Kosmos 165 separated from its carrier rocket into a low Earth orbit with a perigee of 198 kilometres (123 mi), an apogee of 1,399 kilometres (869 mi), 81.9 degrees of inclination, and an orbital period of 100.84 minutes. It decayed from orbit on 15 January 1968. Kosmos 165 was the eighth of seventy nine DS-P1-Yu satellites to be launched, and the seventh of seventy two to successfully reach orbit.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.