Kosovo and the euro
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Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. As of 16 March 2013, 99 out of 193 (51.3%) United Nations member states have formally recognised the Republic of Kosovo as an independent state. Notably, 22 out of 27 (81%) member states of the European Union and 24 out of 28 (86%) member states of NATO have recognised Kosovo. Serbia refuses to recognise it.
Monetary situation prior to 1999 
Before the establishment of UNMIK, Kosovo (as part of Serbia) was bound to Yugoslav monetary policy, and the Yugoslav Dinar. However, war-time inflation and tensions with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had severely discredited the Yugoslav Dinar in Kosovo. As a result people preferred to use and hoard foreign currencies instead of relying on the Dinar. The most frequently used foreign currency was the German Mark, although the US Dollar and Swiss Franc were also widely used.
Introduction of the mark 
In the immediate post-conflict period, other currencies - especially the deutschmark - were widely used alongside the dinar. In September 1999, UNMIK produced a regulation accepting the use of other currencies; this recognised the status quo. The Yugoslav Dinar was never officially withdrawn from circulation, but its use was "not encouraged". The use of other currencies, mainly the U.S. Dollar, also continued. (Tagesspiegel,1999). The Bundesbank was not informed in advance, and did not send any additional coins and notes to Kosovo for the changeover. But since there were no restrictions on the import and export of German marks, and many Kosovars working abroad had sent money home, it was possible to supply Kosovo with sufficient marks.
The Yugoslav (and later Serbian) Dinar continued to be widely used in Northern Kosovo and Serb enclaves throughout Kosovo.
Towards the euro 
Like Germany, Kosovo switched to the euro on 1 January 2002. The German Mark remained legal tender in Kosovo until 9 March 2002. The change to the euro was achieved in cooperation with the European Central Bank, and several national banks in the Eurozone. By December 2001, about 100 million euro in cash was frontloaded to the Banking and Payments Authority of Kosovo. Kosovo does not mint any coins of its own.
Montenegro similarly unilaterally adopted the euro in 2002. Since their application for EU membership, the European Commission and the ECB have voiced their discontent over Montenegro's use of the euro on several occasions. A statement attached to their Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU read: "unilateral introduction of the euro was not compatible with the Treaty." The issue is expected to be resolved through the negotiations process. The ECB has stated that the implications of unilateral euro adoption "would be spelled out at the latest in the event of possible negotiations on EU accession." Diplomats have suggested that it's unlikely Montenegro will be forced to withdraw the euro from circulation in their country.
- Mitra, Saumya (2001). Kosovo: economic and social reforms for peace and reconciliation. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8213-4942-7.
- The Bundesbank estimated in September 1999 that the 2 billion German marks are held in former Yugoslavia. Which would amount to more than 80 marks per person.
- "EU warns Montenegro over Euro". B92. 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
- "Montenegro heading for EU membership". 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- "EU to question Montenegro's use of euro". 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- Bogetic, Zeljko (2000). OFFICIAL DOLLARIZATION: CURRENT EXPERIENCES AND ISSUES. Cato Journal, Vol.20, No.2 (Fall 2000).
- BQK (2010). http://www.bqk-kos.org/english/Currency_The_use_of_Euro.htm
- NRC Handelsblad (1999). Kosovo krijgt douane en Duitse mark, 4 September 1999.
- Starr, Martha (2004). Monetary policy in post-conflict countries: Restoring credibility. American University, May 2004.
- Svetchine, Michel (2005). KOSOVO EXPERIENCE WITH EUROIZATION OF ITS ECONOMY. Central Bank of Albania.
- Schon, Gerard (2008). Euro Munzkatalog.
- Tagesspiegel (1999). Deutsche Währung wird auch im Kosovo offizielles Zahlungsmittel - die Bundesbank wurde nicht gefragt, 7 September 1999. http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/art771,1902807