Kota, Rajasthan

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This article is about The municipality in Rajasthan, India. For its namesake district, see Kota district.
Kota
Metropolitan City
Jagmandir palace
Jagmandir palace
Nickname(s): Education City of India, Industrial city of rajasthan
Kota is located in Rajasthan
Kota
Kota
Coordinates: 25°11′N 75°50′E / 25.18°N 75.83°E / 25.18; 75.83Coordinates: 25°11′N 75°50′E / 25.18°N 75.83°E / 25.18; 75.83
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Kota
Division Kota Division ( Hadoti Region )
Government
 • Type Democratic
 • Body Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Mahesh Vijay Bhartiya Janta Party
 • Member of Parliament Kota-Bundi Om Birla Bhartiya Janta Party
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Kota South Sandeep Sharma Bhartiya Janta Party
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Kota North Prahlad Gunjal Bhartiya Janta Party
Area
 • Total 318 km2 (123 sq mi)
Elevation 271 m (889 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 1,951,014
 • Density 6,135/km2 (15,890/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Native Harauti dialect, Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 324001 to 324011 and 324022
Telephone code 0744
Vehicle registration RJ 20
Sex ratio 912 /
Website kota.nic.in

Kota Listeni/ˈktə/ formerly known as Kotah, is the 25th largest district in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan.[2] It is located 240 kilometres (149 mi) south of state capital, Jaipur. Situated on the banks of Chambal River, and has been identified as a counter-magnet city for the National Capital Region to attract migrants and develop as an alternative centre of growth to Delhi. It is 47th most populous city of India.

Kota is famous for its coaching institutes for engineering and medical entrance exams. It also called "Education City of India".

The city is the trade centre for an area in which millet, wheat, rice, pulses, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries include cotton and oilseed milling, textile weaving, distilling, dairy, manufacture of metal handcrafts, fertilizers, chemicals and engineering equipment.

The town of Kota was once the part of the erstwhile Rajput kingdom of Bundi. It became a separate princely state in the 17th century. Apart from the several monuments that reflect the glory of the town, Kota is also known for its palaces and gardens. Kota is reportedly the only Indian city besides Thiruvananthapuram that receives a continuous 24-hour water supply.[3]

Mahesh Vijay Bhartiya Janta Party is the current Mayor of Kota.

Geography[edit]

Kota is located along eastern bank of the Chambal River in the southern part of Rajasthan. It is the third largest city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur. The cartographic coordinates are 25°11′N 75°50′E / 25.18°N 75.83°E / 25.18; 75.83.[4] It covers an area of 318 km2 (3.63 per cent of the Rajasthan State).[5] It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 ft). The district is bound on the north and north west by Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and Bundi districts. The Chambal River separates these districts from Kota district, forming the natural boundary.

The city of Kota is situated at a center of the southeastern region of Rajasthan a very region widely known as Hadoti, the land of the Hadas. Kota lies along the banks of the Chambal river on a high sloping tableland forming a part of the Malwa Plateau. The Mokandarra hills run from southeast to northwest axis of the town. The historical places and temples are getting surrounded by signs of modern development.

It has fertile land and greenery with irrigation facilities through canals. Kota is one of the industrial hubs in northern India, with chemical, engineering and power plants based there. The rail junction, a road hub, lies 4.8 km (4 mi) to the north.

Climate[edit]

Kota
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
10
 
25
10
 
 
20
 
27
12
 
 
10
 
33
18
 
 
10
 
38
24
 
 
20
 
42
29
 
 
50
 
40
29
 
 
250
 
34
26
 
 
240
 
32
25
 
 
110
 
33
24
 
 
20
 
35
21
 
 
10
 
30
15
 
 
10
 
26
11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Kota weather

Kota has a semi arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with high temperatures throughout the year. Summers are long, hot and dry, starting in late March and lasting till the end of June. The monsoon season follows with comparatively lower temperatures, but higher humidity and frequent, torrential downpours. The monsoons subside in October and temperatures rise again. The brief, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until the last week of February. Temperatures hover between 26.7 °C (max) to 12 °C (min). This can be considered the best time to visit Kota because of intense heat in the summer.

The average annual rainfall in the Kota district is 660.6 mm.[5] Most of the rainfall can be attributed to the southwest monsoon which has its beginning around the last week of June and may last till mid-September. Pre-monsoon showers begin towards the middle of June with post-monsoon rains occasionally occurring in October. The winter is largely dry, although some rainfall does occur as a result of the Western Disturbance passing over the region.

Climate data for Kota
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.4
(86.7)
36.8
(98.2)
41.5
(106.7)
44.2
(111.6)
46.1
(115)
46.1
(115)
42.0
(107.6)
37.8
(100)
39.6
(103.3)
38.8
(101.8)
36.4
(97.5)
31.5
(88.7)
46.1
(115)
Average high °C (°F) 25
(77)
27
(81)
33
(91)
38
(100)
42
(108)
40
(104)
34
(93)
32
(90)
33
(91)
35
(95)
30
(86)
26
(79)
32.9
(91.3)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
12
(54)
18
(64)
24
(75)
29
(84)
29
(84)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
21
(70)
15
(59)
11
(52)
20.3
(68.6)
Record low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.3
(39.7)
8.4
(47.1)
13.8
(56.8)
19.8
(67.6)
20.8
(69.4)
20.5
(68.9)
21.4
(70.5)
16.8
(62.2)
14.2
(57.6)
15.6
(60.1)
12.0
(53.6)
4.3
(39.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.39)
20
(0.79)
0
(0)
0
(0)
20
(0.79)
50
(1.97)
250
(9.84)
240
(9.45)
110
(4.33)
20
(0.79)
0
(0)
10
(0.39)
730
(28.74)
Avg. rainy days 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.4 2.1 6.9 13.1 15.2 5.6 1.6 1.2 0.5 49.1
 % humidity 48 38 25 19 23 43 67 74 58 40 41 48 43.7
Source: Kota weather, NOAA (1971-1990)[6]

History[edit]

See also: Kota State
Procession of Raja Ram Singh II of Kota Later Mughal Period, c. 1850

The history of the city dates back to the 12th century AD when the Hada clan, a Chauhan Rajput chieftain, Rao Deva, conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti. Later, in the early 17th century, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi - Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture.

The independent state of Kota became a reality in 1631 when Rao Madho Singhal, the second son of Rao Ratan of Bundi was made the ruler, by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. Soon Kota outgrew its parent state to become bigger in area, richer in revenue and more powerful. Maharao Bhim Singh played a pivotal role in Kota's history, having held a 'Mansab'[7] of five thousand and being the first in his dynasty to have the title of Maharao. During the colonial period, firebrand social activist Guru Radha Kishan organised the masses against the policies of the government. He left Kota after local administration came to know about the arrest warrant issued against him for his participation in Indian Independence activities.

Princely city of Kota[edit]

Princely city: Kota (कोटा)
Region Hadoti
19th-century flag Kotah.svg
Independence from: Bundi State
State existed: 1579-1949
Dynasties Rajput Chauhan Hada
Capital Kota
See also: Hadoti

Kota city became independent in 1579, after Bundi state in Hadoti region had become weak. Then, Kota ruled the territory which now is Kota district and Baran district.

Newspapers[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Religions in kota
Hinduism
  
77%
Islam
  
18%
Christianity
  
0.4%
Jainism
  
3.7%
Others♦
  
0.9%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%).
Population Growth of Kota 
Census Pop.
1891 33,700
1911 34,000
1941 45,000
1951 65,100 44.7%
1961 120,300 84.8%
1971 213,000 77.1%
1981 346,900 62.9%
1991 537,400 54.9%
2001 703,150 30.8%
2011 1,001,694 42.5%
source:[8]

Source:[8]Source:[9]

Population growth through the years
Year Population
1891
33,700
1911
34,000
1941
45,000
1951
65,100
1961
120,300
1968
205,400
1971
213,000
1981
346,900
1991
537,400
2001
703,150
2011
1,001,694
2014
1,140,000

As of 2011, Kota had a population of 1,001,365, of which male and female are 529,795 and 471,570 respectively. Although Kota city has population of 1,001,365; its urban Agglomeration is city only and does not qualify under the definition for a metropolitan city as defined by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.[10][11] The sex ratio was 906 and 12.74% were under six years of age. The effective literacy rate was 83.65%, with male literacy at 90.56% and female literacy at 75.90%. It is 3rd largest city in Rajasthan and 46th largest in India.

Government institutions and courts[edit]

Governmental institutions in Kota include:

  • Municipal Corporation
  • Collectorate
  • Office of the Divisional Commissioner
  • Rajasthan Housing Board
  • Command Area Development (CAD)
  • Urban Improvement Trust (UIT)
  • Office of the Superintendent of Police, Inspector General of Police and the Income Tax commissioner of Kota range.
  • Office of the Divisional Railway Manager, Kota Division, West Central Railway

Instrumentation Ltd is a Public Sector company based in Kota. Its clientele includes public sector entities such as the Indian Railways, BSNL and VSNL.

The District court provides court and notary services.

Health services[edit]

Healthcare is provided by a combination of public and private-sector hospitals.

The main hospitals include:

  • MBS Hospital, Civil Lines
  • Global Modi Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Nagar
  • Medical college Hospital, R.K. Puram
  • Maitri Hospital, Talwandi
  • Sudha Hospital, Talwandi
  • Sudha Heart Institute. Talwandi, Kota
  • Cancer Hospital, Dadabari
  • Kota Heart institute, Talwandi
  • PMC American Hospital, Indra Vihar
  • Bharat Vikas Parishad Hospital, Pratap Nagar
  • E.S.I. Hospital, Vigyan Nagar
  • Ratna Nursing Home, Nayapura
  • M.J.Hospital, Vasant Vihar
  • Jaiswal hospital & Neuro institute, Vigyan Nagar

There are 16 other hospitals within the city limit

Economy[edit]

The city is the trade center for an area in which cotton, millet, wheat, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries include cotton and oilseed milling, textile weaving, distilling, dairying, and the manufacture of metal handcrafts. Kota also has an extensive industry of stone-polishing of a stone called Kota Stone, used for the floor and walls of residential and business buildings.


Kota doria and saris[edit]

Main article: Kota doria

Kota is known for the fine translucent muslins called Masuria Malmal. Originally, such saris were called Masuria because they were woven in Mysore. The weavers were subsequently brought to Kota by Rao Kishore Singh who was a general in the Mughal army. The weavers were brought to Kota in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and the saris came to be known as 'Kota-Masuria'. Kota saris are popularly known as 'Masuria' in Kota and Kotadoria outside the state. 'Doria' means thread.

Weaving in Kota was started by Maharana Bhimdeo in the 18th century.[12] Maharaja Bhim Singh of Kota brought some weavers from the Deccan in the early 18th Century and the craft blossomed under the royal patronage. The warp and weft use a combination of threads creating a fine chequered pattern (Khat) where the cotton portion provides firmness while the silk lends a gossamer finish to the fabric.

The kota saris like most traditional piece of work had started becoming lost before Vidhi Singhania moved to Kota and started working with the workers to revive its market. http://www.fashion-glossary.com/cms/glossary-/glossaryv/6702-vidhi-singhania.html. Once again Kota saris and weaves are found around the country and have become one of the most beautiful and elegant saris worn by humble housewives to actresses.

Kota stone[edit]

Storage area of Kota Stone
Main article: Kota Stone

The fine-grained variety of limestone is known as Kota stone, with rich greenish-blue and brown colours. Kota stone are tough, non water-absorbent, non-slip, and non-porous. The varieties include Kota Blue Natural, Kota Blue Honed, Kota Blue Polished, Kota Blue Cobbles, Kota Brown Natural and Kota Brown Polished.

Power Plants[edit]

Kota is surrounded by four power stations within its 50 km radius.

Education[edit]

In the past decade the city has emerged as a popular coaching destination for competitive exams preparation and for-profit educational services has become a major part of the city's economy.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Engineering Colleges[edit]

Major Coaching Institutions[edit]


Competition Coaching Institute[edit]

Universities[edit]

Kota has five major universities:

It also has one government medical college, one private dental collage,one physiotherapy college, 15 general colleges, a number of MBA Institutes.

The Government College of Kota is the largest government-run college in the state of Rajasthan under University of Kota.

Transport[edit]

Kota is connected with road and rail. It is also connected by air, although only chartered flights are available.

Roadways[edit]

The district is connected with neighbouring districts and with major cities outside the state. National highway No.12 (JaipurJabalpur) and National Highway No.76 passes through the district. National Highway No.76 is a part of East-West Corridor. The total road length in the district is 2,052 km. as of March 2011.

There are three bus stations in Kota:

  • Rajasthan roadways bus stand in ramchandrapura kota (since September 2013).
  • Inter-state bus terminal at DCM road.
  • Rawatbhata Bus Stand at Ghode Wale Baba Crossing.

Daily buses carry passengers inter-state as well as within the city.

Railways[edit]

Entrance of Kota Railway station

Kota is well connected to all the major cities of India. It is an important station on the Delhi-Mumbai main line. Kota Junction is one of the divisions in West Central Railway. Kota has several direct trains to Kolkata. Kota has four railway stations. Another suburban station of South Kota city is Dakaniya Talav Railway station which has a stoppage of Avadh Express, Dehradun Express and Ranthambore Express.

Kota Junction

The city is a halt for around 100 trains, including Jaipur - Indore SuperFast, Udaipur SuperFast (Delhi - Udaipur City Express), Dayodaya Express (Jaipur - Jabalpur Express / Ajmer - Jabalpur Express), Jodhpur - Indore Intercity, Hazrat Nizamuddin - Indore Express, Garbha Express, Marusagar Express (Ajmer - Ernakulam Express / Ernakulam Express), Jaipur - Mysore Express, Jaipur - Chennai Express, Jaipur - Coimbatore Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express and Mumbai Rajdhani Express.

The DelhiMumbai railway line passes through the Kota junction. The district has 148.83 km of railway line in the Kota — Ruthia section, 98.72 km on NagdaMathura (Mumbai-Delhi) section and 24.26 km on Kota —Chittorgarh section.

A broad-gauge railway facility between Kota and Jodhpur via Jaipur exists.

Kota is also an originating point for many trains like Kota - Damoh Passenger (Kota - Katni Passenger) connecting Kota to Damoh in Madhya Pradesh. The Kota - Indore Intercity Express connects to another major city of Madhya Pradesh, Indore Junction. There is also a Jan Shatabdi Express train, from Kota to national capital Delhi. The other includes, Kota - Vadodara Passenger, Kota - Hanumangarh Express, Kota - Ajmer, Kota - Jabalpur & Kota - Bina Passenger. Patna – Kota Express connects Kota and Patna cities via Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow and Varanasi.

Airports[edit]

Kota Airport has had no scheduled services operating since 1999.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "Major Cities in Rajasthan". Indiatravelportal.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  3. ^ quoting V Srinivasa Chary, director, Centre for Energy, Environment, Urban Governance and Infrastructure Development at the Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad. (23 March 2010). "'Only 2 Indian cities have continuous water supply'". Business Standard. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  4. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kota
  5. ^ a b Statistics by Govt. of Rajasthan
  6. ^ "Hota (A) Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  7. ^ "http://www.mapsofindia.com/kota/about.html". 
  8. ^ a b "Historical Census of India". 
  9. ^ "Census of Kota". 
  10. ^ Million-plus UA cities of India census India 2011
  11. ^ Kota City Census report census 2011
  12. ^ "Metro Plus Delhi / Arts & Crafts : Let's go Kota". The Hindu. 2005-04-02. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  13. ^ "Kota: Where education is an industry". Entrepreneurindia.in. 2010-05-04. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  14. ^ Sharma, Yojana (2012-11-27). "BBC News - Meet the 'tutor kings and queens'". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  15. ^ TNN Nov 17, 2010, 12.56pm IST (2010-11-17). "IIT hub losing edge - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  16. ^ "Kota, the coaching capital". Financialexpress.com. 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  17. ^ "Forbes India Magazine - The New Coaching Class in Kota". Forbesindia.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  18. ^ Sudhanshu Mishra (2013-04-23). "Inside Kota's Rs 300 crore coaching industry: How students aiming to crack IIT-JEE join mushrooming institutes | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  19. ^ "The Sunday Tribune - Spectrum". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  20. ^ "Home tips cut Kota JEE rush". Telegraphindia.com. 2013-04-29. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  21. ^ "Airports fail to lure airlines". The Times of India. 9 October 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Tod James Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan: Or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India Published 2001 Asian Educational Services ISBN 81-206-1289-2 pp. 407–690