Korean New Year
|Korean New Year|
Traditional game tuho being played.
|Also called||Lunar New Year|
|Observed by||Korean people around the world|
|Type||Cultural, Buddhist, Confucian|
|Significance||The first day of the Korean calendar (lunar calendar)|
|2013 date||February 10|
|2014 date||January 31|
|2015 date||February 19|
|2016 date||February 8|
|Related to||Mongolian New Year, Tibetan New Year, Japanese New Year, Chinese New Year, Vietnamese New Year|
Korean New Year (Hangul: 설날; RR: Seolnal; MR: Sŏllal, also known as: Sesu (세수; 歲首), Wondan (원단; 元旦), Wonil (원일; 元日), Sinwon (신원;新元)) is the first day of the Korean lunar calendar. It is one of the most significant traditional Korean holidays. The celebration lasts three days: the day before Korean New Year day, Korean New Year day itself, and the day after Korean New Year day. "Seolnal" generally refers to Eumnyeok Seolnal (음력 설날, lunar new year), also known as Gujeong (Hangul: 구정; hanja: 舊正). "Seolnal" may also refer to Yangnyeok Seolnal (양력 설날, solar new year), also known as Sinjeong (Hangul: 신정; hanja: 新正).
Korean New Year generally falls on the day of the second new moon after winter solstice, unless there is a very rare intercalary eleventh or twelfth month in the lead-up to the New Year. In such a case, the New Year falls on the day of the third new moon after the solstice; the next occurrence of this will be in 2033.
Korean New Year is generally the same day as Chinese New Year except when new moon occurs between 15:00 UTC (Korean midnight) and 16:00 UTC (Chinese midnight). In such case (on average once every 24 years), new moon happens on the "next day" in Korea compared to China, and Korean New Year will be one day after Chinese New Year.
Records of Koreans celebrating Lunar New Year can be traced back to traditional Chinese literatures such as the Book of Sui and the Old Book of Tang, which contains excerpts about celebrations of new year in Silla. In the Joseon Dynasty (1392 - 1897), all the government officials gathered in the Five Grand Palaces to make New Year's greetings.
Korean New Year is typically a family holiday. The three-day holiday is used by many to return to their hometowns to visit their parents and other relatives, where they perform an ancestral ritual called charye. Many Koreans dress up in colorful traditional Korean clothing called hanbok. But nowadays, small families tend to become less formal and wear other formal clothing instead of hanbok.
Another custom observed is the lighting of a "moon house" built out of burnable firewood and branches. This symbolizes the warding off of bad/evil spirits for the new year. Many also choose to add wishes they want come true in the next year to the moon house.
Sebeh is a traditionally observed activity on Seolnal, and is filial piety oriented. Children wish their elders (grandparents, aunts and uncles, parents) a happy new year by performing one deep traditional bow (rites with more than one bow involved are usually for the deceased) and the words saehae bok mani badeuseyo (Hangul: 새해 복 많이 받으세요) which translates to "Please receive a lot of luck in the New Year". Parents typically reward this gesture by giving their children new year's money, or "pocket money", (usually in the form of crisp paper money) in luck bags made with beautiful silk design and offering words of wisdom, deokdam. Historically, parents gave out rice cakes (ddeok) and fruit to their children instead. Before and during the bowing ceremony, children wear hanboks as a respectful way to appreciate ancestors and elders.
New Year food
The tteokguk (soup with sliced rice cakes) is a traditional Korean food that is customarily eaten for the New Year. According to Korean age reckoning, the Korean New Year is similar to a birthday for Koreans, and eating tteokguk is part of the birthday celebration. Once you finish eating your tteokguk, you are one year older.
On the Korean New Year day, people prepare a lot of food and spend much of the day eating. They entertain visitors who come to visit, and bow to elders, for New Years and celebrate with food. People bring tteokguk prepared for this occasion.
Many traditional games are associated with the Korean New Year. The traditional family board game yunnori is still a popular game nowadays, especially during Korean New Year. It is played using different types of specially designed sticks. Traditionally men and boys would fly rectangle kites called Yeon (연, see yeonnalligi), and play jegichagi, a game in which a light object is wrapped in paper or cloth, and then kicked in a footbag like manner. Korean women and girls would have traditionally played neolttwigi, a game of jumping on a seesaw (시소), and gongginori, game played with five little gonggi (originally a little stone, but today many buy manufactured gongi in shops) while children spinning top paengi (팽이).[further explanation needed]