Konar Sandal

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For the modern-day village, see Konar Sandal, Iran.

Konar Sandal is a Bronze Age archaeological site, situated just south of Jiroft, Kermān Province, Iran.

It consists of two mounds a few kilometers apart, called Konar Sandal A and B with a height of 13 and 21 meters, respectively. At Konar Sandal B, a two-story, windowed citadel with a base of close to 13.5 hectares was found. Also found in Konar Sandal were tablets with scripts of unknown nature.[1]

The site is associated with the hypothesized "Jiroft culture", a 3rd millennium BC culture postulated on the basis of a collection of artifacts confiscated in 2001.

The proposition of identifying the site as an "independent Bronze Age civilization with its own architecture and language" is due to Yousef Majidzadeh, head of the archaeological excavation team in Jiroft since. Majidzadeh suggests they may be the remains of the lost Aratta Kingdom. Other conjectures (e.g. Daniel T. Potts, Piotr Steinkeller) have connected the site with the obscure city-state of Marhashi.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Chapter Twenty-nine Iran and Its Neighbors" by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, "The Sumerian World" edited by H. Crawford
  • O. W. Muscarella, Jiroft and “Jiroft-Aratta” A Review Article of Yousef Madjidzadeh, Jiroft: The Earliest Oriental Civilization (2004)

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