Korean Broadcasting System
|This article or section may be slanted towards recent events. (May 2013)|
||This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (May 2013)|
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Korean Wikipedia. (March 2013)|
|Type||Broadcast radio and
|Headquarters||Yeouido, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, South Korea|
|Owner||Government of South Korea|
|Launch date||February 16, 1927 (radio)
October 1, 1961 (television)
March 3, 1973 "public broadcasting stations" status
2001 (Digital Television)
|Picture format||1080i (HDTV)|
|Revised Romanization||Han-guk Bangsong Gongsa|
|McCune–Reischauer||Han'guk Pangsong Kongsa|
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) (Korean: 한국 방송 공사, Hanguk Bangsong Gongsa) is a South Korean radio and television network, founded in 1927. It is the biggest out of the four major South Korean television networks.
KBS began as Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation (JODK) that was established by the Governor-General of Korea in Korea on February 16, 1927. This second radio station started using the call sign HLKA in 1947 after the Republic of Korea got the call sign HL of the International Telecommunication Union. After doing a national broadcast, the radio was renamed Seoul Central Broadcasting Station in 1948.
South Korea television broadcasts began on 12 May 1956 with the first television station HLKZ-TV which then commercially and sold to the company in 1961. KBS station status changed from government to public broadcasting station on March 3, 1973. KBS headquarters in Yeouido started construction in 1976. In 1979, KBS radio began broadcasting on the FM wave with the launch of KBS 1FM.
Differing from other public broadcasters in the world that does not accept advertising, apart from television fees, part of KBS revenue also come from advertisers. KBS began to accept advertising in 1980 after the forced merger of some private commercial broadcasting stations like Tongyang Broadcasting Company (TBC), which some consider the forerunner of JTBC, and Dong-A Broadcasting System (DBS), the former body of Channel A, into KBS by the military government. Under the Chun Doo-hwan regime, South Korea's media policy had changed; the regime closed several private commercial radio and television stataions and merged them with KBS. After the merger with Tongyang Broadcasting Company (TBC) and DBS, KBS changed the name of these channels to from DBS to KBS Radio 5 (now a defunct radio station. 792 kHz frequency now owned by Seoul Broadcasting System.) (AM) TBC-FM to KBS Cool FM and television station TBC-TV to KBS 2TV in 1980 and created KBS 3TV and Educational FM in 1981.
On December 27, 1990, KBS 3TV and Educational FM split from KBS and changed its name to Educational Broadcasting System (EBS). After the revision of the television fee collection system in 1994, KBS 1TV no longer airs commercials.
KBS is a 'public organization' that, by law, receives public funding from the South Korean government but is independently managed. As mentioned on the South Korean Constitution, the president of KBS is recommended by its board of directors to the President of South Korea. Political parties in South Korea have the right to name members of the board of directors of KBS. Since the President of South Korea usually has leadership over the members of the ruling party, KBS's president is considered to be designated by the President of South Korea. This procedure has incurred worries of political intervention in KBS's governance and has led to many thinking that the current system of recruiting needs to be revised.
Around 37.8% of its revenue comes from a mandatory Television Licence Fee, while 47.6% of the revenue comes from commercial advertisement sales. For national or governmental programs such as International Radio service (KBS World Radio) and the Radio service for physically handicapped people, KBS receives public funds from the South Korean government.
Terrestrial television 
- KBS 1TV - Airs news, current affairs, education, sports, and culture. It launched in 1961 as HLKA-TV. It is known in English as KBS One. KBS 1TV solely runs on license fee and does not show any commercials. It is on national terrestrial digital channel 9. It is similar to BBC One and Nederland 1. KBS 1TV is also showing public information films made by KBS and entertainment programming, but the rest are on KBS 2TV.
- KBS 2TV - Airs entertainment and drama only. It launched in 1980 as a replacement for the defunct Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation, not to be mistaken as TBC-TV (an SBS affiliate in Daegu, South Korea), which merged with KBS. It is known as KBS Two in English. It is on national terrestrial digital channel 7. It is similar to BBC Two and Nederland 2.
KBS 1TV and KBS 2TV phased out analogue services on December 31, 2012 as part of the switchover to digital television.
Cable and Satellite television (KBS N) 
- KBS Prime - culture and drama. Launched in 1995 as KBS satellite 2, renamed as KBS Korea in 2002.
- KBS Drama - formerly KBS Sky Drama. Launched in 2002.
- KBS N Sports - formerly KBS Sports/KBS Sky Sports. Also launched in 2002.
- KBS Joy - comedy and quiz show. Launched in 2006.
- KBS Kids - children's channel. Launched in 2012.
- KBS W - women's channel. Launched in 2013.
These six channels are carried by cable and satellite operators in South Korea. There are 100+ Cable operators in South Korea and Skylife is the sole satellite television service provider. These channels are managed and operated by KBS N, a subsidiary company of KBS.
- KBS Radio 1 (711 kHz AM/97.3 MHz FM KBS Radio Seoul) - news, current affairs, drama, documentary and culture. Launched in 1927 as Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation JODK and it became KBS Radio 1 in 1965.
- KBS Radio 2 (603 kHz AM/106.1 MHz/97.7 MHz FM KBS Happy FM) - entertainment radio for the middle aged. Launched in 1948 as HLSA.
- KBS Radio 3 (1134 kHz AM/104.9 MHz FM KBS Voice of Love FM) - Launched in 1973 as RSB (Radio Seoul Broadcasting), renamed as TBC Radio in the 1970s, then current name in 1980, and ceased broadcasting in 1981. It was later replaced by KBS Radio 2's regional radio service and Educational FM (now EBS FM). Later re-launched in 2000 as a spin-off from KBS Radio 2. For the first time in 2010, it was launched on FM and restructured as a radio station for the disabled.
- KBS 1FM (93.1 MHz Classic FM) - classical music and folkmusic. Launched in 1979 as KBS-FM, adopted current name in 1980.
- KBS 2FM (89.1 MHz Cool FM) - popular music. Launched in 1966 as TBC-FM, adopted current name in 1980 after TBC-FM forced merged to KBS.
- KBS Han minjok radio (6015 MHz Shortwave) (shortwave & mediumwave) - Launched in 1975 as KBS Third Programme
- KBS World Radio - international service [see also RFI, BBC World Service and Radio Canada International], as well as satellite and international services.
KBS World 
KBS World is the international television and radio service of KBS. It officially launched on July 1, 2003. It is broadcasted on a 24hr schedule with programs ranging from news, sports, television dramas, entertainment, and children's. KBS World television is broadcasted locally and around the world. As of July 2007, around 65% of its programs are broadcast with English subtitles, it is available in 32 countries, and reportedly more than 40 million households around the world can access KBS World. It has two overseas subsidiaries: KBS America and KBS Japan. KBS Japan is independently operated by a KBS subsidiary in Japan, and most programs are provided with Japanese subtitles.
KBS World television is a television channel that runs mostly programs commissioned for KBS' 2 terrestrial networks: KBS1 and KBS2. KBS World television is distributed over several international communication and broadcasting satellites such as IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Apstar 6 & 7, Eutelsat Hotbird 13A, Galaxy 11, 18 & 23, Badr 6, Vinasat 1, Palapa D, SES 7, Telkom 1, Thaicom 5, EchoStar 15, Anik F3. Local cable and/or satellite operators receive the signal from one of these satellite and carry the signal to end subscribers of their own networks. KBS doesn't allow individual viewer to receive the signal from IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Asiasat 5, and Galaxy 18. The signal from Badr 6 is Free-to-Air service while viewers using Eutelsat Hotbird 13A are required to pay monthly subscription fee.
Foreign partners 
|ABC and SBS||Australia|
|TVB||Hong Kong, China|
|RCTI and TVRI||Indonesia|
|NHK and TBS||Japan|
|ABS-CBN and GMA Network||Philippines|
|NBC and ABC||United States|
|RCTV and TVes||Venezuela|
KBS-TBC-DBS forced merger 
One of the most controversial and most oldest controversies of KBS was the forced merger between KBS and two private broadcasting stations TBC or the Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation and DBS or the Donga Broadcasting System in 1980. during the Chun Doo-hwan regime TBC DBS and MBC where broadcasting News against Chun due to this Chun made a special law that sequestered MBC and forced merged TBC and DBS. TBC-TV became KBS 2TV meanwhile TBC Radio (HLCD 89.1 MHz) became KBS 2FM and DBS (HLKJ 792 kHz) became the now defunct KBS Radio 5. (Today the 792 kHz frequency is now owned by SBS and became SBS Love FM.) in 2009 former Pres. Lee Myung-bak said the special law was constitutional. in 2011 TBC was reincarnated as JTBC.
KBS Journalists Strikes and Reset KBS News 9 
The journalists working for KBS (along with MBC, SBS and YTN) have protested against the biased journalism practices that favors the Lee Myung-bak government. The new union for KBS headed by Kim Hyeon-seok released a video clip Reset KBS News 9 (리셋 KBS 뉴스9) on the internet that discusses the Prime Minister's Office Civilian Surveillance Incident and the controversial money-spending on renovating President Lee Myung-bak's alleged birth house on March 13, 2012.
Praising Chinilpa 
Bak Han-yong (박한용), head of the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, criticized KBS for censoring negative remarks from a documentary about Chinilpa individuals and Rhee Syngman who had pardoned them. This includes the Chinilpa Paik Sun-yup.
KBS 2FM Advertisement Scandal 
KBS 2FM From 1980 until 2002 was prohibited to air commercial advertisements but in 2002 commercial advertisements resumed airing on KBS 2FM. The result KBS Local FM (a radio station owned by KBS used to re-transmit KBS 1FM and KBS 2FM) instead carried KBS 1FM programs even though KBS 2FM programs like Good Morning Pops and Hidden Track where aired due to that the two programs where prohibited to air advertisements excluding those of KOBACO (Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation).
Unfair treatment to Big Bang 
KBS Music Bank (a music program on KBS2 ko:뮤직뱅크) was under fire when Big Bang made their comeback stage with "Tonight" in 2011, showing their blatant favoritism towards other singers. Fans were in rage of disappointment when they noticed the poor lighting on the stage, causing the members and the back-up dancers to not be seen clearly on the television and by the audience. Viewers also noticed that Big Bang had only had to perform their title track despite of being very popular and their two-year hiatus, while other artists and rookie groups performed two songs for their comeback stages. The rage was further intensified when fans claimed that Music Bank manipulated Big Bang's final score, receiving only 20,214, despite of being downloaded and streamed for almost 3.4 million times. The information was reported by Gaon, collecting data from major music charts of Korea, such as Mnet, Bugs, Melon, Soribada, and Dosirak.
Girl groups cheating on charts 
KBS Music Bank also received a lot of negative criticisms for its allegedly unfair chart ranking system. It was revealed by an insider that entertainment companies were bulk-buying massive numbers of their artists' albums to achieve an "all-kill" status and reach the number one spot on the music program that even rookie groups can manage to win first place award, but Music Bank didn't do anything to stop the act. It was always believed that rookie groups normally don't have a huge fanbase, but Brave Girls managed to top digital music charts in Korea.
Pandora Song leak 
The song Pandora of the girl group Kara was leaked on the popular KBS Cool FM radio show Donghae and Eunhyuk's Kiss The Radio on August 17, 2012. Following the leak, the group's representatives Donghae, Eunhyuk and the staff working for the show apologized on Twitter saying: We are sorry for releasing a song without confirming first that it was already released. We hope that those who listened to today's broadcast will not share with others. they continued: We truly apologize to KARA and the producers for releasing it earlier than planned.  they continued: KARA’s unreleased song was aired today. It is the fault of the person that chose the song without checking whether the album had been released yet, as they had only checked to see that it had passed KBS regulations. We ask that the listeners of ‘Sukira’ please not share the day’s recordings.  and posted a message on the radio community board. PD Jung Hyun Jae additionally wrote on the program’s message board, I am the person that chose the song, and I would like to apologize to KARA, their representatives, and their fans for causing this ordeal. I am completely at fault for not checking the release date for the song. I cannot express how sorry I am at the thought of them worrying over the song’s leak. I will make sure that this does not happen again. Should I discover a personal recording being shared, I will work to see that it does not get out any further.  DSP stated: We believe that they turned it on by accident. We are currently reevaluating KARA's promotion schedule. DSP added: The water’s already been spilled and there’s nothing we can do now, which makes it all the more upsetting. To prevent this from happening again, we need better security measures but there aren’t policies in place to make it happen.
KBS's contribution to the Lee Hyo Ri - Rain sex scandal 
KBS also contributed to the sex scandal (which was not true) between Rain (now known as Corporal Jung Ji Hoon the spokesman of the military) and Lee Hyo Ri. back in 2005, when Kim Tae Woo appeared on Music Show, a KBS Cool FM program which fellow g.o.d member Danny Ahn was hosting. As a joke, Kim Tae Woo called Rain without notifying him that he was on-air. As they were conversing casually, Rain made a shocking confession. He blurted :
“Hyung! Hyori and I had se–”
At that moment, the radio was suddenly cut off and music was played. There is still no substantial evidence to prove that Rain and Hyori and indeed hooked up, but many fan accounts who listened to the radio that day have confirmed the story as true. however Rain clarifies his radio scandal with Hyori. On an episode of KBS2 program Happy Together 3 MC Yoo Jae Suk and Park Myung Soo had asked Rain and Hyori, “Have any scandals surfaced because of you performed on stage together?” To this, Hyori replied, “There was one because of a radio show.” Rain added, “It’s an old story now, but at the time, I was at Hong Kong for my concert. I discovered later that the rumors spread because of an elementary kid who posted it on an online bulletin as a joke.” Hyori jokingly said, “I wish there was something for a scandal to surface.” “But the one about Rain was really ridiculous,” Hyori said. “There was a rumor that said Rain didn’t know he was on a radio program hosted by singer Kim Tae Woo and admitted to spending the night with me.” Hyori added “Everyone knows that radio stations never unexpectedly connect a call,” she continued. “I was so taken aback by this.” Hyori said.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Korean Broadcasting System|
- Educational Broadcasting System (also a Korean government owned public broadcasting network.)
- List of Korea-related topics
- KBS World Radio
- KBS World (United States) (KBS America)
- KBS World Canada
- List of South Korean broadcasting networks
- Korean Central Television (Public broadcasting agency in North Korea)
- KBS Annual Report 2006-2007, KBS, 2007.(As mentioned on page 30)
- "KBS Launches Children’s Channel". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. 2012-05-29.
- "Korea debuts cable channel dedicated to women". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "SKorea journalists protest alleged pro-gov't bias". Associated Press. 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Cho (조), Hyeon-ho (현호) (2012-03-14). "이명박 태어나지도 않은 생가에 혈세 펑펑". MediaToday (in Korean). Retrieved 2012-03-21.
- Cho (조), Hyeon-ho (현호) (2011-06-07). "KBS는 정권재창출 위한 독재자·친일파 방송". MediaToday (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- Cho (조), Hyeon-ho (현호) (2011-06-25). "KBS 친일파를 영웅으로···시청자 '경악' "친일방송축하"". MediaToday (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- "KARA’s Unpublished Song "Pandora" Leaked on Radio!". 17 August 2012. gurupop. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "KARA’s comeback song accidentally leaked on KBS’s ‘Kiss the Radio’". 17 August 2012. Allkpop. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "KARA's Unpublished Song "Pandora" Leaked on Radio". 17 August 2012. Nate. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Rain clarifies his radio scandal with Hyori for the first time". May 20, 2010. Allkpop. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Lee Hyori clears up old rumors about a late night rendezvous with singer Rain". Allkpop. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- KBS.co.kr - Official KBS Website (Korean) (English)
- World.KBS.co.kr - Official KBS World Website
- KBS World News Today (English)
- KBS-America.com - Official KBS America Website (English)
- KBS America's VOD Service (Korean) (English)
- KBS TV and Radio Onair