|— Metropolitan Municipality —|
|• Mayor||Tahir Akyürek (AKP)|
|• Metropolitan Municipality||39,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,200 m (3,900 ft)|
|• Density||50/km2 (100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 332|
Konya (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈkon.ja]; Greek: Ικόνιον Ikónion, Latin: Iconium) is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. It is the seventh most populous city in Turkey. As of 2011 the Konya Metropolitan Municipality had a population close to 1.1 million, out of the 2.1 million in the province.
Konya, also spelled in some historic English texts as Konia or Koniah, was known in classical antiquity and during the medieval period as Iconium in Latin, and Ἰκόνιον (Ikónion) in Greek (with regular Medieval Greek apheresis Kónio(n)). This name is commonly explained as a derivation from εἰκών (icon), as an ancient Greek legend ascribed its name to the "eikon" (image), or the "gorgon's (Medusa's) head", with which Perseus vanquished the native population before founding the city.
Ancient history 
Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC. The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. These were overtaken by the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC. The Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia in the 8th century BC. Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the last city of Phrygia. The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. Alexander's empire broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator. During the Hellenistic period the town was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Under the rule of emperor Claudius, the city's name was changed to Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia Aelia Hadriana.
Saint Paul and Barnabas preached in Iconium during the First Missionary Journey in about 47-48 AD (see Acts 14:1-5 and Acts 14:21), and Paul and Silas probably visited it again during the Second Missionary Journey in about 50 (see Acts 16:2). In Christian legend, it was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla. During the Byzantine Empire the town was destroyed several times by Arab invaders in the 7th-9th centuries.
Seljuk era 
During the period of chaos that overwhelmed Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert the city was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in 1084. From 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, though very briefly occupied by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097) and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190). The name of the town was changed to Konya by Rukn al-Dīn Mas'ūd in 1134.
Konya reached the height of its wealth and influence as of the second half of the 12th century when Anatolian Seljuk sultans also subdued the Anatolian beyliks to their east, especially that of the Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the Mediterranean (including Alanya) and the Black Sea (including Sinop) and even gaining a momentary foothold in Sudak, Crimea. This golden age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century.
By the 1220s, the city was filled with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire, fleeing the advance of the Mongol Empire. Sultan Alā al-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykā'ūs fortified the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited Bahaeddin Veled and his son Mevlana (Rumi), the founder of the Mevlevi order, to settle in Konya.
In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dağ, Konya was captured by the Mongols as well. The city remained the capital of the Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the Ilkhanate until the end of the century.
Following the fall of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Konya was made the capital of a beylik (emirate) in 1307 which lasted until 1322 when the city was captured by the neighbouring Beylik of Karamanoğlu. In 1420, Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman Empire and, in 1453, Konya was made the provincial capital of the Ottoman Province of Karaman.
Ottoman era 
Under the Ottoman Empire, in the vilayet system established after 1864, Konya was the seat of the Vilayet of Konya. Konya was administered by the Sultan's sons starting with Princes Mustafa and Cem and future Sultan Selim II. During the Tanzimat period, the province's name was changed from Karaman to Konya reflecting the rise of Konya.
According to the 1895 census, Konya had a population of nearly forty-five thousand, of which 42,318 were Muslims, 1,566 were Christian Armenians and 899 were Christian Greeks. There were also 21 mosques and 5 Churches in the town. A still-standing Catholic church was built for the Italian railway workers in the 1910s. The Meram road was constructed in 1950. The first Konya National Exhibition and Fair was held in 1968, and it now of the most important cultural events that take place in Konya. The Koyunoğlu Museum was passed to the city in 1973 and it was reopened in a brand new building.
Konya has a transitional climate, predominantly continental climate and under Köppen's climate classification a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk)  with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers.. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Summers temperatures average 30 °C (86 °F). The highest temperature recorded in Konya was 40.6 °C (105 °F) on 30 July 2000. Winters average −4.2 °C (24 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was −25.8 °C (−14 °F) on 25 January 1989. Due to Konya's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Similarly, extreme hot weather during July and August are not rare. Although precipitation is observed throughout the year, the city resides in one of the driest and sunniest regions of Turkey. Dust and mud showers rarely happen in areas to the northeast of the province center, owing to the low vegetation.
|Climate data for Konya|
|Average high °C (°F)||4.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||34.7
|Avg. rainy days||5||6||5||6||7||5||1||2||2||5||5||7||56|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||96.1||126||189.1||207||266.6||312||347.2||341||288||220.1||150||93||2,636.1|
|Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory |
Konya is a center of education, where it consistently ranks among the nation's top 10 most successful cities in terms of average score of high school graduates. There are various elementary and secondary schools in the province, where the Meram Fen Lisesi is among Turkey's first-tier science high schools.
Konya is one of the few cities to host more than 100,000 college students. Selçuk University has the largest number of students, 76,080, of any public university in Turkey in the 2008-09 academic year. It was founded in 1975. The other public university is Konya Necmettin Erbakan University which was established in 2010.
Industry and Transportation 
Although this is historically a center for agriculture, since the late twentieth century Konya transformed into a center of diverse industries. Today, the city produces a high GNP as an outcome of its numerous modern industrial parks. While agriculture based industries still play a major role towards the gross product, Konya also has evolved as the center of manufacturing of machinery, concrete, solar power supplies and auto parts. Today, Konya is home to biggest solar energy companies, a giant sugar cane processing plant that is among top three all over the world, and several of the country's biggest auto-parts manufacturers.
Konya is connected to Ankara, Eskişehir and lately to İstanbul via the high-speed railways, which makes the city uniquely the destination of most convenience in Turkey. Also there are daily flights to İstanbul and İzmir.
- Ibn Arabi, the Sufi and Islamic philosopher, visited Konya in 1207 at the invitation of the Seljuk governor of that time and married the mother of his disciple Sadreddin Konevi.
- Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the Persian Sufi poet commonly known as "Mevlâna" and who is the founder of the Sufi Mevlevi order (known for the Whirling Dervishes), spent the last fifty years of his life in Konya. His tomb is located here.
- Hazrat Shah Jalal was born in 1271 in Konya.
- Nasreddin Hodja died in Konya in the 13th century.
- Orkut Büyükkökten, a software engineer who developed the social networking service Orkut, was born in 1975 in Konya.
- Ahmet Davutoğlu, Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs, was born on 26 February 1959 in Konya.
Main sights 
- Alaeddin Mosque
- Ince Minaret Medrese—Museum
- Karatay Medrese—Museum
- Etnografya Museum-Museum
- Arkeoloji Museum-Museum
- Atatürk's House Museum-Museum
- Izzet Koyunoglu City Museum-Museum
- Mevlana Museum, formerly the tekke of Mevlana
- Seljuk Tower, the tallest building in Konya
- Alaeddin Hill
- Saint Paul's Catholic Church- in Alaadin
Konya has the reputation of being one of the more religiously metropolitan centers in Turkey. It was once known as the "citadel of Islam" and its inhabitants are still comparatively more devout than those from other cities. Konya was the final home of Rumi, whose tomb is in the city, and whose followers established in 1273 the Mevlevi Sufi order of Islam there and became known as the whirling dervishes.
Konya produced Turkish carpets that were exported to Europe during the Renaissance. These expensive, richly patterned textiles were draped over tables, beds, or chests to proclaim the wealth and status of their owners, and were often included in the contemporary oil paintings as symbols of the wealth of the painter's clients.
Twin towns 
Twin towns and sister cities 
Konya is twinned with:
- Multan, Pakistan
- Okayama, Japan
- Sana'a, Yemen
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Sylhet, Bangladesh
- Tabriz, Iran
- Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia
- Verona, Italy
- Xi'an, China
Images from Konya 
See also 
References and notes 
- Büyükşehir belediyeleri ve bağlı belediyelerin nüfusları - 2011
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya
- see William Ramsay, Cities of St. Paul, 315-384; F. F. Bruce, Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1977. p. 475.
- Clive F. W. Foss "Ikonion" The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan. © 1991, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. King's College London. 30 May 2012 http://www.oxford-byzantium.com/entry?entry=t174.e2437
- Alaturka Turkey: Konya
- Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
- Effect of Climate Changes on Groundwater - Selcuk University, Department of Geology Engineering, Konya, Turkey
- [dead link]
- http://www.konya.edu.tr/ Konya Necmettin Erbakan Universitesi
- "KTO Karatay Üniversitesi". Karatay.edu.tr. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- A Fuat Mercan. "Mevlana Üniversitesi | Mevlana University". Mevlana.edu.tr. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Programmer World: Orkut Büyükkökten
- Alaeddin Hill
- 'Islam problem' baffles Turkey, By Jonny Dymond - BBC
- Song Lyrics
- King, Donald and Sylvester, David. The Eastern Carpet in the Western World, From the 15th to the 17th century, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, 1983, ISBN 0-7287-0362-9. pp. 26-27, 52-57.
- Campbell, Gordon. The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Volume 1, "Carpet, S 2; History (pp. 187–193), Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-518948-5, ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3 Google books. p. 189.
- Old Ottoman "Holbein" carpets in Renaissance painting
- "Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Mofa.gov.pk. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- daenet d.o.o. "Sarajevo Official Web Site : Sister cities". Sarajevo.ba. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "PM reaches Turkey". 12 April 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Тетово се збратимува со турскиот град Коња -Утрински весник
Further reading 
- Published in the 19th century
- Clément Huart (1897). Konia, la ville des derviches tourneurs (in French). Paris: Leroux.
- Published in the 20th century
- "Konia", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
- E. Broadrup (1995). "Konya/Catal Huyuk". International Dictionary of Historic Places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.
- Published in the 21st century
- C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Konya". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill.
- "Konya". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Konya|
- Konya travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya
- More information about Konya
- Emporis: Database of highrises and other structures in Konya
- Detailed Pictures of Mevlana Museum
- Pictures of the city, including Mevlana Museum and several Seljuk buildings
- 600 Pictures of the city and sights
- Extensive collection of pictures of the Mevlana museum in Konya
- Cities of St. Paul, 316-384
- Old Konya's Picture
- ArchNet.org. "Konya". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning.
- "Konya". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture.