Kotlin-class destroyer

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SAM Kotlin class destroyer Vozbuzhdenyy.
SAM Kotlin class destroyer Vozbuzhdenyy in January 1981
Class overview
Name: Kotlin
Operators:  Soviet Navy
 Polish Navy
Preceded by: Neustrashimy class destroyer
Succeeded by: Kildin class destroyer
Completed: 27
Active: 0
Retired: 27
General characteristics
Displacement: 2,662 tonnes (2,620 long tons; 2,934 short tons) (standard),
3,230 t (3,180 long tons; 3,560 short tons) (full load)
Length: 126.1 m (414 ft)
Beam: 12.7 m (42 ft)
Draught: 4.2 m (14 ft)
Propulsion: 2× shaft geared steam turbines,
4 boilers, 72,000 hp (54 MW)
Speed: 38 knots (70 km/h; 44 mph)
Complement: 284
Sensors and
processing systems:
Radar: Fut -N (air search), Ryf (surface)
Sonar: Pegas
Armament: 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) guns (2×2)
16 × 45 mm (1.8 in) (4×4)
10 × 533 mm (20 in) torpedo tubes (2×5)
6 depth charge throwers (later replaced by ASW mortars)
50× mines

Kotlin class destroyers were Cold War era ships built for the Soviet Navy. The Russian name for this class was Project 56 Spokoinyy (Спокойный, "tranquil"). 27 ships were built between 1955 and 1958; they were all decommissioned in the late 1980s. The Kildin class is based on the design of the Kotlins. The Chinese Luda class, which is based on the Neustrashimy class, also borrows some design concepts from the Kotlin class.


This design was a smaller version of the Neustrashimy class destroyer which was seen as being too large and expensive for economic series production, as well as too slow. Detailed design changes eliminated some of the problems seen during trials of the Neustrashimyy. A production run of 100 ships was planned but this was curtailed because of the advent of the guided missile. 32 were ordered, but four ships were completed as Kildin class (Project 56E/EM), the last vessel was canceled.

11 ships (Project 56PLO, Kotlin Mod.) were modified for enhanced ASW capabilities by adding rocket depth charge launchers.

In 1962, the Soviet Navy installed the navalized version of the S-125 Neva, the SA-N-1 'Goa', to a Project 56K Kotlin SAM class destroyer, the Bravyi (also spelled Bravyy) for testing. The system used the 4K90 (V-600) missile that could engage targets at distances from 4–15 km (0–10 mi) and altitudes of 100–10,000 m (300–32,800 ft). Fire control and guidance was provided by 4R90 Yatagan radar. The system could track only one target at a time. The missiles were loaded on the dual-arm ZIF-101 launcher, with under-deck magazine storage for 16 more.

The Soviet navy would eventually retrofit seven Kotlin ships to carry SAMs; these ships were known to NATO as the Kotlin SAM class (Project 56A). One more was modified and sold to Poland (Project 56AE, being the only Project 56 destroyer exported). Later versions of the SAM system, such as the Volna-M (SA-N-1B), the Volna-P, and Volna-N provided greater missile range and capability.


Ship Builder Launched Commissioned Modernisation Decommissioned
Spokoinyy - Спокойный - "Peaceful" Zhdanov, Leningrad 28 November 1953 27 June 1956 none 19 April 1990
Svetlyy - Светлый - "Bright" ( or "Light") Zhdanov, Leningrad 27 October 1953 17 September 1955 none 25 April 1989
Speshnyy - Спешный - "Rapid" Zhdanov, Leningrad none 25 April 1989
Skromnyy - Скромный - "Modest" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56A) 25 April 1989
Svedushchiy - Сведущий - "Knowledgeable" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56A)
Smyshlenyy - Смышленый - "Sharp (quickwitted)" Zhdanov, Leningrad ASW (56PLO)
Skrytnyy - Скрытный - "Secretive" Zhdanov, Leningrad none
Soznatelnyy - Сознательный - "Aware" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56A)
Spravedlivyy - Справедливый - "Just" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56AE) Transferred to the Polish navy as the ORP Warszawa 1970
Nesokrushimyy - Несокрушимый - "Indestructible" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56A)
Nakhodchivyy - Находчивый - "Resourceful" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56A)
Nastoychivyy - Настойчивый - "Persistent" Zhdanov, Leningrad SAM (56A)
Byvalvyy - Бывалый - "Experienced" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Bravyy - Бравый - "Brave" Nikolayev SAM (56K)
Besslednyy - Бесследный - "Untraceable" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Burlivyy - Бурливый - "Turbulent" or "Tempestuous" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Blagorodnyy - Благородный - "Noble" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Blestyashchyy - Блестящий - "Brilliant" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Plammeny - Пламенный - "Fiery" or "Ardent" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Naporystyy - Напористый - "Forceful" Nikolayev ASW (56PLO)
Vyzyvayushchiy - Вызывающий - "Challenging" Komsomolsk-na-Amure ASW (56PLO)
Veskiy - Веский - "Convincing" Komsomolsk-na-Amure none
Vdokhnovenyy - Вдохновенный - "Inspiring" Komsomolsk-na-Amure ASW (56PLO)
Vozmuschenyy - Возмущенный - "Indignant" Komsomolsk-na-Amure ASW (56PLO)
Vozbuzhdenyy - Возбужденный - "Excited" Komsomolsk-na-Amure SAM (56A)
Vliyatelnyy - Влиятельный - "Influential" Komsomolsk-na-Amure none 17 July 1988
Vyderzhannyy - Выдержанный - "Consistent" Komsomolsk-na-Amure 24 June 1957 10 December 1957 none 24 April 1992
  • Bravyy - was the Kotlin SAM prototype

The ships were scrapped between 1987 and 1990.

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