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|Koshi (कोसी, कोशी)|
|Sapt Koshi, सप्तकोसी|
Bhote Koshi in Nepal during the dry season
|Cities||Biratnagar, Purnia, Katihar|
|Source||Confluence of the Sun Kosi, Arun and Tamur to form Sapta Kosi|
|- location||Tribenighat, Nepal|
|- location||near Kursela, Bihar, India|
|Length||729 km (453 mi)|
|Basin||69,300 km2 (26,757 sq mi)|
|Discharge||for Ganges River|
|- average||2,166 m3/s (76,492 cu ft/s) |
The Kosi River (Hindi: कोसी नदी) or Koshi (Nepali: कोशी नदी)—also Saptakoshi (Nepali: सप्तकोशी), is a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India, known for its seven Himalayan tributaries. Some of the rivers of the Koshi system, such as the Arun, the Sun Kosi and the Bhote Koshi, originate in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganges.
Along with its tributaries, the river drains 29,400 km2 (11,400 sq mi) in China (mainly the upper Arun basin north of the Mount Everest region), 30,700 km2 (11,900 sq mi) in Nepal (the eastern third of the country), and 9,200 km2 (3,600 sq mi) in India.
The river basin is surrounded by ridges which separate it from the Yarlung Tsangpo River in the north, the Gandaki in the west and the Mahananda in the east. The river is joined by major tributaries in the Mahabharat Range approximately 48 km (30 mi) north of the Indo-Nepal border. Below the Siwaliks, the river has built up a megafan some 15,000 km2 (5,800 sq mi) in extent, breaking into more than twelve distinct channels, all with shifting courses due to flooding. Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries such as Bhutahi Balān.
Over the last 250 years, the Kosi River has shifted its course over 120 km (75 mi) from east to west. Its unstable nature has been attributed to the heavy silt it carries during the monsoon season and flooding in India has extreme effects. The Kosi River (The Sorrow of Bihar) is one of two major tributaries and the other river, the Gandak, drains the plains of north Bihar, India's most flood-prone area. Fishing is an important enterprise on the river but fishing resources are being depleted and youth are leaving for other areas of work.
Cultural significance 
The Koshi was also called Kausika in Rigveda, Nepal and Bihar in northern India. It is a major tributary of the Ganges. One major tributary of the Koshi is the Arun, much of whose course is in Tibet. This river is mentioned in the epic 'Mahabharata' as Kausiki. Seven Koshis join together to form the 'Saptakoshi River,' or 'Sapt Koshi,' which is popularly known as the Koshi.
Formerly known as 'Kausiki,' named after the sage Viśvāmitra, who is said to have attained the status of Vedic or 'Rishi' on the banks of the river. Viśvāmitra was a descendant of the sage Kusika. Viśvāmitra is credited with writing many well-known Vedic Hymns on the Banks of the Kosi where he had his hermitage — The Mandala 3, the Rigveda, and the Gāyatrī Mantra. The Gāyatrī Mantra is a highly revered mantra based on a Vedic Sanskrit verse from a hymn of the Rigveda (3.62.10).
The mantra is named for its vedic gāyatrī metre:  as the verse can be interpreted to invoke the deva Savitr, it is often called Sāvitrī,  its recitation is traditionally preceded by oṃ and the formula bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ, known as the mahāvyāhṛti ("great utterance"). The Gayatri Mantra is repeated and cited very widely in vedic literature,  and is praised in several well-known classical Hindu texts such as Manusmṛti, Harivamsa and the Bhagavad Gita.
The Koshi (Kosi in Sanskrit) is associated with many ancient spiritual stories. Kosi is mentioned in the Bal Kand section of Valmiki Ramayana as the Kausiki who is the form assumed by Satyavati after her death. Satyavati was the elder sister of Viswamitra, descendants of Kushak dynasty. In the Markendeya Purana, the Kosi is described as the primal force. Due to the violent nature of the Kosi during monsoon season, legend says that Parvati, the wife of Shiva, after defeating the demon Durg, became known as the warrior goddess Durga who transformed into Kaushiki. In Ramayana, the river Ganges is depicted as her elder sister.
According to Mahabharata epic, the God of death took the form of a woman and resides on the banks of the river to limit population growth. Kosi resonates with the folklore of Mithila. The most important depictions of Kosi folklore are Kosi as a virgin absolutely care free and full of energy and as a frustrated wife of old hermit Richeek wandering in the Himalayas. Kosi is also invoked as the mother - 'Kosi Ma'. These images capture the contradiction that is inherent in the Kosi River as a source of life and death, prosperity and destruction; a mother and an enchanting virgin.
It is also the lifeline of the 'Mithila' region, today spread over more than half of India's state of 'Bihar', and parts of adjoining Nepal. It is the subject of legend and folklore of the region; the legend of Mithila extends over many centuries. Mithila is also the name of a style of 'Hindu art' created in the area.
Access to the basin 
From Katmandu, a road crosses four major tributaries of the Koshi and reaches trekking paths to Mt Everest. Namche Bazar near the Tibetan border in Nepal (near southern base camp of Mt Everest) is the major tourist centre in the mountainous part of the Koshi belt. Birātnagar in Nepal and Saharsa, Purnia and Katihar in India are major cities on the Koshi Plains. Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India.
In Nepal, the Koshi basin is bordered on the west and the south-west by the basins of the Gandaki and the Burhi Gandak. The Bagmati river (draining Kathmandu Valley) sub-basin forms the south-western portion of the overall Koshi basin. The Kanchenjunga Himalayas are its eastern watershed, with the Singalila Ridge forming the border with the Teesta basin. Its basin contains 6 of the 14 mountains in the world taller than 8,000m (including 5 of the 6 highest). The 6 peaks are Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu and Shishapangma. Mount Everest is the highest point surrounding the Koshi basin. The Koshi has seven major tributaries: Sun Kosi (Nepali: सुनकोशी), Tamakoshi (तामाकोशी) or Tamba Koshi, Dudh Kosi (दुधकोशी), Indravati (इन्द्रावती), Likhu (लिखू), Arun (अरुण) and Tamur (तमोर).
The Dudh Kosi joins the Sun Kosi at the Nepalese village of Harkapur. At Triveni the Sunkoshi from the west is joined by the Arun from the north (the Dudhkoshi and Arun encircle Mount Everest), then the Tamar from the east. The combined river becomes the Saptakoshi (सप्तकोशी), literally "Seven Koshis". The Saptakoshi crosses the Lesser Himalaya or Mahabharat Range in a deep gorge some 10 km (6.2 mi) long. At Barāhkṣetra in Nepal it emerges from the mountains and becomes the Koshi. After flowing another 58 km (36 mi) it crosses into Bihar, India, near Bhimnagar and after another 260 km (160 mi) joins the Ganges near Kursela. The river has a total length of 729 km (453 mi).
The Kosi alluvial fan is one of the largest in the world, and extends from Barāhkṣetra across Nepalese territory, covering northeast Bihar and eastern Mithila to the Ganges, 180 km (110 mi) long and 150 km (93 mi) wide. It shows evidence of lateral channel shifting exceeding 120 km (75 mi) during the past 250 years, via at least twelve major channels. The river, which flowed near Purnea in the 18th century, now flows west of Saharsa. A satellite image shows old channels with a confluence before 1731 with the Mahananda River north of Lava.
National parks and fauna 
The two national parks in the Koshi river basin are the Sagarmatha National Park, located in eastern Nepal, containing parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest and the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve situated on the floodplains of the Sapta-Koshi River in eastern Nepal.
Sagarmatha National Park 
Sagarmatha National Park is located in eastern Nepal, including parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest. The park, which is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was created on 19 July 1976. Sagarmatha in Sanskrit means "Forehead of Universe" (Sagar: Sky or Heavens; Matha: Forehead) and is the modern Nepali name for Mount Everest. The park covers an area of 1,148 km2 (443 sq mi) and ranges in elevation from its lowest point of 2,845 m (9,334 ft) at Jorsalle to 8,848 m (29,029 ft) at the Everest summit. Other peaks above 6,000 m (20,000 ft) are Lhotse, Cho-Oyu, Thamserku, Nuptse, Amadablam, and Pumori. The upper watershed of the Dudh Kosi river basin system lies in the park.
The forests provide habitat to at least 118 species of birds, including Himalayan Monal, Blood Pheasant, Red-billed, and Alpine Chough. Sagarmatha National Park is also home to a number of rare species, including musk deer, wild yak, snow leopard, Asian Black Bear and red panda. Moreover, many other animals such as Himalayan thars, deer, langur monkeys, hares, mountain foxes, martens, and Himalayan wolves inhabit the park.
In the lower forested zone, birch, juniper, blue pines, firs, bamboo and rhododendron grow. Above this zone, all vegetation is dwarf plants or shrubs. As the altitude increases, plant life is restricted to lichens and mosses. Plants cease to grow at about 5,750 m (18,860 ft), at the permanent snowline in the Himalayas.
The park's visitor centre is located at the top of a hill in Namche Bazaar, near a company of the Nepal Royal Army. The park's southern entrance is a few hundred metres north of Mondzo at 2 835 m, a one-day hike from Lukla.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve 
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is a wetland situated in the flood plains of the Sapta-Koshi River in Nepal's eastern Terai. Gazette was designated a wildlife reserve in 1976, it covers a reserve area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi) and is one of the Outstanding Important Bird Areas in the Indo-Gangetic grasslands. The park has large population of Swamp Francolin, breeding Bristled Grassbird, records of Hodgson's Bushchat and Finn's Weaver. The Koshi river is the reserve's major landmark and is home to 80 fish species, around 441 species of birds, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, 20 ducks and 2 ibises. The endangered Bengal Florican is also found there. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting-place for migratory birds. In view of its rich biodiversity it was declared a Ramsar site of international significance in 1987. The endangered (IUCN redlist Gharial crocodile and Ganges river dolphin are locally known as "sons" in Bihar.
The last surviving population of wild buffalo or arna in Nepal is found in the reserve , numbering only 150 specimens. The reserve is a habitat of 20 other animal species such as hog deer, spotted deer, wild boar, blue bull and rock python.
The vegetation is mainly tall khar-pater grasslands with a few patches of khair-sissoo scrub forest and deciduous mixed riverine forest.
During the monsoon season, the reserve is flooded with depths ranging from 10 to 300 cm (3.9 to 120 in). Birdwatching along the eastern embankment at dusk and dawn is one of the most appealing tourist attractions in the reserve.
The Koshi has an average water flow (discharge) of 2,166 cubic metres per second (76,500 cu ft/s). During floods, it increases to as much as 18 times the average. The greatest recorded flood was 24,200 m3/s (850,000 cu ft/s) on 24 August 1954. The Kosi Barrage has been designed for a peak flood of 27,014 m3/s (954,000 cu ft/s)(2).
Extensive soil erosion and landslides in its upper catchment have produced a silt yield of about 19 m³/ha/year (10 cu yd/acre/yr), one of the highest in the world. Of major tributaries, the Arun brings the greatest amount of coarse silt in proportion to its total sediment load. The river transports sediment down the steep gradients and narrow gorges in the mountains and foothills where the gradient is at least ten metres per km. On the plains beyond Chatra, the gradient falls below one metre per km to as little as 6 cm per km as the river approaches the Ganges. Current slows and the sediment load settles out of the water and is deposited on an immense alluvial fan that has grown to an area of about 15 000 km². This fan extends some 180 km from its apex where it leaves the foothills, across the international border into Bihar state and on to the Ganges. The river has numerous interlacing channels that shift laterally over the fan from time to time. Without channelisation, floods spread out very widely. The record flow of 24 200 m³/s is equivalent to water a metre deep and more than 24 km wide, flowing at one metre per second.
The Kosi's alluvial fan has fertile soil and abundant groundwater in a part of the world where agricultural land is in great demand. Subsistence farmers balance the threat of starvation with that of floods. As a result, the flood-prone area is densely populated and subject to heavy loss of life. India has more flood deaths than any country except Bangladesh.
2008 flood in Bihar 
On 18 August 2008, the Kosi river picked up an old channel it had abandoned over 100 years previously near the border with Nepal and India. Approximately 2.7 million people were affected as the river broke its embankment at Kusaha in Nepal, submerging several districts of Nepal and India. 95% of the Koshi's total flowed through the new course. The worst affected districts included Supaul, Araria, Saharsa, Madhepura, Purnia, Katihar, parts of Khagaria and northern parts of Bhagalpur, as well as adjoing regions of Nepal. Relief work was carried out with Indian Air Force helicopters by dropping relief materials from Purnia in the worst hit districts where nearly two million persons were trapped. The magnitude of deaths or destruction were hard to estimate, as the affected areas were inaccessible. 150 people were reported washed away in a single incident. Another news item stated that 42 people had died.
The Government of Bihar convened a technical committee, headed by a retired engineer-in-chief of the water resource department to supervise the restoration work and close the breach in the East Kosi afflux embankment. Indian authorities worked to prevent widening of the breach, and channels were to be dug to direct the water back to the main river bed.
The fury of the Koshi river left at least 2.5 million people marooned in eight districts and inundated 650 km². The prime Minister of India declared it a national calamity. The Indian Army, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) and non-government organizations operated the biggest flood rescue operation in India in more than 50 years.
Glaciers, glacier lakes and outburst floods 
In the Himalayas, glaciers are melting and retreating, which produces lakes insecurely dammed by ice or moraines. These dams are at risk of breaking, causing a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) with flows as great as 10,000 cubic metres a second.
In the past two decades GLOF has become a topic of intense discussion within the development community in Nepal. The Dig Tsho GLOF on 4 August 1985, completely destroyed the nearly completed Namche hydropower plant and all bridges, trails, cultivation fields, houses and livestock along its path to the confluence of the Dudh-Koshi and the Sun-Koshi rivers over 90 km (56 mi). The Dig Tsho glacier is on the terminus of the Langmoche Glacier. This event brought into focus the seriousness of such events and the studies to assess the glaciers, glacier lakes and GLOF followed.
Studies of the glaciers and glacier lakes were carried out in 1988 by a joint Sino-Nepalese team. The Arun-Koshi river basin hosts 737 glaciers and 229 glacier lakes, out of which 24 lakes are potentially dangerous. The Sun-Koshi basin is home to 45 glacier lakes, of which 10 are potentially dangerous. According to a Sino-Nepalese study, since the 1940s on at least 10 occasions, glacier lakes burst their dams. Among them were five bursts in three glacier lakes in the Arun River Basin and four in three glacier lakes of the Sun Koshi River Basin.
Development scenario 
Multipurpose projects 
The National Flood Control Policy in 1954 (following the disastrous floods of 1954 in a large part of the Koshi river basin) planned to control floods through a series of dams, embankments and river training works. The Kosi project was thus conceptualized (based on investigations between 1946 to 1955), in three continuous interlinked stages – the first was a barrage to anchor the river that had migrated about 120 km (75 mi) westward in the last 250 years laying waste to a huge tract in north Bihar and to provide irrigation and power benefits to Nepal and India. The second part was to build embankments both below and above the barrage to hold the river within the defined channel. The third part envisaged a high multipurpose dam within Nepal at Barakshetra to provide a substantial flood cushion along with large irrigation and power benefits to both countries. This was followed by the Kosi Agreement between Nepal and India signed on 25 April 1954 and revised on 19 December 1966 to address Nepal's concerns. Further letters of Exchange to the Agreement between the two countries identified additional schemes for providing benefits of irrigation. While the first two parts of the plan were implemented by the Government of India, the Koshi High dam, the linchpin of the whole plan, for various political reasons has yet precluded any action for several years but has since been revived under a fresh agreement, in a modified form for further investigations and studies (1,2,3,4 & 5).
Kosi barrage and irrigation 
Kosi Barrage, also called Bhimnagar Barrage was built between 1959 and 1963 and straddles the Indo-Nepal border. It is an irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation project on the Kosi river built under a bilateral agreement between Nepal and India: the entire cost of the project was borne by India. The catchment area of the river is 61,788 km2 (23,856 sq mi) in Nepal at the barrage site. The highest peaks lie in its catchment. About 10% is snow-fed. The Eastern Canal and the Western Canal taking off from the barrage, were designed for a discharge capacity of 455 cubic metres per second (16,100 cu ft/s) to irrigate 6,125 square kilometres (1,514,000 acres) and 210 cubic metres per second (7,400 cu ft/s) to irrigate 3,566.1 square kilometres (881,200 acres), respectively. A hydropower plant has been built on the Eastern Canal, at a canal drop (3.6 km (2.2 mi) from the Koshi Barrage), to generate 20 MW. The Western Kosi Canal provides irrigation to 250 square kilometres (62,000 acres) in Nepal. A valuable bridge over the barrage opened up the East-West highway in the eastern sector of Nepal
An inundation canal taking off at Chatra, where the Kosi debouches into the plains, has been built to irrigate a gross area of 860 km² in Nepal. The project was renovated with IDA assistance after Nepal took over the project in 1976.
Kosi embankment system 
The Kosi barrage with earth dams across river, afflux bunds and embankments above and below the river confines the river to flow within embankments. Embankments on both sides downstream of the barrage with a length of 246 km (153 mi) was constructed to check the westward movement of the river. The embankments have been kept far apart, about 12 to 16 km (9.9 mi), to serve as a silt trap.
Sapta Kosi High Multipurpose Project (Indo-Nepal) 
The governments of India and Nepal agreed to conduct joint investigations and other studies for the preparation of a detailed project report of Sapta Koshi High Dam Multipurpose Project and Sun Kosi Storage-cum-Diversion Scheme to meet the objectives of both countries for development of hydropower, irrigation, flood control and management and navigation.
Envisaged are a 269-metre (883 ft) high concrete or rock-filled dam, a barrage, two canals, . The dam is on the Sapta Koshi River with an underground powerhouse, producing 3,000 MW at 50% load factor. The barrage is planned for the Sapta Koshi about 8 km (5.0 mi) downstream of Sapta Koshi High Dam to re-regulate the diverted water. The Eastern Chhatra Canal and Western Chhatra Canal, off-take from the barrage site to provide water for irrigation both in Nepal and India and navigation through Koshi up to Kursela and also in the reservoir of Sapta Koshi dam.
A power canal existing Koshi barrage at Hanuman Nagar is proposed for conveying water for irrigation from the Eastern Chatra Canal and also water that may be required downstream for navigation. To utilize the head available between Chatra and Hanuman Nagar barrages for power generation, three canal Power Houses, each of 100 MW installed capacity are proposed on the power canal.
Extra storage capacity of Sapta Koshi High Dam would be provided to moderate downstream flooding.
Chatra Canal System would provide irrigation to large areas in Nepal and India (particularly in Bihar).
A Joint Project Office (JPO) has been set up in Nepal for investigation of the project.
Nepal has a total estimated potential of 83,290 MW with economically exploitable potential of 42,140 MW. The Koshi river basin contributes 22,350 MW of this potential including 360 MW from small schemes and 1875 MW from major schemes. The economically exploitable potential is assessed as 10,860 MW (includes the Sapta Koshi Multipurpose Project [3300MW] mentioned above).
Adventure sports 
River rafting 
River rafting, also known as Whitewater rafting, is now the third most popular adventure sport in Nepal after mountaineering and trekking. The Sun Koshi river (The Golden River) presents the longest river trip in Nepal, traversing 270 km (170 mi) and meandering through the picturesque Mahabharata mountains. The trip is listed as one of the world’s top ten classic river journeys.
A classic multi-day River trip (9 days) with around 40 rapids of grade 2-5 (Rivers are graded on a scale from one to six based on rapids and difficulties in rafting through the river) is recommended for advanced Rafters and Kayakers.
Sport fishing 
The Koshi and other rivers draining the Himalayas have populations of Mahseer which are esteemed as gamefish and known as Indian Salmon. Mahseer can weigh up to 50 kg. and are said to put up a greater battle than any other fish of equivalent weight. They take tied streamer flies as well as bait.
See also 
- Jain, Sharad K.; Agarwal, Pushpendra K.; Singh, Vijay P. (2007). Hydrology and water resources of India. Springer. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-4020-5179-1. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Rao, K.L. (1975) India's Water Wealth. Orient Longman Ltd., Hyderabad, New Delhi.
- Vargehese, B.G. (1993) "Waters of Hope". New Delhi
- "Koshi River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2011. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- "Koshi River, Bihar, India". The Geospacial Research Portal - Natural Hazard Management. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- "The Sorrow Of Bihar: Koshi River". Nepalnews.com. Retrieved 2007-08-24.[dead link]
- Bapalu, G. V., Sinha, R., GIS in Flood Hazard Mapping: a case study of Koshi River Basin, India, Geospatial Media and Communications Pvt. Ltd., retrieved 2011-11-25
- "The current status of capture fishery in the upper Sunkoshi River. (by R. Ranjit)". Inland Aquaculture and Fisheries Section, IAFS, Central Fisheries Building, Balaju, Kathmandu, Nepal.
- Abstract Agarwal, R. P. and Bhoj R. (1992) "Evolution of Koshi river fan, India: structural implications and geomorphic significance" International journal of remote sensing 13(10): pp. 1891-1901
- Sagarmatha National park - Background
- "Sagarmatha National Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- and Gangetic River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica)- Rapidly diminishing
- Gangetic River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica)- IUCN listing
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Neil A. Wells1 and John A. Dorr, Jr.2 (1 March 1987). "Shifting of the Kosi River, northern India". Geology.geoscienceworld.org. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- "Bihar flood 'catastrophe'; CM seeks Govt's help". CNN IBN. 26 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- "Flood devastation in Bihar state". BBC. 25 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- Dainik Hindustan, Darbhanga edition
- "Koshi wreaks havoc in Bihar, claims 42 lives". Press Trust of India (NDTV). 26 August 2008,. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- "Bihar floods: 47 die; thousands marooned". IST,AGENCIES (Times of India). 26 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Editorial/After_the_Deluge/articleshow/3429471.cmsAfter the Deluge
nytimes.com, Floods in India May Displace Millions
- Nepalnews.com Mercantile Connumications Pvt. Ltd
- [dead link]
- "Rafting Activity in Nepal from". nepalvista.com. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- firstname.lastname@example.org. "Sunkoshi River Rafting, Nepal Sunkoshi River, Sunkoshi River, Sunkoshi River Rafting in Nepal, Nepal Rafting Agents, Rafting Association in Nepal, Nepal Rafting Association, Rafting in Nepal, Nepal Raft, Nepal Raft Agents, Raft Agents in Nepal, Nepal Rafting Agencies,Nepal Rafting, Adventure Rafting Nepal, Nepal Adventure Rafting, Seti River Rafting, Trishuli River Rafting, Kali Gandaki Rafting, Sun Koshi Rafting, Karnali, Bheri, Tamur and Arun Rivers, White Water Rafting in Nepal, Marshangdi River Rafting". Nepaltourism.info. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
Reference books 
- Floods, Flood plains and Environmental Myths – State of Art of India’s Environment – A Citizens’ Report, Centre for Science and Environment, 807, Vishal Bhavavn, 95, Nehru Place, New Delhi - 110019.
- A Framework for Sustainable Development of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM Region), Proceedings of Conference held in Dhaka, 4–5 December 1999–Nepal Water Vision in the GBM Regional Framework, Institute for Integrated Studies, Kathmandu).
- Water Conflicts in South Asia, Managing Water Resources Disputes Within and Between Countries of the Region (2004), Published by GEE-21Honolulu Hi 96825-0517,USA.
- Barrages in India (1981), Publication number 148, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi.
- Design and Construction of selected Barrages in India (1981), Publication number 149, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi.
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