Korean–Jurchen border conflicts
Timeline of the Korean–Jurchen wars
Under Goryeo period
- In 984 Goryeo began to build a fortress on the banks of the Yalu river but were hindered by the Jurchen, who caused the work to be suspended.
- 1010 : Ha Gong-jin and Yu Chung attacked the eastern Jurchens tribes. The Jurchen ravaged the northeast boundary of Goryeo kingdom in 1012. Joined with the Khitan, the Jurchen crossed the Yalu border but were driven back by Kim Sang wi.
- Under Wanyan Wuyashu's order, Shi Shihuan (石適歡) led Jurchen army of the Tumen River basin, subdued Jurchen in Helandian and advanced southward to chase about 1,800 remnants who defected to Goryeo. Goryeo did not hand them over but sent Im Gan (林幹) to intercept the Wanyan army. However, Shi Shihuan defeated Im Gan north of the Chŏngp'yŏng wall and invaded northeastern frontier of Goryeo. Goryeo dispatched Yoon Gwan (尹瓘) but lost a battle again. As a result, Wuyashu subjugated the Jurchen in Helandian.
In 1107 Goryeo dispatched five large armies led by Yoon Gwan to Helandian. They destroyed a hundred Jurchen villages and built nine fortresses there. After a one-year battle, the Wanyan army won two fortresses and eliminated Goryeo reinforcements. Goryeo and the Jurchen achieved settlement and, as a result, Goryeo withdrew from the occupied areas.
- Ca. 1364 삼선(三善, Three Mountains) & 삼개(三介, Three Rivers)
- around 1383 : 호발도(胡拔都)
Under Joseon period
There were two kind of Jurchens: the Enemy/Treacherous Jurchens 적호(賊胡) and the defensive/boundary Jurchens 번호(藩胡) considered as Jianzhou Jurchens living in Korean borders.
- 1409 : Invasion of Kyungwon (경원;慶源)
- 1432–1433 : Li-Man-chu (李滿住) (b.1407 – †1467), the chief of the Huligai (胡里改) was beaten by a Joseon's expedition led by general Choe Yun-deok (Hangul : 최윤덕 Hanja :崔潤德).
- 1436 : Two powerful Jurchens tribes (Olyangtap and Holjaon (홀라온;忽剌溫)) crossed the Tuman river and invaded the Hamgildo Province (Hangul : 함길도 Hanja :咸吉道), present-day Hamgyong Province, which have been recently repopulated by Korean settlers.
- 1460 : The Invasion of the Hamgildo Province by the Orangai (Hangul : 오랑캐 Hanja :兀良哈) forces led by (Hangul : 모련위 Hanja :毛憐衛). Joseon army led a counter-offensive.
- 1467 :Li-Man-chu (李滿住) was killed after a joint Korean-Ming attack (under Sejo of Joseon's reign).
- Ca.1480 : Wars between Joseon army and the Jurchens on the on northeast china
- 1482 : Two forts on the Yalu were built near the town of Kanggye.
- 1491 : Gen. Heo Jong 허종(許琮) led several military campaigns against the Jurchens on the northern border. There were successful and repulsed the defeated Jurchens (Udige,兀狄哈) to the north of the Tuman river.
- Ca. 1520 : The Jurchens of the north ravaged the Korean borders the Joseon king sent troops against them.
- Ca. 1555 : The Jurchens tribe of Kol-gan-bul (or Kolgan Udige) (Hangul: 골간 올적합 Hanja:骨看兀狄哈) crossed the northern border and harried the border town.
- Ca. 1570 : the Jurchens across the Yalu were crossing that river and taking possessions of fields in Korea proper, near the town of Kanggye. The King sent a force, under Kim Tong-yung to dislodge them. The intruders were chased across the river and into a narrow defile where they turned on their pursuers. Taken thus by surprise, the Korean forces were thrown into confusion and were put to flight after their general was killed. A second expedition chased the intruders to their villages, and burned them out.
- 1583 : A fierce invasion, led by Pon-ho chieftains (번호;藩胡) 아산보(阿山堡)or 니탕개(尼蕩介), occurred on the northern part of Hamgyeong Province. The prefecture of Kyungwon was taken, but Shin Rip, the prefect of Onsung, went to its succour and after a desperate fight before the town, he broke back of the invasion and drove the invaders back across the Tuman and burned their villages.
Two chieftains, Yul Po-ri and Yi T’ang-ga advanced by separate roads upon Kyongsung with 10,000 mounted followers, but the little garrison of 100 men fought so stubbornly that the siege was raised and the two chieftains marched on to attack Pang-weun. The Joseon troops arrived just in time to drive the invaders back.
- 1588 : Outbreaks of the far northern border and Gen. Yi Il along with (우후/虞侯 and 김우추/金遇秋) took a small force of 400 men, crossed the Tuman River on the ice and attacked the Chudo Jurchens tribe (Hangul :추도 반호 Hanja :楸島 叛胡), killing 33 peoples among them on 1588 1m 14d.
Being successful in this he took 2500 men along with the prefects of Hoeryong, Onsong and Puryong, crossed the same river at four different points simultaneously and attacked the Sijun Jurchens (Hangul : 시전번호/반호 Hanja :時錢藩胡/叛胡) tribe by night, burning 200 houses and killing 380 peoples. (제승방략(制勝方略)) on 1588 1m 15d.
- 1605 : a fierce conflict between the Jurchen tribe of Hol-cha-on (Hangul : 홀자온 Hanja :忽刺溫), north of the Tuman River and the Joseon troops under Gen. Song U-gil (Hangul : 성우길 Hanja :成祐吉). The latter crossed the river by night and attacked the main settlement of the tribe and utterly destroyed it, and effectually broke up the tribe. Great quantities of goods which had been stolen from the border settlements were also recovered.