Korean postpositions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Korean postpositions are suffixes or short words in Korean grammar that immediately follow a noun or pronoun. This article uses the Yale romanization to show morphology. Look to the hangul versions underneath for the official orthographic form.


Preceding syntactic element Example sentence Translation
(n-)un
은/는
Used as a topic particle or a subject particle. Un 은 is used following a consonant, nun 는 is used following a vowel.
Nouns (topic) Na-nun haksayng-i-ta.
나는 학생이다.
I am a student.
Nouns (topic) I-kes-un yenphil-i-ta.
이것은 연필이다.
This is a pencil.
Nouns (genericized nominative) Chitha-nun ppalu-ta.
치타는 빠르다.
Cheetahs are fast.
Nouns (topic) Ce-nun ccacangmyen cwu-seyyo.
저는 짜장면 주세요.
I'd like a jajangmyeon.
i/ka
이/가
Used as an identifier particle or a subject particle. I 이 is used following a consonant, ka 가 is used following a vowel.
Nouns (agent) Nay-ka masye-ss-ta.
내가 마셨다.
I drank.
Nouns (identifier) Ce-kes-i Hankang-i-ya.
저것이 한강이야.
That is the Han River.
Nouns (specific nominative) Chitha-ka nuli-ta.
치타가 느리다.
This cheetah is slow.
to
Used as an additive particle. When dealing with additive qualities/descriptions of the same subject, ttohan 또한 is used.
Nouns Ku-nye-to kongpwu-ha-n-ta.
그녀도 공부한다.
She studies too.
Nouns (additive) Cengnam-un kwunin-i.e-ss-ta. Ku'nun ttohan cengchika-ye-ss-ta.
정남은 군인이었다. 그는 또한 정치가였다.
Jeong-nam was a soldier. He was also a politician.
(l-)ul
을/를
Used as an object particle. Ul 을 is used following a consonant, 'lul 를 is used following a vowel,
Nouns (objective) Na-nun lamyen-ul mek.e-ss-ta.
나는 라면을 먹었다.
I ate ramen.
eykey/hantey
에게/한테
Used as a dative particle. Eykey 에게 is the literary form, and hantey 한테 is the colloquial form.
Noun Nehuy-eykey hal mal-i iss-ta.
너희에게 할 말이 있다.
I have something to tell you.
kkey
Kkey 께 is the honorific dative marker.
Noun Koyongcwu-kkey senmwul-ul tulye-ss-ta.
고용주께 선물을 드렸다.
I gave a gift to my employer.
(u)lo
으로/로
Used to mark the instrumental case, which can also denote destination or role. Ulo 으로 is used following a consonant other than 'ㄹ', which is abbreviated to 'lo 로 following a vowel or a consonant 'ㄹ'.
Noun (means) KTX-lo Sewul-eyse Pwusan-kkaci sey sikan kelli-n-ta.
KTX로 서울에서 부산까지 3시간 걸린다.
It takes 3 hours to go from Seoul to Busan via KTX.
Noun (destination) Nayil Hocwu-lo ttena-pni-ta.
내일 호주로 떠납니다.
I am leaving for Australia tomorrow.
Noun (role) Wuncensa-lo chwicik-hay-yo.
운전사로 취직해요.
I'm looking for a job as a driver.
ey
Used for any words relating to time or place.
Time (noun) Maikhul-un phalwel-ey wa-ss-ta.
마이클은 8월에 왔다.
Michael came in August.
Location (noun) Ceytong-un ilpon-ey ka-ss-ta.
제동은 일본에 갔다.
Jae-dong went to Japan.
eyse
에서
Translates to: "from" when used with a motion verb. May also be used as "at", "in" when used with an action verb which is not motion related.
Noun (from) Cwungkwuk-eyse wa-ss-e.
중국에서 왔어.
I came from China.
Noun (in) Pang-eyse kongpwu-lul hay-ss-ta.
방에서 공부를 했다.
I studied in my room.
man
Translates to: "only", used after a noun.
Noun Ocik ceyimsu-man hankwuke-lul kongpwu-hay-ss-ta.
오직 제임스만 한국어를 공부했다.
Only James studied Korean.
uy
Functions as: possession indicator, noun link, topic marker.
Noun: possession Mikwuk-uy taythonglyeng
미국의 대통령
President of the United States
(k)wa
과/와
Translates to: "and" (conjunction); "with" or "as with" (preposition). Kwa 과 is used following a consonant, wa 와 is used following a vowel.
Nouns: conjunction Newa na
You and I

References[edit]

  • Martin SE (2006). Reference Grammar of Korean: A Complete Guide to the Grammar and History of the Korean Language. Tuttle Publishing.
  • Vincent M, Yeon J (2010). Complete Korean. McGraw-Hill Professional.
  • Ihm Ho Bin, Hong Kyung Pyo, and Chang Suk In. Korean Grammar for International Learners. Yonsei University Press