KSK unit badge
High Value Targets/Manhunting
|Part of||Special Operations Division|
|Garrison/HQ||Calw, Baden-Württemberg, Germany|
|Motto||Facit Omnia Voluntas (lat. The will is decisive )|
|Engagements||Bosnia and Herzegovina
Operation Enduring Freedom
Battle of Tora Bora
Counterinsurgency in Northern Afghanistan
|Decorations||United States Navy Presidential Unit Citation for KSK-members of Task Force K-Bar|
|Brigadier General (Brigadegeneral) Dag Baehr, since April 2013|
|Brigadier General (Brigadegeneral) Hans-Christoph Ammon|
The KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is an elite special forces military unit composed of Special Operations soldiers handpicked from the ranks of Germany’s Bundeswehr and organized under the Division Spezielle Operationen (Special Operations Division, DSO). KSK has received many decorations and awards from NATO, the USA and its affiliates and KSK operatives are frequently requested for joint anti-terror operations, notably in the Balkans and Middle East.
From 1973, until the KSK’s formation in 1996, the West German (and later German) government assigned all counter-terrorist and special operations activities to the famed GSG 9; a highly trained police force created shortly after the tragic events that transpired during the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Prior to 1973, the army’s Fernspäher (Long-Distance Reconnaissance), the navy’s Kampfschwimmer (Combat Swimmers/"Frogmen"), and (until 1989) the Special Weapons Escort Companies—Sonderwaffenbegleitkompanien were the only military units comparable to anything that other nations may have seen as dedicated Special Forces units. Following the KSK’s activation on April 1, 1997, all but one of the Fernspähkompanie have been either disbanded or merged into the newly constituted unit.
Like all German military units, KSK deployments require authorization from the German Bundestag (Federal Assembly). The unit has engaged in numerous anti-terror campaigns both in Europe and abroad; known engagements include operations inside Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and most recently in Afghanistan. As is to be expected with such units, specific operational details such as success and casualty rates are considered to be top secret and withheld even from the highest-ranking members of the Bundestag. This practice has elicited some serious concerns, resulting in agreement to increase both transparency and accountability, by disclosing mission details to selected members of the Bundestag, in relation to the future deployments of KSK forces.
- 1996 - 1998: Brigadier General Fredrich Schulz
- 1998 - 2000: Brigadier General Hans-Heinrich Dieter
- 2000 - 2003: Brigadier General Reinhard Gunzel
- 2003 - 2005: Brigadier General Carl-Hubertus Butler
- 2005 - 2007: Brigadier General Rainer Hartbrod
- 2007 - 2010: Brigadier General Hans Christoph Ammon
- 2010 - 2013: Brigadier General Heinz Feldmann
- 2013...........: Brigadier General Dag Baehr*
Brigadegeneral Dag Baehr has previously served twice as a field officer in the KSK. First, under the command of Brigadegeneral Schulz, when it was founded from 1996 until 1999 and then again between 2004 until 2007 under the command of Brigadegeneral Hartbrod.
Combat ready units are divided into four commando companies of approximately one hundred men. The Special Commando Company is normally staffed with veteran members, taking on various supporting roles. Each of the four commando companies have five specialized platoons, each with a unique specialty and ability that can be adapted to both the terrain and situation, depending on type action(s) required:
- 1st Platoon: land insertions
- 2nd Platoon: intelligence gathering and airborne operations
- 3rd Platoon: amphibious operations
- 4th Platoon: operations in special geographic or meteorological surroundings (e.g. mountains or polar regions)
- 5th Platoon: reconnaissance gathering and sniper/counter-sniper operations
- Command Platoon
There are four commando squads in every platoon. Each of these groups consist of about four equally skilled members that have been hand-picked from the German Army into the platoon that best suits their abilities. Each group member is specially trained as either a weapons expert, medic, combat engineer or communications expert, respectively. Additionally, some groups may contain other specialists, such as a heavy weapons or language expert.
Selection and training
Initially, only officers and non-commissioned officers of the Bundeswehr could apply for service with the KSK and the subsequent evaluation period. As a pre-requisite for entry, the Bundeswehr Commando Course ("Einzelkämpferlehrgang") must have been completed by the applicant. Since 2005, however, applications have also been opened to civilians and enlisted personnel who must complete an 18-month Long Range Surveillance training cycle before the intense KSK selection process begins.
The selection process is divided into two phases: a three-week-long physical and psychological training regimen (normally garnering a 40% pass rate), and later a three-month-long physical endurance phase (normally garnering a 8–10% pass rate). During latter phase, the KSK use the Black Forest as their proving grounds for prospective operators. In this time, candidates must undergo a grueling 90-hour cross-country run, followed by a three-week international Combat Survival Course at the German-led multinational Special Operations Training Center (formerly the International Long Range Reconnaissance School) in Pfullendorf.
Upon successful completion of the selection process, candidates may be allowed to start their 2–3 year training cycle with the KSK. This training includes roughly twenty jungle, desert, urban, and counter-terrorism courses at over seventeen schools worldwide; in Norway for Arctic terrain, Austria for mountainous terrain; El Paso, Texas or Israel for desert and/or bush training; San Diego for amphibious operations; and Belize for jungle experience.
According to press releases from May 2008, the Bundeswehr aims to advance the attractiveness of service in the KSK to women. This is partially due to the fact that the KSK was previously unable to reach its targeted number of troops. The KSK was no longer restricted to male troops after the Bundeswehr opened all units to women in 2001.
|H&K P8||semi-automatic pistol|
|H&K USP Tactical||semi-automatic pistol|
|H&K MP5||submachine gun||In various versions including the H&K MP5K and the MP5SD.|
|H&K MP7||personal defense weapon|
|H&K UMP||submachine gun|
|H&K G3||battle rifles|
|H&K G36||assault rifles||In different versions. May be fitted with the AG36 grenade launcher.|
|H&K 416||assault rifles||May be fitted with the AG36 grenade launcher.|
|H&K PSG-1||sniper rifle|
|H&K MG4||squad automatic weapon|
|H&K HK21||general purpose machine gun|
|Rheinmetall MG 3||general purpose machine gun|
|FIM-92 Stinger||air-defense system|
|Panzerfaust 3||rocket-propelled grenade|
|MILAN||anti-tank guided missile||/|
|H&K GMG||automatic grenade launcher|
- Mercedes-Benz G-Class utility vehicles
- AGF (Light infantry vehicle)
- Yamaha ATV (All Terrain Vehicle) KODIAC 4x4
- Enduro Type KTM 640 LC 4 (Motorcycle)
- Hägglunds Bandvagn 206
- Snowmobile LYNX GLX 5900 FC/E Army
- Klepper canoes
Beret and badge
Members of the KSK wear maroon berets as a symbol of their roots in airborne units. A metal badge is worn which consists of a sword surrounded by oak leaves. The flag of the Federal Republic of Germany is depicted on the bottom of the sword.
The Kommandoabzeichen (Commando badge) is a cloth patch worn on the left pouch of the uniform. The commando badge's design is similar to the metal badge worn on the beret. It depicts a silver sword on light green background surrounded by oak leaves. The badge was permitted to be worn in 2000 by Federal President Johannes Rau.
KSK units wear green as their Waffenfarbe, similar to infantry units. Before becoming an independent military force the KSK was a part of infantry units.
Map marking symbol
In international map marking symbols a rectangle frame with the letters SF are used to units such as the KSK. The SF stands for special forces. This example shows a special forces unit in company size.
- Italy- 9th Parachute Assault Regiment
- Australia- Australian Special Air Service Regiment
- Netherlands- Korps Commando Troepen
- United Kingdom- Special Air Service
- Germany- Spezialeinsatzkommando
- Poland- JW GROM
- France- 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
- Sweden- Särskilda operationsgruppen
- United States- U.S. Army Special Forces
- United States- Navy SEALs
- United States- 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta
- United States- United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group
- United States- Special Activities Division
- Japan- Special Forces Group (Japan)
- Reinhard Scholzen: KSK – Das Kommando Spezialkräfte der Bundeswehr, Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-613-02384-9, S. 108
- de:Dag Baehr
- The eight platoons operated jointly with US forces under the command of SACEUR, e.g. the German army's 2./S.W.120 stationed in Werlte and the US AWSCOM (Advanced Weapons Support Command/59th Ordnance Group). The nuclear weapons had yields between 40 kt and 200 kt.
- Der Spiegel of May 20, 2008: Bundeswehr-Elitetruppe will Soldatinnen an die Front schicken (Bundeswehr Elite Unit to send Women to Front, german)
- Die Welt of May 20, 2008: Frauen dürfen bald bei der KSK-Truppe Dienst tun (Women soon to serve with KSK, german)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kommando Spezialkräfte.|
- Official site (German)
- Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) at Sondereinheiten.de (German)