Kosmos 423 was the forty-third of seventy nine DS-P1-Yu satellites to be launched, and the thirty-ninth of seventy two to successfully reach orbit. It was operated in an orbit with a perigee of 268 kilometres (167 mi), an apogee of 462 kilometres (287 mi), 71 degrees of inclination, and an orbital period of 91.8 minutes. It remained in orbit until it decayed and reentered the atmosphere on 26 November 1971.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.