Kosmos (satellite)

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Kosmos (Russian: Ко́смос, IPA: [ˈkozməs], Cosmos) is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia. Kosmos 1, the first spacecraft to be given a Kosmos designation, was launched on March 16, 1962.

As of January 2014, 2,490 Kosmos satellites had been launched. The spacecraft do not form a single programme, but instead consist of almost all Soviet and Russian military satellites, as well as a number of scientific satellites, and spacecraft which failed during or immediately after launch, but still reached orbit. Most Soviet and subsequently Russian military satellites were given Kosmos designations. Spacecraft include optical reconnaissance satellites, communications satellites, early warning missile defence spacecraft, nuclear-powered radar reconnaissance satellites, anti-satellite weapons and their targets, navigation satellites and technology demonstrators. Some scientific spacecraft such as Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik, Bion and Meteor satellites were also given Kosmos designations. The designation is given only to satellites which are in Earth orbit. Typically, Soviet Lunar and planetary missions were initially put into a low Earth parking orbit along with an upper stage, which would later burn for around four minutes to place the spacecraft into a cislunar or a heliocentric orbit. If the engine misfired or the burn was not completed, the probes which would be left in Earth orbit would be given a Kosmos designation. Control systems for 152 spacecraft which were later assigned Kosmos designations were developed and manufactured by NPO Electropribor (Kharkiv).[1]

Early Kosmos satellites[edit]

Kosmos 1[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 1

Kosmos 1, also known as Sputnik 11, was launched on March 16, 1962 at 12:00:00 UTC. Orbital mass 285 kg. It was the first satellite of the Soviet Earth Satellite series.[2] Employed radio instruments in order to study the structure of the ionosphere.

Kosmos 2[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 2

Kosmos 2, also known as Sputnik 12, was launched on April 6, 1962 at 17:16:00 UTC. Orbital mass 285 kg. It was the second satellite of the Soviet Earth Satellite series.[2] Employed radio instruments in order to study the structure of the ionosphere.

Kosmos 3[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 3

Kosmos 3, also known as Sputnik 13, was launched on April 24, 1962 at 04:04:00 UTC. Orbital mass 330 kg. It belongs to the Soviet Earth Satellite series.[2] It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units.

Kosmos 4[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 4

Kosmos 4, also known as Sputnik 14, was launched on April 26, 1962 at 10:04:00 UTC. Orbital mass 4600 kg. It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. It was developed to measure radiation before and after nuclear tests conducted during the US project Starfish.[2] Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units.

Kosmos 5[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 5

Kosmos 5, also known as Sputnik 15, was launched on May 28, 1962 at 03:07:00 UTC. Orbital mass 280 kg. It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units.[2]

Kosmos 6[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 6

Kosmos 6, also known as Sputnik 16, was launched on June 30, 1962 at 16:04:00 UTC from Kapustin Yar. Orbital mass 355 kg. It was a Soviet DS (Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik) type military satellite built in Ukraine for launch by Kosmos launch vehicles. It was used for military and scientific research and component proving tests.[2]

Kosmos 7[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 7

Kosmos 7, also known as Sputnik 17, was launched on July 28, 1962 at 09:21:00 UTC. Orbital mass 4600 kg. It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units. It was used to measure radiation in the space environment in order to guarantee safety during the flight of the Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 spacecraft.[2]

Kosmos 8[edit]

Main article: Kosmos 8

Kosmos 8, also known as Sputnik 18, was launched on August 18, 1962 at 05:02:00 UTC from Kapustin Yar. Orbital mass 337 kg. It was a Soviet DS (Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik) type military satellite built in Ukraine for launch by Kosmos launch vehicles. It was used for military and scientific research and component proving tests.[2]

Other Kosmos satellites[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Krivonosov, Khartron: Computers for rocket guidance systems
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h The Sputnik program, Professor Chris Mihos, Case Western Reserve University[dead link]
  3. ^ Harwood, Bill (2009-02-11). "U.S. And Russian Satellites Collide". CBS News. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  4. ^ "Russian, U.S. satellites collide in space", by Yuri Pushkin, CNN

External links[edit]