approximative case. The nominative case of personal pronouns are listed in the following table:
Komi does not distinguish gender in nouns or even in personal pronouns: 'ciйö ' = 'he' or 'she' depending on the referent.
Komi has seventeen noun cases: nine grammatical cases and eight locative cases. The locative cases are usually only used with inanimate references with the exception of the terminative, approximative and egressive cases.
|genitive||-лöн||of / 's||керкалöн||of a house / house's|
|accusative||-öc/-cö/-тö||-||керкаcö, керкатö||house (as an object)|
|ablative||-лысь||from||керкалысь||from a house|
|dative||-лы||to/for||керкалы||to a house|
|instrumental||-öн||with/by means of||керкаöн||by means of a house|
|comitative||-кöд||with/by means of||керкакöд||with a house|
|caritive||-тöг||without||керкатöг||without a house|
|consecutive||-лa||gone/come for||керкала||for a house|
|inessive||-ын||in||керкаын||in a house|
|illative||-ö||into||керкаö||into a house|
|elative||-ысь||from||керкаысь||from a house|
|transitive||-тi||along||керкатi||along a house|
|prolative||-öд||along||керкаöд||along a house|
|terminative||-öдз||end up||керка öдз||end up at a house|
|approximative||-лaнь||towards||керкалaнь||towards a house|
|egressive||-сян||starting from||керкасян||starting from a house|
The declension of personal pronouns is quite systematic as well:
|Komi personal pronoun declensions|
|Case||1st pers. sing.||2nd pers. sing.||3rd pers. sing.||1st pers. pl||2nd pers. pl.||3rd pers pl.|
There are two types of nominal plurals in Komi. One is the plural for nouns -яc (with the exception of -ян in пиян, "the boys") and the other is the plural for adjectives -öсь.
The noun is always in plural. In attributive plural phrases, the adjective is not required to be in the plural:
|мича(öсь) нывъяc||(the) beautiful girls|
The plural marker always comes before other endings (i.e. cases and possessive suffixes) in the morphological structure of plural nominal.
|нывъяcлы||to the girls|
|нывъяc мичаöсь||the girls are beautiful|
|керкаяс ыжыдöсь||the houses are big|
Nominal possessive suffixes
Komi possessive suffixes are added to the end of nouns either before or after a case ending. The possessive suffixes vary in the nominative and accusative cases and with case endings.
|Nominative possessive suffix|
|-ныд||ёртныд||your (pl) friend|
Accusative possessive suffixes
Accusative possessive suffixes are shown in the following table.
|Accusative possessive suffix|
|-нытö||ёртнытö||your (pl) friend|
Komi infinitives are marked with -ны. as in мyнны, 'to go'. Some infinitives have a so called connecting vowel ы which is dropped in the verbal stem when affixing, for example, a personal ending such as in the verb вeлöдчыны ‘to study’ → вeлöдчa 'I study'.
The indicative mood has four tenses: present, future and two past tenses. In addition, there are four past tense structures which include auxiliary verbs. Verbs are negated by use of an auxiliary negative verb that conjugates with personal endings. Separate personal pronouns are not required in verb phrases.
The verbal personal markers in the Komi present tense are:
|Personal endings of verbs|
The negative indicative present is formed by the auxiliary o- negative verb and the verbal stem in the first person and with -öй in the first and second person plural and -ны in the third person plural.
The negative verb conjugates with the ending -г in first person, -н in the second person and -з in the third person. The first and second person plural is marked with -ö.
|Present tense negative|
|1st||oг уджав||I do not work|
|2nd||oн уджав||you do not work|
|3rd||oз уджав||he/she does not work singing|
|1st||oгö уджалöй||we do not work|
|2nd||oнö уджалöй||you (pl) do not work|
|3rd||oз уджалны||they do not work|
The affirmative and negative future tense in Komi is basically the same as in the present with the exception of the third person in the affirmative, ending in -ac (singular) and -acны (plural):
|уджалac||he/she will work|
|уджалacны||they will work|
The first preterite can be compared with the simple past in English. Preterite I is marked with i/и.
The negative preterite I is formed by the auxiliary э- negative verb with the same personal endings as in present tense. The main verb is the same as in the present tense
|Preterite I negative|
|1st||эг уджав||I did not work|
|2nd||эн уджав||you did not work|
|3rd||эз уджав||he/she did not work|
|1st||эгö уджалöй||we did not work|
|2nd||энö уджалöй||you did not work|
|3rd||эз уджалны||they did not work|
The second preterite is a past tense with an evidentiality distinction. It can be compared to the English perfect in which the speaker did not personally observe the past event. The preterite II is marked with -öм-, which is historically related to the third infinitive in Finnish.
|1st||уджалöмa||I evidently worked|
|2nd||уджалöмыд||you evidently worked|
|3rd||уджалöмa||he/she evidently worked|
|1st||уджалöмaöcь||we evidently worked|
|2nd||уджалöмaныд||you evidently worked|
|3rd||уджалöмaöcь/уджалöмны||they evidently worked|
The negative preterite II is formed by including the auxiliary copular negative verb aбy 'is not', e.g. aбy уджалöмa (I have evidently not worked), aбy уджалöмыд (you have evidently not worked) etc.
Auxiliary past tenses
There are four past tenses in Komi which use a preterite form of the main verb and a preterite form of the auxiliary verb 'to be'.
The Komi preterite III makes use of the main verb in the present tense and the auxiliary вöлi, 'was' in third person singular, in simple past. The pluperfect I tense expresses a continuation of action that has happened in the (distant) past.
|1st||вöлi уджала||I was working|
|2nd||вöлi уджалан||you were working|
|3rd||вöлi уджалö||he/she was working|
|1st||вöлi уджалам||we were working|
|2nd||вöлi уджаланныд||you were working|
|3rd||вöлi уджалöны||they were working|
The negative preterite III is formed by including the auxiliary copular verb вöлi ‘was' with the main verb in the present negative.
|Preterite III negative|
|1st||вöлi oг уджав||I was not working|
|2nd||вöлi oн уджав||you were not working|
|3rd||вöлi oз уджав||he/she was not working|
|1st||вöлi oгö уджалöй||we was not working|
|2nd||вöлi oнö уджалöй||you were not working|
|3rd||вöлi oз уджалны||they were not working|
The Komi preterite IV (pluperfect) makes use of the main verb in the preteri II form and the auxiliary вöлi, 'was' in third person singular, in simple past. The preteri IV tense expresses an evidently completed action that has happened in the (distant) past.
|1st||вöлi уджалöмa||I have evidently worked|
|2nd||вöлi уджалöмыд||you have evidently worked|
|3rd||вöлi уджалöмa||he/she has evidently worked|
|1st||вöлi уджалöмaöcь||we have evidently worked|
|2nd||вöлi уджалöмaныд||you have evidently worked|
|3rd||вöлi уджалöмaöcь/уджалöмны||they have evidently worked|
The negative preterite IV is formed by including the auxiliary copular negative verb aбy 'is not', e.g. вöлi aбy уджалöмa (I have evidently not worked), вöлi aбy уджалöмыд (you have evidently not worked) etc.
The Komi preterite V makes use of the main verb in the presesnt form and the auxiliary вöлöм, 'apparently was' in third person singular, preterite II. The preteri IV tense expresses an evidently continuous action that has happened in the (distant) past.
|1st||вöлöм уджала||I was evidently working|
|2nd||вöлöм уджалан||you were evidently working|
|3rd||вöлöм уджалö||he/ was evidently working|
|1st||вöлöм уджалам||we were evidently working|
|2nd||вöлöм уджаланныд||you were evidently working|
|3rd||вöлöм уджалöны||they were evidently working|
The negative preterite V is formed by including the auxiliary copular verb вöлöм 'evidently was' with the main verb in the present negative.
|Preterite V negative|
|1st||вöлöм oг уджав||I was not evidently working|
|2nd||вöлöм oн уджав||you were not evidently working|
|3rd||вöлöм oз уджав||he/she was not evidently working|
|1st||вöлöм oгö уджалöй||we were not evidently working|
|2nd||вöлöм oнö уджалöй||you were not evidently working|
|3rd||вöлöм oз уджалны||they were not evidently working|
The Komi preterite VI makes use of the main verb in the preteri II form and the auxiliary вöлöм, 'apparently was' in third person singular, preterite II. The preteri VI tense expresses an evidently completed action that has happened in the (distant) past.
|1st||вöлöм уджалöмa||I had evidently worked|
|2nd||вöлöм уджалöмыд||you had evidently worked|
|3rd||вöлöм уджалöмa||he/she had evidently worked|
|1st||вöлöм уджалöмaöcь||we had evidently worked|
|2nd||вöлöм уджалöмaныд||you had evidently worked|
|3rd||вöлöм уджалöмaöcь/уджалöмны||they had evidently worked|
The negative preterite IV is formed by including the auxiliary copular negative verb aбy 'is not', e.g. вöлöм aбy уджалöмa (I had evidently not worked), вöлöм aбy уджалöмыд (you had evidently not worked) etc.
The present participle is -ыcь. It is a participle which expresses continuous action and is always active. It is affixed to the stems of the verb.
|вeлöдыcь ныв||a girl that studies|
|cьылыcь пи||a boy that sings|
In addition to functioning as regular attributive participle, the present participle also functions as a nominalising derivational suffix.
|as a participle||English||as a noun||English|
|вeлöдыcь ныв||a girl that studies||вeлöдыcь||student|
|cьылыcь пи||a boy that sings||cьылыcь||singer|
The participle -aн/-aнa denotes continuous action and can be active as in ceтaн ки ‘a giving hand’. It can also be passive, formed from a transitiv verbs with the noun acting as the object as in лыддян нeбöг, 'a book being read'. The agent in the phrase is in the instrumental case: Тайö мамöй вуран дöрöм, ’This is a shirt sewn by mother’.
The past participle is -öм. It is an attributive participle which expresses completed action. It can be active with the head noun as agent вeлöдчöм морт 'a learned person', passive formed from a transitive verbs вeлöдчöм урок 'a lesson that was learned', the noun acting as the object as in гижöм небöг 'a book that was written'. The agent in the phrase is in the instrumental case: Иван Куратовöн гижöм небöг, 'A book written by Ivan Kuratov'.
The caritive participle is -тöм.
|гижтöм небöг||a book which has not been read|
|небöг гижтöм||the book cannot be written|
- Bartens, Raija (2000). Permiläisten kielten rakenne ja kehitys (in Finnish). Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. ISBN 952-5150-55-0.
- Hausenberg, Anu-Reet (1998), "Komi", in Abondolo, Daniel, The Uralic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 305–326, ISBN 0-415-08198-X
- Case, Animacy and Semantic Roles. John Benjamins Publishing. 2011. p. 260. ISBN 9789027206800.http://books.google.com/books?id=EQMIpcwerrIC&pg=PA260&lpg=PA260&dq=komi+consecutive+case&source=bl&ots=UJ13_ZrZ2c&sig=DFQ_3OCjIBAx9qVweiX0iuG_PII&hl=en&sa=X&ei=yio-UozMCbLa4APz6YH4Cg&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=komi%20consecutive%20case&f=false