Kotlas

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For the oil tanker, see MT Kotlas.
Kotlas (English)
Котлас (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Здание, где раньше находилось управление печорской железной дороги.JPG
Former headquarters of the Pechora Railway in Kotlas
Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia
Kotlas is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Kotlas
Kotlas
Location of Kotlas in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Coordinates: 61°15′N 46°39′E / 61.250°N 46.650°E / 61.250; 46.650Coordinates: 61°15′N 46°39′E / 61.250°N 46.650°E / 61.250; 46.650
Flag of Kotlas (Arkhangelsk oblast).png
Flag
Administrative status (as of May 2010)
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to town of oblast significance of Kotlas[2]
Administrative center of town of oblast significance of Kotlas,[2] Kotlassky District[1]
Municipal status (as of March 2012)
Urban okrug Kotlas Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Kotlas Urban Okrug,[3] Kotlassky Municipal District,[3] Cheryomushskoye Rural Settlement[3]
Statistics
Area (urban okrug) (January 2011) 68.039 km2 (26.270 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 60,562 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 271st
Density 890 /km2 (2,300 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Town status since June 16, 1917[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 165300-165313
Dialing code(s) +7 81837[9]
Official website
Kotlas on WikiCommons

Kotlas (Russian: Ко́тлас) is a town in the southeast of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, situated at the confluence of the Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers. Population: 60,562 (2010 Census);[5] 60,647 (2002 Census);[10] 68,021 (1989 Census).[11]

Kotlas is the third largest town of Arkhangelsk Oblast in terms of population (behind Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk) and is an important transport hub.

History[edit]

The place was probably inhabited from ancient times, but was only granted official town status by the Provisional Government of Russia on June 16, 1917, when it was a part of Vologda Governorate.[citation needed] In 1918, the area was transferred to the newly formed Northern Dvina Governorate, and in 1924 the uyezds were abolished in favor of the new divisions, the districts (raions). Kotlassky District was formed on June 25, 1924.[12] In 1929, Northern Dvina Governorate was merged into Northern Krai, which in 1936 was transformed into Northern Oblast. In 1937, Northern Oblast was split into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast. Kotlassky District remained in Arkhangelsk Oblast ever since.

Gulag[edit]

During the 1930s, Kotlas became a place to which kulaks were deported and made to work in the forestry industry. It was managed by the Kotlaslag division of Gulag. Later, it hosted all possible categories of people repressed during the Stalin era. A significant population of Poles existed in the area, with whole Polish villages resettled here in 1920s and 1930s.

Labor camps existed within the territory of the city until 1953. Besides logging and paper industry, the occupation of inmates were plant, housing, bridge, and railroad construction. Most of camps were unguarded barrack settlements. In addition, Kotlas was a major transit point for deportees transferred further to the north and east, since it was a railroad terminus. There is a Kotlas branch of the Sovest (Conscience) organization, which seeks to preserve the memory of those times and seek compensation for victims.

Pechora railway[edit]

The further development of Kotlas is due to the construction of Pechora Railway. Already from 1899 Kotlas was connected by a railway line with Vyatka (currently Kirov), which was heavily used for the cargo transport of goods to and from the Northern Dvina River. In 1940, the construction of the railroad connecting Konosha (on the railway stretch between Moscow and Arkhangelsk) to Vorkuta started. The railroad was needed to transport coal, timber, and later oil from the Komi Republic. The headquarters of this railroad were opened in Kotlas. In the same year, Kotlas became a separate administrative unit. In December 1941, the road was completed, and from 1942, the regular service started. Kotlas thus became an important transport hub. The headquarters of the Pechora Railway were located in Kotlas until 1959, when the railway was merged into the Northern Railway.[13]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kotlas serves as the administrative center of Kotlassky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with one work settlement (Vychegodsky) and two rural localities, incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Kotlas—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[2] As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Kotlas is incorporated as Kotlas Urban Okrug.[3]

Within the framework of municipal divisions, Kotlas also serves as the administrative center of Cheryomushskoye Rural Settlement, even though it is not a part of it.[3]

Economy[edit]

Kotlas is a center of timber industry and an important river port and a railroad center (standing on the railroad connecting central Russia with the Komi Republic).

The Northern Dvina and the Vychegda Rivers are navigable; there is regular passenger navigation on the Vychegda. Roads connect Kotlas with Veliky Ustyug (and eventually Vologda and Kostroma) to the South, Syktyvkar to the East, and Krasnoborsk (eventually Arkhangelsk) to the North. There is regular passenger bus traffic originating from Kotlas.

Kotlas is an important railway hub, where the railway to Kirov branches off south-east from the main railway, connecting Konosha and Vorkuta.

Kotlas is served by Kotlas Airport and is home to Savatiya air base.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The Church of St. Stephan of Perm

The Church of St. Stephan of Perm was built in 1788, and the adjacent bell-tower was built in 1825. Both are protected at the local level as architecture monuments, as well as Narodny Dom, a wooden house built in the beginning of 20th century.[14]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kotlas
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −10
(14)
−9
(16)
−1
(30)
6
(43)
14
(57)
20
(68)
22
(72)
20
(68)
12
(54)
4
(39)
−2
(28)
−7
(19)
5
(41)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14
(7)
−12
(10)
−6
(21)
1
(34)
8
(46)
14
(57)
17
(63)
14
(57)
8
(46)
1
(34)
−4
(25)
−10
(14)
1
(34)
Average low °C (°F) −18
(0)
−17
(1)
−10
(14)
−2
(28)
3
(37)
8
(46)
11
(52)
9
(48)
4
(39)
−1
(30)
−7
(19)
−14
(7)
−2
(28)
Precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.26)
22
(0.87)
21
(0.83)
37
(1.46)
43
(1.69)
56
(2.2)
72
(2.83)
68
(2.68)
50
(1.97)
53
(2.09)
43
(1.69)
39
(1.54)
535
(21.06)
Source: Weatherbase[15]

Sports[edit]

Alexander Tyukavin, a notable bandy player, voted to be the third best player of the Russian National Championship 2011–2012, was born in Kotlas.[16][17] In 2014 he was awarded a price from the International Fair Play Committee.[1]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Kotlas is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 410 008», в ред. изменения №234/2013 от 1 января 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 410 008, as amended by the Amendment #234/2013 of January 1, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b c Oblast Law #65-5-OZ
  3. ^ a b c d e f Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
  4. ^ "Паспорт города. Котлас" (in Russian). Администрация МО "Котлас". 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ "List of postal codes" (in Russian). Russian Post. Retrieved July 23, 2011. 
  9. ^ Архангельская область: Котлас, Сольвычегодск, Виледь (in Russian). Kotlas: Отдел по культуре и туризму администрации МО «Котласский муниципальный район». Retrieved July 23, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ "История района" (in Russian). Котласский муниципальный район. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Северная железная дорога" (in Russian). www.railway.te.ua. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Kotlas". Retrieved August 25, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Сергей Ломанов – лучший игрок XX Чемпионата России" (in Russian). bandynet.ru. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Тюкавин Александр Васильевич" (in Russian). Russian Bandy Federation. Retrieved 31 December 2013. 
  18. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie". Retrieved 1 May 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №65-5-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №677-40-ОЗ от 5 июня 2013 г. «О внесении дополнений и изменений в отдельные Областные Законы в связи с изменением законодательства о градостроительной деятельности». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №43, 6 октября 2009 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #65-5-OZ of September 23, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #677-40-OZ of June 5, 2013 On Supplementing and Amending Various Oblast Laws Due to Changes in the Urban Development Legislation. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №258-внеоч.-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2004 г. «О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области (текст в ред. от 15 февраля 2010 г.)», в ред. Областного закона №121-7-ОЗ от 21 апреля 2014 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований "Двинское" и "Тимошинское" Верхнетоемского муниципального района Архангельской области путём их объединения». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №38, 8 октября 2004 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ of September 23, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast (text of rev. of February 15, 2010), as amended by the Oblast Law #121-7-OZ of April 21, 2014 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of "Dvinskoye" and "Timoshinskoye" in Verkhnetoyemsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast By Merging Them Together. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]