Korean drama (Hangul: 한국드라마; RR: hanguk deurama) or K-drama refers to televised dramas in Korean language, made in South Korea, mostly in a miniseries format, with distinctive features that set it apart from regular Western television series or soap operas. Korean dramas can be set in contemporary times or in historical settings, the Korean word for the latter being sageuk (사극). Different genres apply to these two types, from romantic comedies and action series to fusion science fiction dramas.
South Korea started to broadcast television series in the 1960s, today's mini deurama format of 12–24 episodes started in the 1990s, transforming traditional historical series to this format, as well, creating the notion of "fusion sageuks". Korean dramas are usually shot within a very tight schedule, often a few hours before actual broadcast, screenplays are flexible and may change anytime during production, depending on viewers' feedback, putting actors in a difficult position. Production companies often have financial issues.
Korean dramas are popular worldwide, partially due to the spread of the Korean wave, with streaming services that offer multiple language subtitles. Some of the most famous dramas have been broadcast via traditional television channels, as well, for example Dae Jang Geum (2003) was sold to 91 countries.
- 1 Format
- 2 History
- 3 Production
- 4 Crew
- 5 Music
- 6 Rating system
- 7 Reception
- 8 Viewership ratings
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
Korean dramas are usually helmed by one director and written by one screenwriter, thus having a distinct directing style and language, unlike American television series, where often several directors and writers work together. Series are likely to have only one season, with 12–24 episodes. Historical series (sageuk) may be longer, with 50 to 200 episodes, but they also run for only one season.
The broadcast time for flagship dramas is 22:00 to 23:00, with episodes on two consecutive nights: Mondays and Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, and weekends. Different dramas appear on each of the nationwide networks, Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) and on the cable channels, Joongang Tongyang Broadcasting Company (jTBC), Channel A, tvN, and Orion Cinema Network (OCN).
The 19:00 to 20:00 evening time slot is usually for daily dramas that run from Monday through Friday. Dramas in these slots are in the telenovella format, rarely running over 200 episodes. Unlike the American soap operas, these daily dramas are not also scheduled during the day-time. Instead, the day-time schedule often includes reruns of the flagship dramas. The night-time dailies can achieve very high ratings. For example, the evening series Temptation of a Wife peaked at 40.6%, according to TNS Korea.
Traditional historical series tend to be long, very detailed and may likely contain archaic language, covering wars, concentrating on kings, famous military leaders or political intrigues. These series are mostly favoured by older people. At the beginning of the 2000s "fusion sageuk" was introduced, where colorful historical backgrounds were combined with modern drama making techniques, occasionally mixing the plot with fantasy, romance, action or science fiction, attracting younger generations. Famous fusion sageuks include Hur Jun, Damo, Hwang Jini, Dong Yi, Dae Jang Geum, Tamra Island, Chuno or Moon Embracing the Sun.
Series set in contemporary times usually run for one season, for 12−24 episodes of 60 minutes. They are often centered on a love story, with family ties and relationships being in the focus. Characters are mostly idealised, with Korean male protagonists described as handsome, intelligent, emotional, ready to love one woman for a lifetime. This has also been a contributing factor to the popularity of Korean dramas among women, as the image of Korean men became different from that of other Asian men.
The daily dramas are also usually set in contemporary times, describing a family conflict or family relationships, centered on Korean women, who sacrifice themselves for family happiness.
Radio broadcasting, including the broadcasting of radio dramas in Korea began in 1927 under Japanese rule, with most programming in Japanese, around 30% in Korean. After the Korean War, radio dramas such as Cheongsilhongsil (1954) reflected the country's mood.
Television broadcasting began in 1956 with the launch of an experimental station, HLKZ-TV, which was shut down a few years later due to a fire. The first national television channel was Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), which started up in 1961. The first Korean television film was a 15 minute piece titled The Gate of Heaven (천국의 문, Cheongugui mun), on HLKZ-TV.
The first television series was aired by KBS in 1962. Their commercial competitor, TBC had a more aggressive program policy and aired controversial dramas, as well. The first historical TV series (sageuk) aired was Gukto manri (국토만리), directed by Kim Jae-hyeong (김재형), depicting the Goryeo era. In the '60s, television sets were of limited availability, thus dramas could not reach a larger audience.
In the 1970s, television sets started to spread among the general population, and dramas switched from portraying dramatic historical figures to introducing national heroes like Lee Sun-shin or Sejong the Great. Contemporary series dealt with personal sufferings, one of the influential series was Kim Soo-hyun's Stepmother (새엄마, Saeeomma), aired by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) in 1972 and 1973. As technology and funding was limited, Korean channels could not make series in resource-heavy genres like action and science fiction; American and other foreign series were imported instead.
The 1980s saw a turn in Korean television, as color TV became available. Modern dramas tried to evoke nostalgia from urban dwellers by depicting rural life. Kim Soo-hyun's first real commercial success, Love and Ambition (사랑과 야망, Saranggwa yamang), aired on MBC in 1987 is regarded as a milestone of Korean television, having recorded a 78% viewership, "streets became quiet at around the airing time of the drama as 'practically everyone in the country' was at home in front of the TV", according to The Korea Times. The most outstanding classical sageuk of the era is considered to be 500 Years of Joseon (조선왕조500년, Joseonwangjo 500 nyeon), a serial that ran for eight years, consisting of 11 separate series. The serial was produced by Lee Byung-hoon, who later directed one of the biggest international successes of Korean drama, Dae Jang Geum.
The 1990s brought another important milestone for Korean television. As technology developed, new opportunities arose, and the beginning of the decade marked the launch of a new commercial channel, Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), which facilitated and re-initiated a race for catching viewers' attention. The first real commercial success among Korean television series was Eyes of Dawn (여명의 눈동자, Yeomyeongui nundongja), aired in 1991 by MBC, starring Chae Si-ra and Choi Jae-seong. The series led the viewers through turbulent times from the Japanese rule to the Korean War. New channel SBS also produced successful series, one of them being Sanglass in 1995. Sanglass was a "trendy drama", which the Korean Culture and Information Service considers an important milestone, having changed the way Korean dramas are made, introducing a new format. In this decade, the new miniseries format became widespread, with 12 to 24 episodes. This era marked the start of export for Korean dramas, setting off the Korean wave.
The beginning years of the 2000s gave birth to a new genre, called "fusion sageuk", essentially changing the ways to produce historical series, with such successful pieces like Hur Jun, Damo or Dae Jang Geum.
Korean series used to be produced by the television channels themselves, in the 21st century, however, they are usually outsourced to independent production companies. In 2012, as much as 75% of all K-dramas were produced this way. Competition is fierce among these companies, out of 156 registered firms only 34 produced dramas that were actually aired in 2012.
The budget of the production is shared between the producing company and the broadcaster. The broadcasting channel usually covers around 50% of expenses, in case of employing top stars and famous scriptwriters, they may cover even more. The rest of the budget has to be brought in by the production company, with the help of sponsors, whose names are featured in the ending rolls. In case of product placements, incomes are shared by the producer and the channel. The channel keeps 100% of the advertisement income during airtime; this could amount to 300-400 million South Korean won. A typical Korean drama may cost as much as 250 million won per episode, and sageuks (historical dramas) cost more than that. For example, Gu Family Book cost 500 million won per episode. Kim Jong-hak producer spent as much as 10 billion won on Faith, which was considered a commercial failure, resulting in the inability of Kim paying crew salaries and other due payments. Kim, who produced such successful dramas, like Eyes of Dawn and Sandglass, committed suicide, after he was accused with embezzlement.
In Korea, much of the budget is spent on top star appearance fees, at times they may take up as much as 55-65% of the whole budget, while – in comparison – in Japan it is 20-30%, and roughly 10% in the USA. Everything else, including salaries of lesser-known actors, extras, and technical staff, location rent and other expenses, have to be covered from the remaining amount. Often, production companies overrun their budgets and cannot pay salaries. In 2012 actors were holding a demonstration in front of the headquarters of KBS, expressing their concerns. Actors are usually paid after the last episode is aired, at the end of the month. In case of series made by smaller production companies for cabel channels, there were cases when the companies went bankrupt and could not pay their actors and crew, while the channel relegated all responsibilities of payment to the bankrupt production firm. The biggest stars may earn as much as 100 million won per episode, Bae Yong-jun, the star of Winter Sonata reportedly received 250 million won per episode for The Legend in 2007.
As producing a series involves high expenses, production companies seek to shoot the episodes in the shortest time possible. In contrast to practices elsewhere, the first four episodes of Korean series are usually shot in advance, but the rest are shot continuously as the series is being aired. Scripts are not finished in advance, and may change according to viewer feedback and viewership ratings. These changes may occur a couple of hours before daily shooting, and sometimes the crew might only get a couple of ready pages. The production usually works with three camera crews, who work in a rotating manner to speed up filming. Because of unregulated script changes and tight shooting schedules, actors are almost continuously on standby on location, and have no time to leave the set or sleep properly. The Korean media have a separate word to describe irregular, short sleeps that actors resort to, in often uncomfortable positions, or within the set: jjok-jam (쪽잠), or "side-sleeping". Dramas usually air with two episodes a week, which have to be shot within that week. Some Korean actors have admitted to receiving IV therapy during filming, due to extreme schedules and exhaustion.
Production teams used to send two tapes to the channels (one as a backup copy), however, now due to tight filming schedules, a 70 minute episode might arrive to the broadcasting station on seven separate tapes in ten-minute installments. It happens that while the episode is being broadcast, the crew would be still shooting the last minutes or cutting the rest of the episode. This is the reason why during the airing of Episode 19 of Man from the Equator, screens countrywide went black for 10 minutes. Actor Kwon Sang-woo was openly complaining that he was still shooting Queen of Ambition 30 minutes before the last episode began airing. In South Korea some production teams still do planning and scheduling manually, instead of using dedicated software.
The larger broadcasting companies have their own dedicated shooting locations for historical dramas (saeguk), with extensive and elaborate sets. MBC's series are shot at MBC Dramia in Gyeonggi, while KBS dramas utilise the Mungyeongsaejae Studio (문경새재 KBS촬영장) in North Gyeongsang and their studio in Suwon.
- Bae Yong-joon (Winter Sonata)
- Choi Ji-woo (Winter Sonata)
- Ha Ji-won (Hwang Jini, Damo, Secret Garden)
- Hyun Bin (My Lovely Sam Soon, Secret Garden)
- Kim Tae-hee (Stairway to Heaven, Iris)
- Lee Byung-hun (All In, Iris)
- Lee Joon-gi (Iljimae, Two Weeks, Arang and the Magistrate)
- Lee Young-ae (Dae Jang Geum)
- Song Hye-gyo (All In, Autumn in My Heart, Full House)
- Song Seung-heon (Autumn in My heart, My Princess)
Stars of the younger generation include:
- Jang Geun-seok (Beethoven Virus, You're Beautiful, Pretty Man)
- Lee Minho (Boys Over Flowers, City Hunter, The Heirs)
- Lee Seung-gi (Gu Family Book, The King 2 Hearts, You're All Surrounded)
- Kim Soo-hyun (Moon Embracing the Sun, My Love From the Star)
- Park Shin-hye (You're Beautiful, The Heirs)
- Song Joong-gi (Sungkyunkwan Scandal, The Innocent Man)
- Bae Suzy (Dream High, Gu Family Book)
- IU (Dream High, You're the Best, Lee Soon-shin, Pretty Man)
- Kim Jae-joong (Protect the Boss, Triangle)
- Kim Hyun-joong (Boys Over Flowers, Playful Kiss, Inspiring Generation)
- Park Yoo-chun (Sungkyunkwan Scandal, Missing You, Rooftop Prince)
- Rain (Full House, The Fugitive: Plan B)
- Seo In-guk (Reply 1997, Master's Sun)
Scriptwriters and directors
Scriptwriters and directors of Korean dramas are often as well known as actors are. An overwhelming majority of scriptwriters (90% according to the Beijing Metro Reader) are women, who not only write love stories but action series, as well. Compared to Korean cinema, television is more appealing for scriptwriters, as contract conditions are better, acknowledgment is greater and the job is higher paid. Famous scriptwriters tend to have a say in their field. The most well-know scriptwriters include the Hong Sisters, who wrote popular series like You're Beautiful and Master's Sun; Kim Eun-sook, the screenwriter of Lovers in Paris and Secret Garden; Lee Kyung-hee, famous for A Love to Kill and The Innocent Man; male writer Choi Wan-kyu of Midas and Triangle; Noh Hee-kyung, the author of That Winter, The Wind Blows; or Park Ji-eun, who wrote My Love From the Star and My Husband Got a Family.
Acknowledged TV directors include Lee Byung-hoon, who directed Dae Jang Geum and Yi San; Kim Jong-hak, the director of Eyes of Dawn, and Sandglass, who committed suicide; and Pyo Min-soo, the director of Full House and Iris II. While scriptwriters are mostly women, directors are usually men, there are only very few female directors in Korean television. Some of them rose to prominence, like Lee Na-jeong (이나정), who directed The Innocent Man, or Lee Yun-jeong (이윤정), whose most famous work is The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince. The latter director is also the first female television producer employed by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC).
Music plays an important role in Korean dramas. Original soundtracks, abbreviated OST, are explicitly made for each series, and in contrast to American series, fans have a need to buy the soundtrack album of dramas. This trend started in the 1990s, when producers swapped purely instrumental soundtracks for songs performed by popular K-pop singers. Tom Larsen, director of YA Entertainment, a distributor of Korean TV series, thinks that Korean soundtracks are polished enough musically to be considered standalone hits.
During the 2000s it became customary for lead actors to participate in original soundtracks, also partially due to the employment of K-pop stars as actors. Actor Lee Min-ho, and leader of boy band SS501, Kim Hyun-joong both recorded songs for Boys Over Flowers, while actor Jang Keun-suk and singer Lee Hong-gi of F.T. Island sang for You're Beautiful.
OST songs of popular K-dramas can also become hits on regular music charts, with good sales of both physical and digital albums. Songs from the OST album of Secret Garden, for example, had high digital sales and high ranking on music charts. My Destiny, performed by Lyn for My Love from the Star led music charts in Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as in South Korea and performed well in other Asian countries, too. It also won the Best OST award at the 2014 Paeksang Arts Awards. Performers of OST songs for action series Iris held two concerts in Japan in front of an audience of 60,000 people.
OST composers usually look for singers who have previously had success in the genre. Songs are written to reflect the mood of the series and their structure. these songs are also capable of reaching high ranks on charts and high sales. Sometimes performers give their own songs for a series, for example Baek Ji-young thought her song That Man, originally written for her own album, would fit Secret Garden. There are popular OST singers, who are often employed, like Baek Ji-young, Lyn and Lee Seung-cheol. Rarely, foreign singers are invited to perform songs for Korean OST, for example Swedish artist Lasse Lindh sang several songs for series like Angel Eyes, Soul Mate and I Need Romance.
The television rating system is regulated by the Korea Communications Commission, and was implemented in 2000. According to the system, programs, including Korean dramas, are rated according to the following principles (ratings irrelevant to dramas are omitted):
- : programs that may be inappropriate for children under 15. Most dramas and talk shows are rated this way. These programs may include moderate or strong adult themes, language, sexual inference, and violence.
- : programs intended for adults only. These programs might include adult themes, sexual situations, frequent use of strong language and disturbing scenes of violence.
According to a researcher at the University of Vienna, popularity of Korean dramas have their foundation in Confucian values they transmit, with which Asian viewers can easily identify. Respect for elders, filial piety, family-orientedness and the display of perceived "Asian moral values" play an important role in Korean series. YA Entertainment, the American distributor of Korean dramas believes that part of the attractiveness of these series come from the quality of camera work, carefully chosen, scenic locations, spectacular costumes, while the "final product is very stylish and attractive, with arguably some of the highest TV production values in the world." Korean series follow their own formula, are innovative and don't conform to Western television productions. Stephan Lee from Entertainment Weekly called Korean dramas "fascinating and weirdly comforting".
Exports of Korean series yielded 37,5 million USD in 2003, which was triple the amount reached in 1999. According to data from Korea Creative Content Agency, in 2013 K-dramas constituted 82% of the culture content export of South Korea, with an income of 167 million USD, which is four times more than a decade before.
The first Korean drama to gain widespread popularity in Japan was Winter Sonata, which was broadcast on the NHK satellite channel NHK BS2 in 2003. The program was aired twice in the same year due to high demand from viewers. NHK also hosted a classical concert featuring Winter Sonata's tunes performed by Korean musicians. Korean dramas boost tourism between Korea and Japan, and is considered a possible way of improving strained relationships between the two countries, as series have become increasingly popular with Japanese viewers. Conversely, the series Iris had several pivotal scenes shot in Akita, Japan, which led to an increase of Korean tourists in that part of Japan.
In 2006, South Korean programs on Chinese government TV networks accounted for more than all other foreign programs combined. Hong Kong has its own channel for airing Korean dramas, TVB J2, but ATV also airs Korean series in prime-time slots.
Korean dramas have become popular in India, particularly in Manipur, where Hindi films and TV serials were banned in 2000. As a result, local television stations began broadcasting subtitled Korean dramas instead. Many young people in Northeast India, Mizoram, Nagaland, Kolkata and Tamil Nadu copy the hairstyles and clothes of the Korean actors. As a part of cultural exchange Indian Public Broadcaster i.e. DDNational telecasted Emperor of the Sea and Dae Jang Geum.
When Dae Jang Geum was on air in Thailand, Korean food started gaining wide popularity. Due to lop-sided nature of entertainment exports favoring South Korea, the Thai government requested increased introduction of popular Thai films to South Korean media outlets. This led to the signing of an Agreement of Cultural Cooperation between the two countries in August 2004.
In Singapore, Prime 12 (now known as Suria) originally aired the only Korean drama series Sandglass in 1996 on a weekly basis. Since 2001, Korean dramas are shown on Chinese language channel MediaCorp Channel U on a daily basis.
In Sri Lanka, The Independent Television Network aired Full House in 2009 and it proved popular. Dae Jang Geum aired on Rupavahini in 2012 and was dubbed in Sinhala under the title Sujatha Diyani (සුජාත දියණී), meaning "The Pure, Valuable Daughter". The Independent Television Network and Rupavahini air Korean dramas some of which have included, Yi San and Sungkyunkwan Scandal which was known as Asaliya Mala (අසලියා මල).
In November 2008, Netflix began offering several Korean dramas as part of its video selection. In August 2009, DramaFever began offering free subtitled video streaming service, with video advertisements, in the United States. As of May 2010[update], Korean dramas began airing on a DramaFever channel on Hulu.
Additionally, Korean dramas are available at online DVD retailers. Some Korean dramas, however, are not available for region 1 (North America) encoding and NTSC video format. Amazon offers streaming of Winter Sonata for a fee.
Viewership ratings are provided by two companies in South Korea, AGB Nielsen Media Research and TNmS. Originally Media Service Korea was the only company providing such information, and it was later acquired by Nielsen Media Research. In 1999 TNS Media Korea also began such service, and later changed its name to TNmS. AGB collects viewership data based on 2050 households, while TNmS has 2000 households with measuring devices. Drama ratings usually vary between the two companies by 2-3%.
Korean dramas with the highest views of all time
|1.||First Love||KBS2||65.8%||April 20, 1997|
|2.||What is Love||MBC||64.9%||May 24, 1992|
|3.||Sandglass||SBS||64.5%||February 6, 1995|
|4.||Hur Jun||MBC||63.7%||June 27, 2000|
|5.||Sunny Place of Youth||KBS2||62.7%||November 12, 1995|
|6.||You and I||MBC||62.4%||April 12, 1998|
|7.||The Son and the Daughter||MBC||61.1%||March 21, 1993|
|8.||Taejo Wang Geon||KBS||60.2%||May 20, 2001|
|9.||Eyes of Dawn||MBC||58.4%||February 6, 1992|
|10.||Dae Jang Geum||MBC||57.8%||March 23, 2004|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Television series of South Korea.|
- List of South Korean television series
- List of South Korean broadcasting networks
- Korean wave
- "Kim Soo Hyun's net worth is now S$1.2 million?". XIN MSN. 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- "What makes Kim Soo-hyun so popular in China?". Korea Herald. 2014-01-22. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- Chosun Ilbo 2007.
- Korea.net 2012.
- 박세연 (13 February 2009). '아내의 유혹' 40.6% 자체 최고 시청률 '기염'. Newsen (in Korean). Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- X 2007.
- Turnbull 2009.
- Iwabuchi 2008.
- Lee 2005.
- Jeon 2013, p. 71.
- KOCIS 2011, pp. 75–87.
- "Int'l Press Picks Up on Alien Soap Craze in China". The Chosun Ilbo. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Robinson 1998, pp. 358–378.
- Do Je-hae (3 February 2012). "Book traces history of Korean TV dramas: Analysis on Koreans' fervor for soap operas". The Korea Times. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- KOCIS 2011, p. 59.
- Jeon 2013, pp. 69-70.
- KOCIS 2011, pp. 61-62.
- 국토만리(國土萬里) (in Korean). National Institiute of Korean History. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- X 2009.
- Jeon 2013, p. 70.
- Jeon 2013, pp. 70-71.
- KOCIS 2011, p. 63.
- KOCIS 2011, p. 65-66.
- Jeon 2013, p. 72.
- Kim 2013a.
- "Police Confirm Producer Kim Jong Hak's Death". Mwave. 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Kim, Tong-hyung (2013-07-23). "Director of Hourglass commits suicide". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Kim 2013b.
- Donga 2 2013.
- "Kim Soo Hyun Sleeps Only 1 Hour? The Reality of Drama Filming Schedules". Soompi. 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Donga 1 2013.
- "Dramas Shot in Dramia". MBC Dramia. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
- "Mungyeongsaejae KBS Drama Studio". Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "KBS Suwon Studio". Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- KOCIS 2011, pp. 90-109.
- "Top 20 Korean actors and actresses according to industry insiders". Dramafever. 2014-04-08. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- Hyung-eun, Kim (2009-07-10). "Pretty boy Lee shows off his introspective side". Joongang Daily via Hancinema. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
- "Lee Min-ho named No.1 Korean actor in China". Korea Times. 2014-03-17. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- "Park Shin Hye to cameo in Taiwanese version of 'You're Beautiful'". Korea Star Daily via Yahoo!. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "Top 7 successful idol-turned-actors". Korea Herald. 2013-06-12. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- 〈트라이앵글〉허영달, 김재중 (in Korean). Naver. 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- "90% of South Korean TV Writers Are Women". Women of China. 2014-03-24. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "Wanted : Good Screenwriters". Koreanfilm.org. 2010-12-01. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "Meet the screenwriters responsible for your Kdrama tears". DramaFever. 2013-09-12. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "Kim Jong-hak to direct 'Magic Bell'". Variety. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "Producer Pyo Min Soo of 'Full House' and 'Worlds Within' to Direct 'Iris 2'". Mwave. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "610화 여성 드라마 감독 이윤정PD 인터뷰!" (in Korean). iMBC. 2005-02-03. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- 이나정 (in koreai). Daum Movie. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "The First Shop Of Coffee Prince". Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Jeongmee Kim (2013). Reading Asian Television Drama: Crossing Borders and Breaking Boundaries. I.B.Tauris. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-84511-860-0.
- "K-Drama Original Soundtracks: What Is The Significance Of Actors Singing On Their Own OST?". KpopStarz. 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "All copies of "Secret Garden" OST have sold out". Allkpop. 2011-01-05. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "Drama soundtrack bit hit around Asia". Hancinema. 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Song Kang Ho and Jun Ji Hyun Win Grand Prizes for the Baeksang Arts Awards + Full List of Winners". Soompi. 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- ""IRIS" soundtrack concert attracts fans in Japan". Hancinema. 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "The Singers That Turn OST Into Hit Songs". KPopStarz. 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "Swedish Singer Lasse Lindh Sings for 'Angel Eyes' OST". Mwave. 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Kim, Su-jin (2009-11-10). "TV 드라마의 등급 분류 기준은?" (in Korean). 매일경제. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- Sung 2008.
- Larsen 2008.
- "Korean dramas on Hulu: Why I'm addicted". Entertainment Weekly PopWatch. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- Shim 2011.
- "Improving Korea-Japan relations is possible: look at the Germany-Poland example". 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Japanese Surfing the Korean Wave: Drama Tourism, Nationalism, and Gender via Ethnic Eroticisms". Southeast Review of Asian Studies 31: 10–38. 2009.
- Inoue, Chihiro (13 April 2009). "Spy drama pulls S.Koreans to Akita". The Japan Times. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- 이해리 (4 February 2009). 아리가또∼ 아이리스. Donga (in Korean). Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- "Akita sees huge increase in Korean tourists". Japan Probe. 16 January 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Faiola, Anthony (31 August 2006). "Japanese Women Catch the 'Korean Wave'". The Washington Post.
- "The Hallyu Wave Remains Alive in Hong Kong". University of Southern California. 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- Sunita, Akoijam (4 April 2012). "Korea Comes to Manipur". Caravan Magazine. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "India's northeast mesmerized by South Korea". Agence France-Presse. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "KBS Drama "Emperor of the Sea" to Air in India". Hancinema. 2006-02-16. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Hallyu (Korean Wave) in Thailand". KOFICE. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Royal Thai Embassy, Seoul > Home > Thailand – ROK Relations > Bilateral relations". Thaiembassy.or.kr. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
- "Channel U" (in Chinese). XINMSN. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "K Wave in Sri Lanka". Wordpress. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- "The Korean Wave is on its way". Ceylon Today. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- "North Korea 'Publicly Executed 80 People,' South Korean Paper Reports". The Huffington Post. 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Young People Surfing the Korean Wave". The DailyNK. 2011-06-21. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Knock it off: Global treaty against media piracy won't work in Asia Jeff Yang, SFGate, 11 November 2009.
- "Can fans unravel the Babel of the world's TV dramas?". CNN. 2014-06-09. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Winter Sonata". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "South Korean TV Ratings: TNmS vs. AGB Nielsen". Soompi. 2011-06-21. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- "AGB Nielsen Korea" (in Korean). AGB Nielsen Korea. Retrieved 2014-06-03.
- Chosun Ilbo (8 January 2007). "Korean Vs. U.S. Soaps". The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 2007-01-09. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
- Donga 1 (1 August 2013). "Inconvenient truth of the Korean drama industry". The Donga Ilbo. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Donga 2 (30 September 2013). "Interview with senior actors about Korean dramas". The Donga Ilbo. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Iwabuchi, Koichi (2008). East Asian pop culture: analysing the Korean wave. Hong Kong University Press.
- Jeon, Won Kyung (2013). The 'Korean Wave' and television drama exports, 1995–2005.. University of Glasgow.
- Kim, Ju Young (2007). Rethinking Media Flow under Globalisation: Rising Korean Wave and Korean TV and Film Policy Since 1980s (Dissertation). Centre for Cultural Policy Studies, University of Warwick. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Kim, Yang-hee (27 July 2013). "TV producer's suicide causes troubled industry to reflect". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Kim, Yang-hee (4 April 2013). "The unglamorous lives of Korean drama actors". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- KOCIS (2011). K-Drama: A New TV Genre with Global Appeal (pdf). KOCIS. ISBN 978-89-7375-167-9. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- Korea.net (12 March 2012). "Korea's fusion sageuk". Korea.net. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- Larsen, Tom (24 April 2008). "Whetting U.S. appetite for Korean TV dramas". The Korea Herald via Hancinema. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Lee, Yong-cheol (24 January 2014). "The Secret of PERIOD DRAMA". KOFIC. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- Lee, Diana (2005). "Winter Sonata Drama fever". UNIORB. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
- Robinson, Michael E. (1998). "16: Broadcasting in Korea, 1924–1937: Colonial Modernity and Cultural Hegemony". In Sharon A. Minichiello. Japan's Competing Modernities: Issues in Culture and Democracy, 1900–1930. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2080-0.
- Russell, Mark James (2012). Pop Goes Korea: Behind the Revolution in Movies, Music, and Internet Culture. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-61172-542-1.
- Shim, Doobo (2011). Waxing The Korean Wave (pdf). Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- Sung, Sang-Yeon (4 February 2008). "The High Tide of the Korean Wave III: Why do Asian fans prefer Korean pop culture?". Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- X (November 2009). "영원한 제국 (Eternal Empire) and Chungmuro's Love-Hate for History". Twitch Film. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- X (14 May 2007). "Sageuk, Korea's 80 Year Long Love for History". Yumcha!. Retrieved 2014-06-02.