|Hangul||동포 / 교포|
|Hanja||同胞 / 僑胞|
|Revised Romanization||dongpo / gyopo|
|McCune–Reischauer||tongp'o / kyop'o|
|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||9,728|
|Korean, various local languages|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Korean diaspora consists of roughly seven million people, both descendants of early emigrants from the Korean peninsula, as well as more recent emigres from Korea. Nearly four-fifths of expatriate Koreans live in just three countries: China, the United States, and Japan. Other countries with greater than 0.5% Korean minorities include Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, and Uzbekistan. All these figures include both permanent migrants and sojourners. If one focuses on long-term residents, there were about 5.3 million Korean emigrants as of 2010.
North Korea refers to Korean citizens living outside the Korean peninsula as haeoe gungmin (해외국민, "overseas citizens"), while South Korea uses the term jaeoe gungmin (재외국민, "citizens abroad"). Another broader term is gyopo (교포, also spelled kyopo); however, the term has come to have negative connotations as referring to people who, as a result of living as sojourners outside the "home country", have lost touch with their Korean roots. As a result, others prefer to use the term dongpo (동포, roughly "brethren" or "people of the same ancestry"). Dongpo has a more transnational implication, emphasising links among various overseas Korean groups, while gyopo has more of a purely national connotation referring to the Korean state.
Prior to the modern era, Korea had been a territorially stable polity for centuries; as Jaeeun Kim describe it, "The congruence of territory, polity, and population was taken for granted". Large-scale emigration from Korea began as early as the mid-1860s, mainly into the Russian Far East and Northeast China; these emigrants became the ancestors of the 2 million Koreans in China and several hundred thousand ethnic Koreans in Central Asia.
Korea under Japanese rule
During the Japanese colonial period of 1910-1945, Koreans were often recruited or forced into labour service to work in mainland Japan, Karafuto Prefecture (Sakhalin), and Manchukuo, especially in the 1930s and early 1940s; the ones who chose to remain in Japan at the end of the war became known as Zainichi Koreans, while the roughly 40 thousand who were trapped in Karafuto after the Soviet invasion are typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans. According to the statistics at Immigration Bureau of Japan, there were 901,284 Koreans resident in Japan as of 2005[update], of which 515,570 were permanent residents, and another 284,840 were naturalized citizens. Koreans amount to 40.4% of the non-Japanese population of the country. Three-quarters of the Koreans living in Japan are Japanese-born, and most are legal aliens.
Aside from migration within the Empire of Japan or its puppet state of Manchukuo, some Koreans also escaped Japanese-ruled territory entirely, heading to Shanghai, a major centre of the Korean independence movement, or to the already-established Korean communities of the Russian Far East. However, the latter would find themselves deported to Central Asia in 1938.
Korea gained its independence after the Surrender of Japan in 1945 after World War II, but was divided into North and South. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, ethnic Koreans in China (Chaoxianzu) became officially recognised as one of the 56 ethnic groups of the country. They are considered to be one of the "major minorities". Their population grew to about 2 million; they stayed mostly in northeastern China, where their ancestors had initially settled. Their largest population was concentrated in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Jilin Province, where they numbered 854,000 in 1997.
Korean emigration to the United States is known to have begun as early as 1903, but the Korean American community did not grow to a significant size until after the passage of the Immigration Reform Act of 1965. Between 1.5 and 2 million Koreans now live in the United States, mostly in metropolitan areas. A handful are descended from laborers who migrated to Hawaii in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A significant number are descended from orphans of the Korean War, in which the United States was a major ally of South Korea and provided the bulk of the United Nations troops that served there. Thousands were adopted by American (mostly Caucasian) families in the years following the war, when their plight was covered on television. The vast majority, however, immigrated or are descended from those who immigrated after the Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 abolished national immigration quotas.
Europe and Latin America were also minor destinations for post-war Korean emigration. Korean immigration to Latin America was documented as early as the 1950s; North Korean prisoners of war choose to emigrate to Chile in 1953 and Argentina in 1956 under the auspices of the Red Cross. However, the majority of Korean settlement occurred in the late 1960s. As the South Korean economy continued to expand in the 1980s, investors from South Korea came to Latin America and established small businesses in the textiles industry. Brazil has Latin America's largest Koreatown in São Paulo; there are also Koreatowns in cities such as Buenos Aires, Argentina; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Lima, Peru; and Santiago, Chile. Mexico City's Korean population is estimated to be around 30,000. Korean immigrants were increasingly settling in urban centers of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela, although return migration from South America back to Korea has ensued since then.
In the 1970s, however, Japan and the United States remained the top two destinations for South Korean emigrants, with each receiving more than a quarter of all emigration; the Middle East became the third most popular destination, with more than 800,000 Koreans going to Saudi Arabia between 1975 and 1985, and another 26,000 Koreans going to Iran. In contrast, aside from Germany (1.7% of all South Korean emigration in 1977) and Paraguay (1.0%), no European or Latin American destinations were even in the top ten for emigrants. The cultural and stylistic diversity of the Korean diaspora is documented and celebrated in the work of fine-art photographer CYJO, in her Kyopo Project, a photograpic study of over 200 of people of Korean descent.
Shifting focus of emigration
South Korean media reports on the riots increased public awareness of the long working hours and harsh conditions faced by immigrants to the United States in the 1990s. Although immigration to the United States briefly became less attractive as a result of the 1992 Los Angeles riots, during which many Korean American immigrants saw their businesses destroyed by looters, the Los Angeles and New York City metropolitan areas still contain by far the largest populations of ethnic Koreans outside of Korea and continue to attract the largest share of Korean immigrants. In fact, the per capita Korean population of Bergen County, New Jersey, in the New York Metropolitan Area, 6.3% by the 2010 United States Census (increasing to 6.9% by the 2011 American Community Survey), is the highest of any county in the United States, with eight of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population; while the concentration of Korean Americans in Palisades Park, New Jersey, within Bergen County, is the highest of any municipality in the United States, at 52% of the population. A substantial number of affluent Korean American professionals have settled in Bergen County since the early 2000s (decade) and have founded various academically and communally supportive organizations, including the Korean Parent Partnership Organization at the Bergen County Academies magnet high school and The Korean-American Association of New Jersey. Holy Name Medical Center in Teaneck, New Jersey, within Bergen County, has undertaken an ambitious effort to provide comprehensive health care services to underinsured and uninsured Korean patients from a wide area with its growing Korean Medical Program. Bergen County's Broad Avenue Koreatown in Palisades Park has emerged as a dominant nexus of Korean American culture, and its Senior Citizens Center provides a popular gathering place where even Korean grandmothers were noted to follow the dance trend of the worldwide viral hit Gangnam Style by South Korean "K-pop" rapper Psy in September 2012; while the nearby Fort Lee Koreatown is also emerging as such. The Chusok Korean Thanksgiving harvest festival has become an annual tradition in Bergen County, attended by several tens of thousands.
Bergen County's growing Korean community was cited by county executive Kathleen Donovan in the context of Hackensack, New Jersey attorney Jae Y. Kim's appointment to Central Municipal Court judgeship in January 2011. Subsequently in January 2012, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie nominated attorney Phillip Kwon of Bergen County for New Jersey Supreme Court justice, although this nomination was rejected by the state's Senate Judiciary Committee, and in July 2012, Kwon was appointed instead as deputy general counsel of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. According to The Record of Bergen County, the U.S. Census Bureau has determined the county’s Korean American population – 2010 census figures put it at 56,773 (increasing to 63,247 by the 2011 American Community Survey) - has grown enough to warrant language assistance during elections, and Bergen County's Koreans have earned significant political respect.
With the development of the South Korean economy, the focus of emigration from Korea began to shift from developed nations towards developing nations. With the 1992 normalisation of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea, many citizens of South Korea started to settle instead in China, attracted by business opportunities generated by the reform and opening up of China and the low cost of living. Large new communities of South Koreans have formed in Beijing, Shanghai, and Qingdao; as of 2006[update], their population is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000. There is also a small community of Koreans in Hong Kong, mostly expatriate businessmen and their families; according to Hong Kong's 2001 census, they numbered roughly 5,200, making them the 12th-largest ethnic minority group. Southeast Asia has also seen an influx of South Koreans. Koreans in Vietnam have grown in number to around 30,000 since the 1992 normalisation of diplomatic relations, making them Vietnam's second-largest foreign community after the Taiwanese. Korean migration to the Philippines has also increased due to the tropical climate and low cost of living compared to South Korea; 370,000 Koreans visited the country in 2004, and roughly 46,000 Korean expatriates live there permanently. Though smaller, the number of Koreans in Cambodia has also grown rapidly, almost quadrupling between 2005 and 2009. They mostly reside in Phnom Penh, with a smaller number in Siam Reap. They are largely investors involved in the construction industry, though there are also some missionaries and NGO workers.
Comfort women controversy in USA
In May 2012, officials in the borough of Palisades Park in Bergen County, New Jersey rejected requests by two diplomatic delegations from Japan to remove a small monument from a public park, a brass plaque on a block of stone, dedicated in 2010 to the memory of so-called comfort women, tens of thousands of women and girls, many Korean, who were forced into sexual slavery by Japanese soldiers during World War II. Days later, a South Korean delegation endorsed the borough's decision. However, in neighboring Fort Lee, New Jersey, various Korean American groups could not reach consensus on the design and wording for such a monument as of early April 2013. In October 2012, a similar memorial was announced in nearby Hackensack, New Jersey, to be raised behind the Bergen County Courthouse, alongside memorials to the Holocaust, the Irish Potato Famine, and the Armenian Genocide, and was unveiled in March 2013.
East Sea controversy in USA
Koreans born or settled overseas have been migrating back to both North and South Korea ever since the restoration of Korean independence; perhaps the most famous example is Kim Jong-Il, born in Vyatskoye, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, where his father Kim Il-sung had been serving in the Red Army. Postwar migrations of Koreans from throughout the Japanese Empire back to the Korean peninsula were characterised both bureaucratically and popularly as "repatriation", a restoration of the congruence between the Korean population and its territory. The pre-colonial Korean state had not clearly laid out the boundaries or criteria determining who was a citizen; however, the Japanese colonial government had registered all Koreans in a separate family registry, a separation which continued even if an individual Korean migrated to Manchuria or Japan; thus North and South Korea had a clear legal definition of who was a repatriating Korean, and did not have to create any special legal categories of national membership for them, the way Germany had done for post-World War II German expellees.
The largest-scale repatriation activities took place in Japan, where Chongryon sponsored the return of Zainichi Korean residents to North Korea; beginning in the late 1950s and early 1960s, with a trickle of repatriates continuing until as late as 1984, nearly 90,000 Zainichi Koreans resettled in the reclusive communist state, though their ancestral homes were in South Korea. However, word of the difficult economic and political conditions filtered back to Japan, decreasing the popularity of this option. Around one hundred such repatriates are believed to have later escaped from North Korea; the most famous is Kang Chol-Hwan, who published a book about his experience, The Aquariums of Pyongyang. South Korea, however, was a popular destination for Koreans who had settled in Manchukuo during the colonial period; returnees from Manchukuo such as Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan had a large influence on the process of nation-building in South Korea.
Until the 1980s, Soviet Koreans did not repatriate in any large numbers and played little role in defining the boundaries of membership in the Korean nation. However, roughly 1,000 Sakhalin Koreans are also estimated to have independently repatriated to the North in the decades after the end of World War II, when returning to their ancestral homes in the South was not an option due to the lack of Soviet relations with the South and Japan's refusal to grant them transit rights. In 1985, Japan began to fund the return of Sakhalin Koreans to South Korea; however, only an additional 1,500 took this offer, with the vast majority of the population remaining on Sakhalin or moving to the Russian Far East instead.
With the rise of the South Korean economy in the 1980s, economic motivations became increasingly prevalent in overseas Koreans' decisions of whether to repatriate and in which part of the peninsula to settle. 356,790 Chinese citizens have migrated to South Korea since the reform and opening up of China; almost two-thirds are estimated to be Chaoxianzu. Similarly, some Koryo-saram from Central Asia have also moved to South Korea as guest workers, to take advantage of the high wages offered by the growing economy; remittances from South Korea to Uzbekistan, for example, were estimated to exceed USD100 million in 2005. Return migration through arranged marriage is another option, portrayed in the 2005 South Korean film Wedding Campaign, directed by Hwang Byung-kook. However, the Koryo-saram often face the most difficulty integrating into Korean society due to their poor command of the Korean language and the fact that their dialect, Koryo-mar, differs significantly from the Seoul dialect considered standard in the South.
Return migration from the United States has been much less common than that from Japan or the former Soviet Union, as the economic push factor was far less than in 1960s Japan or post-Soviet collapse Central Asia. However, an increasing number of aspiring Korean American singers and actors, finding their career progress in Hollywood blocked, choose to go to South Korea through talent and modelling agencies; prominent examples include singer Brian Joo (of R&B duo Fly to the Sky) and actor Daniel Henney (who initially spoke no Korean).
- 재외동포현황/Current Status of Overseas Compatriots. South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Note that the 2006 American Community Survey gave a much smaller figure of 1,520,703. See S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). Korean Migration to the Wealthy West. New York: Nova Publishers.
- Brubaker & Kim 2010, pp. 42–43
- Song 2005, p. 221
- Kim 1999, p. 227
- Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 27
- Lee Kwang-kyu (2000). Overseas Koreans. Seoul: Jimoondang. ISBN 89-88095-18-9.
- Kim, Si-joong (2003). "The Economic Status and Role of Ethnic Koreans in China" (PDF). The Korean Diaspora in the World Economy. Institute for International Economics. pp. Ch. 6: 101–131. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Ban, Byung-yool (2004-09-22). "Koreans in Russia: Historical Perspective". Korea Times. Retrieved 2006-11-20.
- NOZAKI, Yoshiki; INOKUCHI Hiromitsu, KIM Tae-Young. "Legal Categories, Demographic Change and Japan’s Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century". Japan Focus.
- 平成１５年末現在における外国人登録者統計について (Japanese).
- Zhang Tianlu (2004-03-26). 中国少数民族人口问题研究 (Research on the topic of Chinese minority ethnic group populations). National Population and Family Planning Commission of China. Archived from the original on 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2007-01-16. See section "民族人口生活质量问题研究".
- S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- Choi, Kate H. (2004). Who is Hispanic? Hispanic ethnic identity among African Americans, Asian Americans, and whites (PDF). Department of Sociology, University of Texas. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- Korea Statistical Yearbooks for 1972, 1976, 1978. Quoted in Bonacich, Edna; Light, Ivan (1991). Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Koreans in Los Angeles, 1965-1982. United States: University of California Press. pp. 105–106. ISBN 0-520-07656-7.
- Karen Sudol and Dave Sheingold (2011-10-12). "Korean language ballots coming to Bergen County". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- Kirk Semple (May 18, 2012). "In New Jersey, Memorial for ‘Comfort Women’ Deepens Old Animosity". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- Abelmann, ; Lie, John (1997). Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots. Massachusetts, United States: Harvard University Press.
- Richard Newman (2012-08-30). "Korean company to buy Fort Lee bank". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates - Geographies - Bergen County, New Jersey". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- "Korean Ancestry Maps". Copyright © 2007 ePodunk Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA (2010-12-15). "PALISADES PARK JOURNAL As Koreans Pour In, a Town Is Remade". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- "Bergen County Academies Parent Partnership Organization - Korean PPO". Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- "The Korean-American Association of New Jersey". Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- Karen Rouse (September 29, 2013). "North Jersey Korean health fair data help track risks - See more at: http://www.northjersey.com/news/225683871_North_Jersey_Korean_health_fair_data_help_track_risks.html?page=all#sthash.1YLcQeKV.dpuf". North Jersey MediaGroup. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- Barbara Williams (2012-10-20). "Annual Korean health fair draws crowds at Holy Name Medical Center in Teaneck". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- Barbara Williams (2012-11-24). "Holy Name will screen 2,000 for Hepatitis B". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Second Edition, Edited by Pyong Gap Min. Pine Forge Press - An Imprint of Sage Publications, Inc. 2006. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- Jersey Dispatch: Bergen County Koreatown
- Sachi Fujimori, Elyse Toribio (2012-09-22). "'Gangnam Style' dance craze catches fire in North Jersey". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-22.
- Mary Diduch (September 14, 2013). "Koreans in North Jersey give thanks at harvest festival". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- John C. Ensslin (2011-12-20). "North Jersey Korean-Americans relieved but worried about transition". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- "Korean War vets honored at Cresskill church". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. 2011-06-26. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- "Hackensack attorney appointed to court". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- "Hackensack attorney appointed to court". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- Monsy Alvarado (January 24, 2012). "North Jersey Koreans welcome state Supreme Court nomination". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Kate Zernike (January 23, 2012). "Christie Names a Gay Man and an Asian for the Top Court". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Juliet Fletcher (January 23, 2012). "Christie nominates gay black man, Asian to N.J. Supreme Court - video". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Baxter, Christopher (3/25/2012). ""In rejecting Supreme Court nominee Phillip Kwon, Dems send Gov. Christie a message". Star Ledger". Star Ledger.
- SHAWN BOBURG AND JOHN REITMEYER (2012-07-26). "Update: Philip Kwon, rejected N.J. Supreme Court nominee, scores a top Port Authority job". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- Monsy Alvarado (2012-09-04). "Bergen County swears in first female Korean-American assistant prosecutor". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Karen Sudol and Dave Sheingold (2011-10-12). "Korean language ballots coming to Bergen County". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates - Geographies - Bergen County, New Jersey". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- John C. Ensslin (2012-08-20). "After decades of work, Bergen County Koreans have earned political respect". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- Rebecca D. O'Brien (2012-10-14). "New Jersey's Korean community awakens politically". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- Monsy Alvarado (2012-10-09). "Korean-Americans to sponsor three debates". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- "到了中国就不想回国 在华韩国人激增 (After arriving in China, they don't want to go home; number of South Koreans in China increasing sharply)". Wenhua Ribao. 2006-04-01. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
- 2001 Population Census Thematic Report – Ethnic Minorities (PDF). Hong Kong: Census and Statistics Department. 2001-12-17. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
- Kelly, Tim (2006-09-18). "Ho Chi Minh Money Trail". Forbes. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
- Meinardus, Ronaldo (2005-12-15). ""Korean Wave" in Philippines". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2007-02-16.
- Lindstrom, Nora (2009-02-19). "Phnom Penh, South Korean Style". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 2009-05-21[dead link]
- Kirk Semple (May 18, 2012). "In New Jersey, Memorial for ‘Comfort Women’ Deepens Old Animosity". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- S.P. Sullivan (June 8, 2013). "Sexual slavery issue, discussed internationally, pivots around one little monument in N.J.". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Monsy Alvarado (July 12, 2012). "Palisades Park monument to 'comfort women' stirs support, anger". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- Dan Ivers (April 6, 2013). "Critics cause Fort Lee to reconsider monument honoring Korean WWII prostitutes". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Linh Tat (April 4, 2013). "Controversy puts planned 'comfort women' memorial in Fort Lee on hold". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- S.P. Sullivan (March 8, 2013). "Bergen County marks International Women's Day with Korean 'comfort women' memorial". © 2013 New Jersey On-Line LLC. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Monsy Alvarado (March 8, 2013). "Memorial dedicated to women forced into sexual slavery during WWII". 2013 North Jersey Media Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Linh Tat (May 16, 2013). "Korean group petitions schools over textbook". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- Chung, Byoung-sun (2002-08-22). "Sergeyevna Remembers Kim Jong Il". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 2007-02-19.[dead link]
- Sheets, Lawrence (2004-02-12). "A Visit to Kim Jong Il's Russian Birthplace". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-02-19.
- Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 32
- Brubaker & Kim 2010, pp. 40–41
- Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (2005-02-07). "Japan's Hidden Role In The 'Return' Of Zainichi Koreans To North Korea". ZNet. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
- Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (2007-03-13). The Forgotten Victims of the North Korean Crisis. Nautilus Institute. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-15.
- Han, Suk-jung (2005-07-10). "Imitating the colonizers: The Legacy of the Disciplining State from Manchukuo to South Korea". ZNet. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
- Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 33
- Lee, Jeanyoung. Ethnic Korean Migration in Northeast Asia (PDF). Kyunghee University. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
- Kim, Hyung-jin (2006-08-29). "No 'real' Chinatown in S. Korea, the result of xenophobic attitudes". Yonhap News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- Baek, Il-hyun (2005-09-14). "Scattered Koreans turn homeward". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on November 27, 2005. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
- Kim, Tae-jong (2005-08-21). "Farmer Looks for Love in Upcoming 'Wedding Campaign'". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- Song, Jason (2007-01-01). "Called to star in Asia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-02-14.[dead link]
- Ito, Robert (2007-02-11). "Stuck in Asia, dreaming of Hollywood". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
- Mo, Sin-jeong (2006-05-02). "'플라이투더스카이' 브라이언 "난 뼛속까지 한국인" (Brian of Fly to the Sky: "I'm Korean to the bone")". Daum Media. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
- Brubaker, Rogers; Kim, Jaeeun (2010), "Transborder Membership Politics in Germany and Korea", Archives of European Sociology 52 (1): 21–75
- Kwang-Chung Kim (1999), Koreans in the hood: conflict with African Americans, JHU Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-6104-8
- Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). Korean Migration to the Wealthy West. New York: Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1614703693.
- Song, Min (2005), Strange future: pessimism and the 1992 Los Angeles riots, Duke University Press, ISBN 978-0-8223-3592-4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Korean diaspora.|