It carried two monkeys and several insects, amphibians, plants, and cell cultures. Participating scientists were from nine countries and ESA. In the planning stages this mission was named Bion '92.
The Cosmos 2229 spacecraft orbited the Earth for almost 12 days. The payload, also designated Bion 10, contained 13 U.S. life sciences experiments. Studies focused on bone, neuromuscular and vestibular physiology, circadian rhythms, and metabolism. Two rhesus monkeys served as experimental subjects on the mission. As on previous Cosmos biosatellite missions, the monkeys were trained to activate food and juice dispensers. In addition, they were trained to operate a foot pedal so that muscle responses could be studied in flight. For in-flight neurovestibular testing, the monkeys were trained to make hand and head movements in response to visual stimuli.
Several of the hardware elements on the biosatellite were improved for Cosmos 2229. The in-flight data recording system was enhanced, making high-quality brain and neuromuscular recordings possible. The monkey feeder system was improved, and a backup juice dispenser was available. The monkey restraint system was modified to allow more arm movement. The neurovestibular data acquisition system was updated through a joint U.S.-Russian development effort, allowing more parameters to be recorded in flight.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.