Cinema of Korea

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Cinema of Korea
Korean.culture-Sinchon-Movie.theatre.jpg
Movie theater in Sinchon
Number of screens 1,974 (2011)[1]
 • Per capita 4.3 per 100,000 (2011)[1]
Main distributors Cj E&M Corporation 34.3%
Lotte Entertainment 15.9%
Showbox/Mediaplex 9.5%[2]
Produced feature films (2005-2009)[3]
Total 118 (average)
Number of admissions (2014)[4]
Total 215,000,000
National films 108,000,000 (50.1%)
Gross Box Office (2014)[4]
Total 1.66 trillion
National films 821 billion

The term "Cinema of Korea" (or "Korean cinema") encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life during the past century, the film industry has often been at the mercy of political events, from the late Joseon dynasty to the Korean War to domestic governmental interference. While both countries have relatively robust film industries today, only South Korean films have achieved wide international acclaim. North Korean films tend to portray their communist or revolutionary themes.

South Korean films enjoyed a "Golden age" during the late 1950s, and 1960s, but by the 1970s had become generally considered to be of low quality. Nonetheless, by 2005 South Korea had become one of few nations to watch more domestic than imported films in theatres[5] due largely to laws placing limits on the number of foreign films able to be shown per theatre per year.[6] In the theaters, Korean films must be played for 73 days per year since 2006. On cable TV 25% domestic film quota will be reduced to 20% after KOR-US FTA.[7]

Early period (until 1926)[edit]

Still from Chunhyang-Jeon (Hangul: 춘향전) (1923)

According to the October 19, 1897 issue of The Times, "Motion pictures have finally been introduced into Joseon, a country located in the Far East. At the beginning of October 1897, motion pictures were screened for the public in Jingogae, Bukchon, in a shabby barrack that was borrowed from its Chinese owner for three days. The works screened included short films and actuality films produced by France's Pathe Pictures".[8] There are reports of another showing of a film to the public in 1898 near Namdaemun in Seoul.

American traveler and lecturer Burton Holmes was the first to film in Korea as part of his travelogue programs.[9] In addition to displaying his films abroad, he showed them to the Korean royal family in 1899.[10] An announcement in the contemporary newspaper, Hwangseong sinmun (The Imperial), names another early public screening on June 23, 1903. Advertised by the Dongdaemun Electric Company, the price for admission to the viewing of scenic photography was 10 jeon (coin).[8]

Korea's first movie theater, Dongdaemun Motion Picture Studio, was opened in 1903.[11] The Dansung-sa Theater opened in Seoul in November 1907. Before the creation of a domestic film industry, films imported from Europe and the United States were shown in Korean theaters. Some of the imported films of the era most popular with Korean audiences were D. W. Griffith's Broken Blossoms (1919) and Way Down East (1920), Douglas Fairbanks in Robin Hood (1922), and Fritz Lang's Nibelungen films, Siegfried and Kriemhilds Rache (both 1924).

Not merely a theater-operator, as the first film producer in Korea, Dansung-sa's owner, Pak Sung-pil, took an active part in supporting early Korean cinema. He financed the first Korean domestic film, Loyal Revenge (Korean: 의리적 구투; Uirijeok Gutu), as well as the first Korean documentary film, Scenes of Kyongsong City and showed both at his theater on October 27, 1919. Uirijeok Guto was used as a kino drama, a live theatrical production against the backdrop of film projected on stage.

For the next few years, film production in Korea consisted of the kino dramas and documentaries. As with the first showing of a film in Korea, the first feature film produced in Korea also appears to be unclear. Some name a filming of Chunhyang-Jeon (Hangul: 춘향전) in 1921 (released in 1922) as the first Korean feature film. The traditional story, Chunhyang, was to become Korea's most-filmed story later. It was possibly the first Korean feature film, and was certainly the first Korean sound film, color film and widescreen film. Im Kwon-taek's 2000 pansori version of Chunhyang brought the number of films based on Chunyang to 14.[12] Other sources, however, name Yun Baek-nam's Ulha ui Mengse ("Plighted Love Under the Moon"), released in April, 1923, as the first Korean feature film.[13][14]

The Golden Era of Silent Films (1926-1930)[edit]

Korean film studios at this time were Japanese-operated. A hat-merchant known as Yodo Orajo established a film company called Choson Kinema Productions. After appearing in the Choson Kinema's 1926 production Nongjungjo (Hangul: 농중조), the young actor Na Woon-gyu got the chance to write, direct and star in his own film. The release of Na's film, Arirang (Hangul: 아리랑) (1926) is the start of the era of silent film in Korea.[15]

Like the folksong "Arirang", on which its title was based, Na Woon-gyu's Arirang did not have an overtly political theme. However hidden or subtle messages could be magnified through the common use of a live narrator at the theater. A newspaper article of 1908 shows that this tradition of "byeonsa" (Hangul: "변사", or "benshi" in Japanese) appeared in Korea almost from the beginning of the showing of film in the country. As in Japan, this became an integral part to the showing of silent films, especially for imported films, where the byeonsa provided an economical and entertaining alternative to translating intertitles. In an interesting aspect of the byeonsa tradition in Korea, when Japanese authorities were not present the narrators could inject satire and criticism of the occupation into the film narrative, giving the film a political subtext invisible to Japanese government censors.[16] Some of the more popular byeonsa were better-paid than the film actors.[17]

The success of Arirang inspired a burst of activity in the Korean film industry in the late 1920s, causing this period to become known as "The Golden Era of Silent Films". More than seventy films were produced at this time, and the quality of film improved as well as the quantity.[18]

Na Un-gyu followed Arirang with popular and critically respected films like Punguna (풍운아, Person of destiny) (1926) and Deuljwi (들쥐, Vole) (1927). He formed Na Un-gyu Productions with Park Sung-pil for the purpose of producing films by Koreans for Koreans. Though this company was short-lived, it produced important films like Jalitgeola (잘 있거라, Good bye) (1927), Beongeoli Sam-ryong (벙어리 삼룡, Mute Samryong) (1929), and Salangeul chajaseo (사랑을 찾아서, Finding Love) (1929).

Another important director of this period, Shim Hun, directed only one film, Mondongi Tultte (먼동이 틀 때) (At Daybreak). Though the reviews for this film were as strong as those for Arirang, Shim died at the age of 35 while directing his second film, based on his own novel, Sangroksu (상록수) (The Evergreens).[19] The novel was later filmed by director Shin Sang-ok in 1961 and by Im Kwon-taek in 1978.[20]

The later silent era (1930-1935)[edit]

The first half of the 1930s saw a decline in the domestic film industry in Korea. Censorship and oppression on the part of the occupying authorities played a part in reducing the number of films produced at this time to only two or three per year, and some filmmakers fled Korea for the more robust film-industry in Shanghai at this time.[21]

Perhaps the most important film of this era, Imjaeobtneun naleutbae (Ferryboat with no Ferryman) (1932), directed by Lee Gyu-hwan (1904–1981), starred Na Woon-gyu. Increasing governmental censorship meant that commentators have called this the last pre-liberation film to present a significant nationalistic message.[22][23]

Early sound era (1935-1945)[edit]

Korea's first sound film was Lee Myeong-woo's 1935 Chunhyang-jeon.[24] The sound technique was reportedly poor, but Korean audiences appreciated hearing their own language in the cinema.

The number of films produced increased during the latter part of the decade. Na Woon-gyu began making a larger number of films again with significant works like Kanggeonneo maeul (1935), and Oh Mong-nyeo (1937), before his premature death in 1937.

Korea was one of Japan's first and most important centers of colonial film production. Japanese-sponsored shorts, newsreels, and feature films heavily promoted cultural assimilation to colonized Korean audiences. To this end the Korean Colonial Cinema Unit (朝鮮総督府キネマ) was established to produce and distribute films a mixture of films that promoted Japanese culture and customs as well as the benefits of modernization under the Japanese.[25][26][27]

Coming as they did during the mid- to late-1930s, sound films in Korea faced much harsher censorship from the Japanese government-General than did the silent films before them. Also, the loss of the byeonsa narrators with the coming of sound film meant that anti-authority messages could no longer be sneaked around the censors in this way. On such example occurred with the importation of the American silent film Ben Hur (1927) into Korea. While Japanese colonial censors failed to find anything possibly inflammatory about the film, the byeonsa immediately recognized and alerted audiences to the obvious parallels between the conditions of the Jews onscreen with those of the Koreans under Japanese colonial rule resulting in the film setting off a near riot.[28]

Japanese film censors replaced American and European films with Japanese films as part of the larger colonial project to culturally colonize Korea. Japanese films set in Korea appealed to audiences in Japan as a form of exotica. Suicide Troops of the Watchtower (望楼の決死隊, 1943), for instance, was one of several propaganda features that promoted the Japanese occupation notion of naisen ittai or "Japan and Korea as one body."[27][29] Although Japanese film production in Korea began in the early 1930s, total mobilization and consolidation of the Korean film industry under the Japanese would not begin until after Japan's full-scale invasion of China in 1937. Film was an important way by which the Japanese maintained colonial control in Korea through the promotion of assimilationist policies. For example, in 1941 Japan's Shochiku Studios together with the Japanese-sponsored Korean Military Information Division co-produced the film You and I (君と僕). The film was directed by a Korean Hae Yeong who had worked extensively in the Japanese film industry using the name "Hinatsu Eitaro". You and I promoted the "volunteer" enlistment of Koreans into the imperial Japanese Army and carried as a subplot the interracial marriage between a Japanese woman and a Korean man. After the film was completed, Hae went to Java in Indonesia where he continued to make documentaries for the Japanese. After the war, he changed his name to Dr. Huyung, married an Indonesian woman with whom he had two sons, and produced three important Indonesian films. Before his death in 1952, he told a close friend, "If I returned to Japan now there wouldn't be any jobs for me and if I returned to Korea, I'd most likely be branded a Japanese collaborator." [30] Although the Japanese Colonial Administration officially banned the Korean language, the Japanese film studios operating in Korea continued to make films with characters who spoke it until the end of the war.

Divided Korea ― South Korea[edit]

Main article: Cinema of South Korea

Box office[edit]

For more details on this topic, see List of highest-grossing films in South Korea.

Divided Korea ― North Korea[edit]

Main article: Cinema of North Korea

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  3. ^ "Average national film production". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Kevin Ma (January 8, 2015). "South Korean films lose domestic dominance". Film Business Asia. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Future Korean Filmmakers Visit UCLA". Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  6. ^ Jameson, Sam (1989-06-19). "U.S. Films Troubled by New Sabotage in South Korea Theater". Los Angeles Times. 
  7. ^ 한미FTA 체결, 영화산업 타격은?, MBC (Korean)
  8. ^ a b Kim, So-young. "Korean Film History and 'Chihwaseon'" (PDF). Korean Film Council. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  9. ^ James, David E.; Kyung Hyun Kim (editors) (2002). Im Kwon-Taek: The Making of a Korean National Cinema. Wayne State University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-8143-2869-5. 
  10. ^ Berry, Chris (December 18, 1998). "Recovering the past: rare films screened in Korea". LA Trobe University. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  11. ^ James, David E.; Kyung-hyun Kim (editors) (2002). Im Kwon-Taek: The Making of a Korean National Cinema. Wayne State University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-8143-2869-5. 
  12. ^ Wade, James (1983). "The Cinema in Korea: A Robust Invalid". Korean Dance, Theater & Cinema. Seoul: Si-sa-yong-o-sa Publishers. p. 176. ISBN 0-89209-017-0. 
  13. ^ Paquet, Darcy. "A Short History of Korean Film". koreanfilm.org. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  14. ^ Lee, Young-Il. "The Establishment of a National Cinema Under Colonialism: The History of Early Korean Cinema". LA Trobe University. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  15. ^ Books Map Out Korean Film History Lee Hyo Won
  16. ^ Wade, p.176-177.
  17. ^ Maliangkay, Roald H. (March 2005). "Classifying Performances: The Art of Korean Film Narrators". Image & Narrative. Archived from the original on 2008-01-28. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  18. ^ Lee, Young-il (1988). The History of Korean Cinema. Motion Picture Promotion Corporation. p. 53. ISBN 89-88095-12-X. 
  19. ^ Yecies, Brian (2012). "Korea’s Occupied Cinemas, 1893-1948: The Untold History of the Film Industry". Routledge. Retrieved 2015-01-03. 
  20. ^ Hun Shim at the Internet Movie Database
  21. ^ 영화(MOVIE-Motionpicture)이야기
  22. ^ Lee, Young-il (1988). The History of Korean Cinema. Motion Picture Promotion Corporation. pp. 57–59. ISBN 89-88095-12-X. 
  23. ^ Min, Eungjun; Joo Jinsook and Kwak HanJu (2003). Korean Film : History, Resistance, and Democratic Imagination. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 0-275-95811-6. 
  24. ^ "The story of Chun-hyang (Chunhyangjeon )". The Korean Film Archive (KOFA). Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  25. ^ Baskett, Michael (2008). The Attractive Empire: Transnational Film Culture in Imperial Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3223-0. , pp. 20-28.
  26. ^ Brian Yecies, The Korean “Cinema of Assimilation” and the Construction of Cultural Hegemony in the Final Years of Japanese Rule 日本統治下最晩年の韓国における「同化のシネマ」と文化的ヘゲモニーの構築
  27. ^ a b Mika Ko, Japanese Cinema and Otherness, p.138
  28. ^ Baskett, The Attractive Empire, pp. 21-22.
  29. ^ Baskett, The Attractive Empire, pp. 90-93.
  30. ^ Baskett, The Attractive Empire, pp. 88-90.

External links[edit]