Kotdwar

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Kotdwara
Town
Kotdwara is located in Uttarakhand
Kotdwara
Kotdwara
Coordinates: 29°45′0″N 78°31′48″E / 29.75000°N 78.53000°E / 29.75000; 78.53000Coordinates: 29°45′0″N 78°31′48″E / 29.75000°N 78.53000°E / 29.75000; 78.53000
Country India
State Uttarakhand
District Pauri Garhwal
Elevation 454 m (1,490 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,16,497
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Regional Garhwali
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 246149
Telephone code 91-1382-XXXX XXXX
Vehicle registration UA 12, UK 12

Kotdwara (कोटद्वार) (or Kotdwar) is a town and headquarters of Kotdwara Tehsil (तहसील) in the Pauri Garhwal district of Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is situated in the south-western part of state and is one of the main entrance points in the state of Uttarakhand.

History[edit]

Kotdwar was called Khohdwara initially;–meaning a gateway to the Khoh;–after river Khoh on whose banks it is located. Kotdwar is a transformation of this name. The town has always been a commercial centre; and being located on the foothills of Garhwal, it has played the important role of a supplier of essentials to the upper reaches of the hills, such as Pauri, Srinagar, Badrinath and Kedarnath.[citation needed]

In common with the rest of the region, Kotdwara was ruled by the Mauryan Empire under Ashoka the Great, then by the Katyuri dynasty followed by the Panwar dynasty of Garhwal. The Gorkhas of Nepal followed for a brief 12 years and then the British colonists.[citation needed]

Writing in 1882 in The Himalayan Gazetteer (Vol III, no II) E.T. Atkins says that it was a small but rapidly increasing mart located on a flat piece of land on the left banks of the Khoh.[citation needed] There was a fort at the hill end of this flat land, to fend off robbers from the plains. Kotdwara’s bazaar, he says, was increasing in importance partly due to the recently introduced cultivation and because of “increased means of communication, as hill men, instead of purchasing cloth, gur, etc. from Srinagar now go direct to this place where they can procure all they want at cheaper rates, and also barter ghi, red pepper, turmeric, hempen cloth, ropes of different fibres, and a few barks and jungle products, for what they require for home consumption”. He adds that the forest department had a large amount of timber and bamboo cutting in the vicinity and that there was a large mill on the canal used for grinding grain from Najibabad and Nagina. According to him, two fairs were held here during the week on Tuesdays and Fridays, frequented by thousands of people. The town itself, he points out, “was peopled by petty traders from the Bijnaur district numbering 1,000 for 10 months a year, as a large number of traders form Najibabad and also the hills keep shops open during this period, only going away for the unhealthy months of August and September.”[citation needed]

Before the coming of the railway to Kotdwar and even before the metalled road came into existence, the majority of trade passed through Kotdwara on bullock carts and horse-driven carts up to Dugadda (Dogadda) from where it was further carried on mules and donkeys up the hill to neighbouring hill towns like Pauri and Srinagar.[citation needed]

In 1910, H.G. Walton reports in British Garhwal: A Gazetteer that the establishment of a cantonment at Lansdowne and the extension of the railways from Najibabad, both in 1887, had contributed to the prosperity of Kotdwara. He however points out that, “The town has already passed its prime and is waning rapidly as Dugadda waxes” – a situation which has now been completely reversed. Mr. Walton reports that the shops were no longer shut during the rains as the sanitary conditions of the town had improved, and that during the winter the town was a busy market which catered to residents of the region who all did their shopping here.[citation needed]

Once the metalled road was extended beyond Kotdwara in 1920, the town’s destiny became ascendant. Mechanised transport started carrying the bulk of goods from the railhead at Kotdwara directly to the mountain towns and cities. Businessmen from Dugadda started shifting their operations and homes to Kotdwara.[citation needed]

Even before all this Dhaniram Mishra’s uncles and associates had started occupying Kotdwara in a big way; Kashirampur near Kauriya was one such example.[citation needed]

During British times, Kotdwar was a part of British Garhwal; on India’s independence, it became a part of the Pauri district of Uttar Pradesh and then of Uttarakhand on the formation of this new state in 2000.[1]

Geography[edit]

Kotdwar is one of the district of Uttarakhand, situated at the border of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, on the foothills of the Shivalik Range of Himalayan Mountains.[citation needed] It is locked in by hills from three sides. The name Kotdwara indicates the gateway (dwara) to the Abode of God (Dev Bhoomi), since this is the place from where the pilgrimage to two famous temples Kedarnath (Lord Shiva) and Badrinath (Lord Vishnu) starts.[citation needed] It is situated on the banks of three seasonal rivers namely Kho, Malini, and Sukhro. This area was the place of meditation for many sages and rishis.The city is surrounded by many small villages and towns which are generally termed as Bhabar area such as Kanvashram (where Shankuntala gave birth to Prince Bharata (emperor), after the name of whom the country is called Bharat),shivpur, Kalalghati, Shibunagar, Durgapuri, Himank, Motadhak, Kashirampur, Manpur, Padampur, Haldukhata, Kishanpur etc.


Climate[edit]

The climate of Kotdwar is generally temperate, although it varies from tropical; from hot in summers to severely cold, depending upon the season and the altitude of the specific location. The nearby hilly regions often get snowfall during winter but the temperature in Kotdwar is not known to fall below freezing. Summer temperatures can often reach 43°C whereas winter temperatures are usually between 4 and 20°C. During the monsoon season, there is often heavy and protracted rainfall. Kotdwar and other plains areas of Uttarakhand see almost as much rainfall as Coastal Maharashtra. The weather is considered to be good during winter in the hilly regions. Agriculture benefits from fertile alluvial soil, adequate drainage and plentiful rain.

Climate data for Kotdwar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20
(68)
22
(72)
27
(81)
33
(91)
36
(97)
34
(93)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
26
(79)
22
(72)
28.3
(83.1)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
6
(43)
13
(55)
18
(64)
21
(70)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
21
(70)
17
(63)
11
(52)
8
(46)
15.6
(59.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 72
(2.83)
76
(2.99)
78
(3.07)
55
(2.17)
113
(4.45)
296
(11.65)
599
(23.58)
568
(22.36)
301
(11.85)
102
(4.02)
23
(0.91)
91
(3.58)
2,374
(93.46)
Source: Accuweather [2]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[3] Kotdwar had a population of 1,16,497. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Kotdwar has an average literacy rate of 79.63% - higher than the national average of 64.83% - Male literacy is 88%, and female literacy is 70%. In Kotdwara, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education[edit]

Basic education[edit]

Kotdwar has many schools like: MKVN- more than just a School, Old Haridwar Road,Kanvaghati, Kotdwar, Garhwal(UK) Gyan ganga public school

  • R.C.D Public School
  • Saint Joseph Convent School
  • Motherland Academy
  • Aarya Kanya Girls Inter College
  • Baluni Public School
  • Blooming Vale Public School
  • D.A.V Public School
  • Government Girls Inter College
  • Government Inter College- Main Market
  • Government Inter College- Sukhro
  • Saraswati Vidhya Mandir School
  • Shri Guru Ram Rai Public School
  • T.C.G Public School.
  • Happy home Children's Academy
  • Heritage Academy
  • All Saints Public School
  • Saraswati Vidya Mandir
  • Shanti Vallabh Memorial Inter college,Manpur
  • Bal Bharti School Kotdwara Pauri UK
  • Pator noster school

Institutions ( Government )[edit]

  • Government Polytechnic Kotdwara

University education[edit]

Kotdwar has a government Postgraduate college ( Dr. Pitamber Dutt Barthwal Himaliyan Government Post Graduate College Kotdwara) affiliated to Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University (Central University). Other colleges are Institute of Hotel Management Studies, Malini Valley college of Education, Chandrawati Tiwari Law College ph 8923328666 and Mauryan Institute of Hotel Management, ESTC-ACEL COMPUTER CENTER (Govt.of India)(USTech Computer Center),[citation needed] Sidhbali Computer Center {S.C.C} (Registered by the Govt.Of Uttarakhand), Sidhbali Software Technology And Hardware Point (A Unit of Sidhbali Computer Center), Sidhbali Academy, Institute of Spoken Language (Unit of S.C.C.),BITA(Bhartbhumee Information Technology Academy)

--- Preparation Institutes for JEE & Medical preparations---

MK Tutorials at Sidhbali Knowledge Park, "Near Do Something Society", Devi Road, Kotdwar for Dedicated JEE(Mains & Advanced) & Medical Preparations

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Kotdwar can be reached via air through the airport of Jollygrant, which is the nearest one from this place. Jollygrant lies close to Dehradun, 91 km away en route to Haridwar.

Rail[edit]

Kotdwar can be accessed from Delhi by train (distance about 240 km) or by road (distance about 210 km). Trains such as 4041 Mussouri Express and 4044 Garhwal Express are available from Old Delhi Railway Station). A computerised railway reservation counter is available in Kotdwar.

Road[edit]

Bus services from Uttarakhand Roadways and UP roadways can be used from Kashmiri Gate ISBT, Delhi. UPSRTC bus service is also available daily from NOIDA. Kotdwar, located at an altitude of 454 meters, has carved a niche for itself as the biggest center of trade and commerce in the district. Kotdwara acts as an entrance to the hills. All the items of daily use for the neighboring areas pass through this place.

Daily a direct bus also ply between Kotdwar and Jaipur, Amritsar, Chandigarh.

The emergence of Kotdwar as a commercial center does not date back to an ancient era. In fact, the place was nothing but a small market till 1953 A.D. as the key business center was Dogadda. However, in 1953, a major change came when kotdwar became connected to the railway route. This saw a radical shift amongst the business groups, a majority of which shifted base from Duggada to Kotdwar. This was beginning of Kotdwara’s phenomenon rise as a hub of trade and commerce, which is still continuing. Kotdwar is also quite well connected via rail and road to all the key towns and cities of India.

Industry[edit]

In Kotdwar has very few industries as industrial development here is still in its infancy stage. Some of the companies having their manufacturing units here like:

  • Sri Sri Ayurveda Trust
  • Wipro Technologies
  • Bharat Electronics Ltd - BEL
  • KMC ELECTRONICS

Military Establishment[edit]

The Garhwal Rifles has its base in Kotdwar.

Excursions[edit]

Corbet National Park[edit]

Entry into India’s oldest national park will now include a new gate positioned from Kotdwar area of Pauri district. Plans for the new gate were announced late last summer but missed the targeted opening of 15 November 2011. To help facilitate tourism traffic a new booking center will be opened at Kotdwar Gate shortly.

Kotdwar Gate will join the existing six entry gates which span the five tourism zones with Corbett Tiger Reserve: Amadanda, Dhangari, Durgadevi, Khara, Kalagarh, and Vatanvasa.

Shrimati Laxmibai Kewal Ram Popely Mandir, MKVN School Campus, Old Haridwar Road,Kanvaghati[edit]

Shrimati Laxmibai Kewal Ram Popely Mandir is located on the foothills of Shivaliik Range and on the sacred ghati of Maharshi Kanva and the birthplace of Raja Bharat, on whose name our country is known as Bharatvarsh. The inaugural ceremony of the fabulous temple was held in the year 1984 on 04th of MAY by Pujya Pt. Shri Devi Prasad Kothari ji. The lush green campus includes the Shiv Ram Temple with Vishnu Darbar, Ram Darbar, Shiv Darbar, Maa Bhagvati Temple and Kanva Rishi Darbar. Located on Old Haridwar Road, Kanvaghati around 10 km from Kotdwar City, it is worth a visit for sure.

Kanvashram[edit]

Kanva Ashram is an important place both historically and archaeologically. 14 km from Kotdwar It is believed that Indra, the king of Gods, was scared by Sage Vishwamitra's meditation, and sent a beautiful heavenly damsel named Menaka, who finally succeeded in diverting Vishwamitra's attention. She gave birth to a girl who later became Shakuntala and married the prince of Hastinapur. She gave birth to Bharat, the prince after whom India is named as called Bharatvarsh. around 10,000 pupils used to get education in the ashram by Kanva Rishi in ancient times and hence the ghati is known as Kanvaghati.

Lansdowne[edit]

Lansdowne, Garhwal is one of the quietest hill stations of India and is popular since Britishers came to India. Lansdowne is unlike other hill stations as it is well connected with motorable roads but remote in its own way. It is situated at an altitude of 1,700mts above sea level surrounded with thick oak and blue pine forests in the Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand state.

Lansdowne got its name from Lord Lansdowne, who was the then Viceroy of India during the period of 1888 - 1894. Presently, Lansdowne has the command office of the Garhwal Rifles division of the Indian Army. Lansdowne is one of the most popular hill station of Garhwal region when it comes to weekend destination.

Siddhibali Temple[edit]

At a distance of 2 km from Kotdwar, the Siddhibali temple is dedicated to Lord Hanuman. Large number of devotees visit the place round the year. One of the world renowned place and truly worth a visit. Not only Hindus but also other communities people visit there.

Durga Devi Temple[edit]

Situated at a distance of 9 km from the main town, the Durgadevi temple is one of the most important places of worship of the town.The river flows by is a wonderful place to enjoy.

Shri Koteshwar Mahadev[edit]

Situated at an elevation of 1428 m, this temple has a great following among childless couples. The temple houses a Shivling and is surrounded by the Himalayan ranges in the east, Haridwar in the west and Siddha Peeth Medanpuri Devi temple in the south. Legends has it that a village woman inadverdently hit a Shivling while digging, divine voices were then heard, directing the people to construct a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. Accordingly, the Koteshwar Mahadev temple was erected. It is believed that childless couples who chant the Mahamrityunjaya mantra (verse) during the whole month of Shravana with full faith and devotion are blessed by the Lord and their wishes are granted. It is also believed that during the Navratras the Goddess roves around, besitted upon her steed, the lion.Kotdwar is aso known as the entrance towards himalyas of uttranchal.

Medanpuri Devi[edit]

Situated at an elevation of 1657 m, the temple is popularly known as Medanpuri Devi temple. 'Medan' literally means curd and it is believed that the Goddess showers Her devotees with milk, curd and whey by way of blessings. Legend has it that the Goddess had appeared in a curd-bowl in the hearth of a family living in village Marora. The Goddess revealed to the head of the family the place where she would appear and a temple dedicated to the Goddess was then erected in Her honour. Special offerings are made during the Navratras, followed by a big fair on Ashtami. Jeeps and taxies are available at Rishikesh (37 km), Chandighat and Haridwar (42 km). Accommodation is available in Tourist Rest Houses at Chila (36 km).

Tarkeshwar Temple[edit]

It is an ancient temple dedicated to lord Shiva surrounded by thick Cedar trees. It is located 38 km from Lansdowne at an altitude of 1800 m to the north east of Lansdowne on road Lansdowne-Deriakhal.

Devi Bhagwati Temple[edit]

At a distance of 135 km from Kotdwar. Large number of devotees visit the place round the year. Diba Bhagwati temple is one of the most important places of worship of the Garhwali People (Especially Chowndkot Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal)

External links[edit]

References[edit]